Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
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Eklärungen für Patienten zu den Wirkstoffen
Für die Kombination von Abarelix und Citalopram liegen uns keine zusätzlichen Warnhinweise vor. Bitte konsultieren Sie zusätzlich die jeweiligen Fachinformationen.
|Citalopram||1 [0.55,5.07] 1,2||1|
Die genannten Expositionsveränderungen beziehen sich jeweils auf Veränderungen der Plasmakonzentrations-Zeit-Kurve [ AUC ]. Für Abarelix erwarten wir keine Veränderung der Exposition, wenn eine Kombination mit Citalopram (100%) erfolgt. Für Citalopram erwarten wir keine Veränderung der Exposition, wenn eine Kombination mit Abarelix (100%) erfolgt. Die AUC liegt dabei je nach CYP2C19, CYP2D6
Für die Berechnung der individuellen Expositionsveränderungen durch die Wechselwirkungen werden als Ausgangsbasis die pharmakokinetischen Parameter der durchschnittlichen Population verwendet.
Für Abarelix ist die Bioverfügbarkeit nicht bekannt. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] ist mit 316.8 Stunden eher lang und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden erst nach mehr als 1267.2 Stunden erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 97.5% stark. Die Metabolisierung über Cytochrome wird aktuell noch bearbeitet.
Citalopram hat eine mittlere orale Bioverfügbarkeit [ F ] von 80%, weshalb die maximalen Plasmaspiegel [ Cmax ] sich bei einer Interaktion tendentiell verändern. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] ist mit 35 Stunden eher lang und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden erst nach mehr als 140 Stunden erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 80% mässig stark und das Verteilungsvolumen [ Vd ] ist mit 980 Liter sehr gross, da die Substanz eine tiefe hepatische Extraktionsrate von 0.19 besitzt, kann eine Verdrängung aus der Proteinbindung [Pb] im Rahmen einer Interaktion die Exposition erhöhen. Die Metabolisierung findet unter anderem über CYP2C19, CYP2D6 und CYP3A4 statt und der aktive Transport erfolgt insbesondere über PGP.
|Serotonerge Effekte a||2||Ø||++|
Empfehlung: Insbesondere nach einer Dosiserhöhung und bei Dosierungen im oberen therapeutischen Bereich sollte vorsichtshalber auf Symptome einer serotonergen Überstimulation geachtet werden.
Bewertung: Citalopram moduliert das serotonerge System in moderatem Ausmass. Das Risiko für ein serotonerges Syndrom ist bei dieser Medikation eher als gering einzustufen, wenn die Dosierung sich im üblichen Bereich befindet. Gemäss unseren Erkenntnissen erhöht Abarelix nicht die serotonerge Aktivität.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||Ø||+|
Empfehlung: Insbesondere nach einer Dosiserhöhung und bei Dosierungen im oberen therapeutischen Bereich sollte vorsichtshalber auf anticholinerge Symptome geachtet werden.
Bewertung: Citalopram beeinflusst das anticholinerge System nur mild. Das Risiko für ein anticholinerge Syndrom ist bei dieser Medikation eher als gering einzustufen, wenn die Dosierung sich im üblichen Bereich befindet. Gemäss unseren Erkenntnisse erhöht Abarelix nicht die anticholinerge Aktivität.
Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
Bewertung: In Kombination können Abarelix und Citalopram potentiell ventrikuläre Arrhythmien vom Typ Torsades de pointes auslösen.
Durchfall (8%): Citalopram
Verlust von Appetit: Citalopram
Agitation (6.5%): Citalopram
Abnorme Ejakulation (6.1%): Citalopram
Erektile Dysfunktion: Citalopram
Müdigkeit (5%): Citalopram
Verlängerte Blutungszeit: Citalopram
Basierend auf Ihren
Abstract: This histological and immunohistochemical study of 6 food handlers affected by immediate contact dermatitis due to foods shows that apparently normal skin of patients with this condition presents several histological and immunohistochemical abnormalities. Skin biopsies of normal hand skin showed focal parakeratosis and moderately dense dermal infiltrates. Immunohistochemistry showed an increased number of Langerhans cells in the epidermis and in the superficial dermis and a mononuclear dermal infiltrate consisting of peripheral T lymphocytes with a CD4/CD8 ratio of 5-6/1. Biopsies of the immediate vesicular reactions induced by foods showed spongiotic vesicles within the epidermis and a moderate to dense mononuclear dermal perivascular infiltrate. The immunohistochemical features were similar to those described in apparently normal skin. The mechanism of this immediate vesicular reaction requires further research. The rapid appearance of the lesions (after 20-30 min) probably excludes an immunological cell-mediated pathogenesis. A non-immunological mechanism due to direct liberation of mediators by foods is more readily conceivable than an immediate immunological type of contact reaction.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To compare the pharmacokinetics of the antidepressant citalopram and its metabolites demethylcitalopram and didemethylcitalopram in subjects with moderate renal insufficiency and subjects with hepatic cirrhosis with that in healthy subjects. METHODS: Pharmacokinetic parameters from three individual, open-label, phase I trials were derived following single oral or intravenous citalopram dose (40 mg) to healthy subjects and a single oral dose (20 mg) to patients. Serum and urine concentrations of citalopram and metabolites were determined using a validated HPLC method. RESULTS: The absolute bioavailability of citalopram tablets in healthy subjects was 80%. The renal clearance was a minor component (<20%) of the total elimination of citalopram. Serum Cmax and t(max) for citalopram were essentially unaffected by the occurrence of renal or hepatic disease. In comparison with healthy subjects, renal impairment was associated with a significant reduction in the renal elimination of citalopram and its two metabolites and a slight prolongation of serum citalopram t1/2 (49.5 h vs 36.8 h in healthy subjects). Cirrhosis resulted in significant decrease in citalopram CLoral (0.21 vs 0.331 x h(-1) x kg(-1) in healthy subjects) and increase in Vz x f(-1) with an approximately twofold increase in t1/2 (83.4 h vs 36.8 h in healthy subjects). Indices of renal (creatinine or 51Cr-EDTA clearances) and hepatic (galactose elimination capacity or Child-Pugh score) function were poor predictors of the changes in the pharmacokinetics of citalopram and its metabolites in these populations. CONCLUSION: No reduction of citalopram dosage is warranted in patients with moderately impaired renal function. However, that may not apply for patients with severe renal failure. In patients with impaired hepatic function, prescription of a lower dosage of citalopram may be appropriate.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of severe renal failure and haemodialysis on the pharmacokinetics of citalopram. METHODS: Four patients with renal failure undergoing haemodialysis and eight healthy controls were given a single dose of citalopram. The concentrations of citalopram and its metabolites desmethylcitalopram and didesmethylcitalopram were measured in serum and urine. On a different day, the four patients undergoing haemodialysis were given another single dose of citalopram, and the drug concentrations were measured in serum from the artery leading to the dialyser and in the dialysate. In addition, one anuric patient treated with citalopram on a regular basis was included in the study. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups in any of the pharmacokinetic parameters with the exception of the renal clearance of citalopram, which was significantly lower in the renal failure group than in the control group (1.70 ml/min versus 66.2 ml/min, P<0.001). Oral clearance of citalopram was almost identical in the two groups (452 ml/min versus 456 ml/min). The process of haemodialysis cleared about 1% of the dose as citalopram and 1% as desmethylcitalopram only. CONCLUSION: Severe renal failure does not affect the pharmacokinetics of citalopram and modification of the usual citalopram dose does thus not seem to be necessary. The contribution of haemodialysis to the total elimination of citalopram is negligible.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to measure the anticholinergic activity (AA) of medications commonly used by older adults. A radioreceptor assay was used to investigate the AA of 107 medications. Six clinically relevant concentrations were assessed for each medication. Rodent forebrain and striatum homogenate was used with tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate. Drug-free serum was added to medication and atropine standard-curve samples. For medications that showed detectable AA, average steady-state peak plasma and serum concentrations (C(max)) in older adults were used to estimate relationships between in vitro dose and AA. All results are reported in pmol/mL of atropine equivalents. At typical doses administered to older adults, amitriptyline, atropine, clozapine, dicyclomine, doxepin, L-hyoscyamine, thioridazine, and tolterodine demonstrated AA exceeding 15 pmol/mL. Chlorpromazine, diphenhydramine, nortriptyline, olanzapine, oxybutynin, and paroxetine had AA values of 5 to 15 pmol/mL. Citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, lithium, mirtazapine, quetiapine, ranitidine, and temazepam had values less than 5 pmol/mL. Amoxicillin, celecoxib, cephalexin, diazepam, digoxin, diphenoxylate, donepezil, duloxetine, fentanyl, furosemide, hydrocodone, lansoprazole, levofloxacin, metformin, phenytoin, propoxyphene, and topiramate demonstrated AA only at the highest concentrations tested (patients with above-average C(max) values, who receive higher doses, or are frail may show AA). The remainder of the medications investigated did not demonstrate any AA at the concentrations examined. Psychotropic medications were particularly likely to demonstrate AA. Each of the drug classifications investigated (e.g., antipsychotic, cardiovascular) had at least one medication that demonstrated AA at therapeutic doses. Clinicians can use this information when choosing between equally efficacious medications, as well as in assessing overall anticholinergic burden.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although some of the aetiological factors are known, it is not yet known whether drugs with anticholinergic activity (AA) contribute to this cognitive decline. Such knowledge would provide opportunities to prevent acceleration of cognitive decline in PD. OBJECTIVE: To study whether the use of agents with anticholinergic properties is an independent risk factor for cognitive decline in patients with PD. METHODS: A community-based cohort of patients with PD (n=235) were included and assessed at baseline. They were reassessed 4 and 8 years later. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A detailed assessment of the AA of all drugs prescribed was made, and AA was classified according to a standardised scale. Relationships between cognitive decline and AA load and duration of treatment were assessed using bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses. RESULTS: More than 40% used drugs with AA at baseline. During the 8-year follow-up, the cognitive decline was higher in those who had been taking AA drugs (median decline on MMSE 6.5 points) compared with those who had not taken such drugs (median decline 1 point; p=0.025). In linear regression analyses adjusting for age, baseline cognition and depression, significant associations with decline on MMSE were found for total AA load (standardised beta=0.229, p=0.04) as well as the duration of using AA drugs (standardised beta 0.231, p=0.032). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an association between anticholinergic drug use and cognitive decline in PD. This may provide an important opportunity for clinicians to avoid increasing progression of cognitive decline by avoiding drugs with AA. Increased awareness by clinicians is required about the classes of drugs that have anticholinergic properties.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: We comprehensively reviewed published literature to determine whether it supported the link between corrected QT (QTc) interval prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) for the 11 second-generation antipsychotics and seven second-generation antidepressants commonly implicated in these complications. Using PubMed and EMBASE, we identified four thorough QT studies (one each for iloperidone, ziprasidone, citalopram, and escitalopram), 40 studies specifically designed to assess QTc interval prolongation or TdP, 58 publications based on data from efficacy and safety trials, 18 toxicology studies, and 102 case reports. Thorough QT studies, QTc prolongation-specific studies, and studies based on efficacy and safety trials did not link drug-associated QTc interval prolongation with TdP. They only showed that the drugs reviewed caused varying degrees of QTc interval prolongation, and even that information was not clear and consistent enough to stratify individual drugs for this risk. The few toxicology studies provided valuable information but their findings are pertinent only to situations of drug overdose. Case reports were most informative about the drug-QTc interval prolongation-TdP link. At least one additional well established risk factor for QTc prolongation was present in 92.2 % of case reports. Of the 28 cases of TdP, six (21.4 %) experienced it with QTc interval <500 ms; 75 % of TdP cases occurred at therapeutic doses. There is little evidence that drug-associated QTc interval prolongation by itself is sufficient to predict TdP. Future research needs to improve its precision and broaden its scope to better understand the factors that facilitate or attenuate progression of drug-associated QTc interval prolongation to TdP.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review is to identify case reports of citalopram use resulting in QTc prolongation, torsades de pointes, or both, in the medical literature. METHODS: A literature search was conducted of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and PsycINFO databases for case reports published in any language that reported the relationship between citalopram use and the development of QTc prolongation or torsades de pointes or both. In addition, bibliographic databases of published articles were searched for additional cases. RESULTS: A total of 18 case reports of citalopram use resulting in QTc prolongation were identified. Of these, 10 cases were also associated with the development of torsades de pointes. A total of 14 cases occurred in women and 4 in men. There were 7 cases involving an overdose with citalopram. Of the 18 cases, 12 occurred in individuals who were aged <60 years and 6 were in individuals aged >60 years. In 8 of the 18 cases, the individuals were taking a dose between 20 and 60mg of citalopram in a day. Hypertension was the most common comorbid medical condition, as seen in 5 of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: QTc prolongation or torsades de pointes are infrequently reported adverse effects associated with citalopram use.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Citalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor used for treatment of depression. Metabolism is primarily through CYP3A4 and CYP2C19; activity of the latter can vary depending on genetics. Although rare after single agent exposure, large citalopram ingestions can lead to serotonin syndrome. We report a case of citalopram overdose in an intermediate CYP2C19 metabolizer complicated by severe serotonin syndrome. CASE DETAILS: A 25-year-old female presented after intentional citalopram overdose with seizures, tachycardia, persistent neuromuscular findings, and severe hyperthermia requiring aggressive sedation and cooling. Protracted symptoms required critical care services throughout a 14 day hospital stay despite traditional treatment of serotonin syndrome. Pharmacogenomic studies revealed intermediate CYP2C19 metabolism which reduces citalopram inactivation and may cause increased levels and toxicity. DISCUSSION: In the majority of serotonin syndrome cases, symptoms resolve rapidly after treatment initiation and discontinuation of the offending agents. Severe cases are typically associated with ingestion of multiple serotonergic agents. Our patient had severe toxicity after single agent ingestion. Pharmacogenetic testing identified abnormal CYP2C19 activity and previous cases have associated enzyme dysfunction and citalopram toxicity. CONCLUSION: Citalopram overdose may be associated with severe serotonin syndrome and further investigation is warranted to understand the impact of enzyme genotype on toxicity.