Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
Varianten ✨Für die rechenintensive Bewertung der Varianten bitte das kostenpflichtige Standard Abonnement wählen.
Eklärungen für Patienten zu den Wirkstoffen
Für die Kombination von Abarelix und Clozapin liegen uns keine zusätzlichen Warnhinweise vor. Bitte konsultieren Sie zusätzlich die jeweiligen Fachinformationen.
|Clozapin||1 [0.72,2.92] 1||1|
Die genannten Expositionsveränderungen beziehen sich jeweils auf Veränderungen der Plasmakonzentrations-Zeit-Kurve [ AUC ]. Für Abarelix erwarten wir keine Veränderung der Exposition, wenn eine Kombination mit Clozapin (100%) erfolgt. Für Clozapin erwarten wir keine Veränderung der Exposition, wenn eine Kombination mit Abarelix (100%) erfolgt. Die AUC liegt dabei je nach CYP2C19
Für die Berechnung der individuellen Expositionsveränderungen durch die Wechselwirkungen werden als Ausgangsbasis die pharmakokinetischen Parameter der durchschnittlichen Population verwendet.
Für Abarelix ist die Bioverfügbarkeit nicht bekannt. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] ist mit 316.8 Stunden eher lang und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden erst nach mehr als 1267.2 Stunden erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 97.5% stark. Die Metabolisierung über Cytochrome wird aktuell noch bearbeitet.
Clozapin hat eine mittlere orale Bioverfügbarkeit [ F ] von 55%, weshalb die maximalen Plasmaspiegel [ Cmax ] sich bei einer Interaktion tendentiell verändern. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] beträgt 14.2 Stunden und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden ungefähr nach 56.8 Stunden erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 95% mässig stark und das Verteilungsvolumen [ Vd ] ist mit 112 Liter sehr gross, weshalb bei einer mittleren hepatische Extraktionsrate von 0.33 sowohl der Leberblutfluss [ Q ] als auch eine Veränderung der Proteinbindung [ Pb ] relevant sind. Die Metabolisierung findet unter anderem über CYP1A2 und CYP2C19 statt und der aktive Transport erfolgt insbesondere über PGP.
|Serotonerge Effekte a||0||Ø||Ø|
Bewertung: Gemäss unseren Erkenntnissen erhöhen weder Abarelix noch Clozapin die serotonerge Aktivität.
|Kiesel & Durán b||3||Ø||+++|
Empfehlung: Insbesondere nach einer Dosiserhöhung und bei Dosierungen im oberen therapeutischen Bereich sollte vorsichtshalber auf anticholinerge Symptome geachtet werden.
Bewertung: Das Clozapin erhöht die anticholinerge Aktivität stark. Gemäss unseren Erkenntnisse erhöht Abarelix nicht die anticholinerge Aktivität.
Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
Bewertung: In Kombination können Abarelix und Clozapin potentiell ventrikuläre Arrhythmien vom Typ Torsades de pointes auslösen.
|Übermässiger Speichelfluss||31.0 %||n.a.||31.0|
Synkope (6%): Clozapin
Hypertonie (4%): Clozapin
Ventrikuläre Arrhythmie: Clozapin
Hyperhidrose (6%): Clozapin
Erythema multiforme: Clozapin
Stevens Johnson-Syndrom: Clozapin
Xerostomie (6%): Clozapin
Übelkeit (5%): Clozapin
Tremor (6%): Clozapin
Abnorme Träume (4%): Clozapin
Agitation (4%): Clozapin
Unruhe (4%): Clozapin
Akathisie (3%): Clozapin
Krampfanfall (3%): Clozapin
Schlaflosigkeit (2%): Clozapin
Malignes neuroleptisches Syndrom: Clozapin
Hypercholesterinämie (5%): Clozapin
Diabetische Ketoazidose: Clozapin
Verschwommenes Sehen (5%): Clozapin
Fieber (5%): Clozapin
Müdigkeit (2%): Clozapin
Diabetes mellitus (4%): Clozapin
Lungenentzündung (3.5%): Clozapin
Leukopenie (3%): Clozapin
Basierend auf Ihren
Abstract: The clinical pharmacokinetics of clozapine, an atypical neuroleptic, was evaluated in 10 chronic schizophrenic male patients after intravenous and oral administration. The mean equilibrium-state concentration ratio between blood and plasma was experimentally determined to be 0.87. The average values for blood clearance, hepatic extraction ratio and oral bioavailability were 250 ml/min, 0.2 and 0.27, respectively. Plasma concentration peaked on average at 3 h. The mean volume of distribution at steady-state and the terminal half-life was 1.6 l/kg and 10.3 h, respectively. A large fraction of the dose is most probably metabolized by some extrahepatic presystemic routes. The large inter-individual variability in the bioavailability and clearance is probably the main reason for large variation in the steady-state plasma level in patients receiving the same oral dosage regimen.
Abstract: An isocratic high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with UV absorbance detection is described for the quantification of clozapine (8-chloro-11-(4'-methyl)piperazino-5H-dibenzo[b,e]-1,4-diazepine) and its two major metabolites in plasma and red blood cells (RBCs). The method involves sample clean-up by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The organic phase was back-extracted with 0.1 M hydrochloric acid. Loxapine served as the internal standard. The analytes were separated by HPLC on a Kromasil Ultrabase C18 analytical column (5 microns particle size; 250 x 4.6 mm I.D.) using acetonitrile-phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (48:52, v/v) as eluent and were measured by UV absorbance detection at 254 nm. The limits of quantiation were 20 ng/ml for clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine and 30 ng/ml for clozapine N-oxide. Recovery from plasma or RBCs proved to be higher than 62%. Precision, expressed as % C.V., was in the range 0.6-15%. Accuracy ranged from 96 to 105%. The method's ability to quantify clozapine and two major metabolites simultaneously with precision, accuracy and sensitivity makes it useful in therapeutic drug monitoring.
Abstract: AIMS: N-Desmethylclozapine and clozapine N-oxide are major metabolites of the atypical neuroleptic clozapine in humans and undergo renal excretion. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent the elimination of these metabolites in urine contributes to the total fate of clozapine in patients and how they are handled by the kidney. METHODS: From 15 psychiatric patients on continuous clozapine monotherapy, blood and urine samples were obtained during four 2 h intervals, and clozapine and its metabolites were assayed in serum and urine by solid-phase extraction and h.p.l.c. Unbound fractions of the compounds were measured by equilibrium dialysis. RESULTS: The following unbound fractions in serum were found (geometric means): clozapine 5.5%, N-desmethylclozapine 9.7%, and clozapine N-oxide 24.6%. Renal clearance values calculated from unbound concentrations in serum and quantities excreted in urine were for clozapine on average 11% of the creatinine clearance, whereas those of N-desmethylclozapine and clozapine N-oxide amounted to 300 and 640%, respectively. The clearances of unbound clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine increased with increasing urine volume and decreasing pH. All renal clearance values exhibited large interindividual variations. The sum of clozapine and its metabolites in urine represented on average 14% of the dose. CONCLUSIONS: Clozapine, N-desmethylclozapine and clozapine N-oxide are highly protein-bound in serum. Clozapine is, after glomerular filtration, largely reabsorbed in the tubule, whereas the metabolites undergo net tubular secretion. Metabolic pathways alternative or subsequent to N-demethylation and N-oxidation must make major contributions to the total fate of clozapine in patients.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: To examine the genetic factors influencing clozapine kinetics in vivo, 75 patients treated with clozapine were genotyped for CYPs and ABCB1 polymorphisms and phenotyped for CYP1A2 and CYP3A activity. CYP1A2 activity and dose-corrected trough steady-state plasma concentrations of clozapine correlated significantly (r = -0.61; P = 1 x 10), with no influence of the CYP1A2*1F genotype (P = 0.38). CYP2C19 poor metabolizers (*2/*2 genotype) had 2.3-fold higher (P = 0.036) clozapine concentrations than the extensive metabolizers (non-*2/*2). In patients comedicated with fluvoxamine, a strong CYP1A2 inhibitor, clozapine and norclozapine concentrations correlate with CYP3A activity (r = 0.44, P = 0.075; r = 0.63, P = 0.007, respectively). Carriers of the ABCB1 3435TT genotype had a 1.6-fold higher clozapine plasma concentrations than noncarriers (P = 0.046). In conclusion, this study has shown for the first time a significant in vivo role of CYP2C19 and the P-gp transporter in the pharmacokinetics of clozapine. CYP1A2 is the main CYP isoform involved in clozapine metabolism, with CYP2C19 contributing moderately, and CYP3A4 contributing only in patients with reduced CYP1A2 activity. In addition, ABCB1, but not CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A5, nor CYP3A7 polymorphisms, influence clozapine pharmacokinetics.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Drug-induced agranulocytosis is a severe complication that has been implicated with most classes of medications. Medications such as clozapine, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and methimazole have been more commonly associated with agranulocytosis than other agents. Although the pathogenesis isn't fully elucidated, it appears to be two-fold with a direct toxicity to the myeloid cell line and immune-mediated destruction. Patients may be asymptomatic at the time neutropenia is discovered or may present with more severe complications such as sepsis. In approximately 5% of cases drug-induced agranulocytosis may be fatal. Management of drug-induced agranulocytosis includes the immediate discontinuation of the offending medication, initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotics and consideration of the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors in high-risk patients.
Abstract: Rituximab can cause late-onset neutropenia that may result in serious life-threatening complications. The author describes the pathophysiology, incidence, and management of this adverse reaction and presents two case histories.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Using national Danish registers, we estimated rates of clozapine-associated cardiac adverse events. Rates of undiagnosed myocarditis were estimated by exploring causes of death after clozapine initiation. METHOD: Through nationwide health registers, we identified all out-patients initiating antipsychotic treatment (January 1, 1996-January 1, 2015). Rates of clozapine-associated myocarditis and pericarditis within 2 months from clozapine initiation and rates of cardiomyopathy within 1-2 years from clozapine initiation were compared to rates for other antipsychotics. Mortality within 2 months from clozapine initiation was extracted. RESULTS: Three thousand two hundred and sixty-two patients of a total 7932 patients initiated clozapine as out-patients (41.12%). One patient (0.03%) developed myocarditis, and no patients developed pericarditis within 2 months from clozapine initiation. Two (0.06%) and four patients (0.12%) developed cardiomyopathy within 1 and 2 years respectively. Rates were similar for other antipsychotics. Twenty-six patients died within 2 months from clozapine initiation. Pneumonia (23.08%) and stroke (11.54%) were the main causes of death. We estimated the maximum rate of clozapine-associated fatal myocarditis to 0.28%. CONCLUSION: Cardiac adverse effects in Danish out-patients initiating clozapine treatment are extremely rare and these rates appear to be comparable to those observed for other antipsychotic drugs.
Abstract: Non-chemotherapy idiosyncratic drug-induced neutropenia (IDIN) is a relatively rare but potentially fatal disorder that occurs in susceptible individuals, with an incidence of 2.4 to 15.4 cases per million population. Affected patients typically experience severe neutropenia within several weeks to several months after first exposure to a drug, and mortality is ∼5%. The drugs most frequently associated with IDIN include metamizole, clozapine, sulfasalazine, thiamazole, carbimazole, amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, ticlopidine, and valganciclovir. The idiosyncratic nature of IDIN, the lack of mouse models and diagnostic testing, and its low overall incidence make rigorous studies to elucidate possible mechanisms exceptionally difficult. An immune mechanism for IDIN involving neutrophil destruction by hapten (drug)-specific antibodies and drug-induced autoantibodies is frequently suggested, but strong supporting evidence is lacking. Although laboratory testing for neutrophil drug-dependent antibodies is rarely performed because of the complexity and low sensitivity of tests currently in use, these assays could possibly be enhanced by using reactive drug metabolites in place of the parent drug. Patients typically experience acute, severe neutropenia, or agranulocytosis (<0.5 × 10neutrophils/L) and symptoms of fever, chills, sore throat, and muscle and joint pain. Diagnosis can be difficult, but timely recognition is critical because if left untreated, there is an increase in mortality. Expanded studies of the production and mechanistic role of reactive drug metabolites, genetic associations, and improved animal models of IDIN are essential to further our understanding of this important disorder.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Background and Objective: Clozapine is a second-generation antipsychotic drug that is considered the most effective treatment for refractory schizophrenia. Several clozapine population pharmacokinetic models have been introduced in the last decades. Thus, a systematic review was performed (i) to compare published pharmacokinetics models and (ii) to summarize and explore identified covariates influencing the clozapine pharmacokinetics models. Methods: A search of publications for population pharmacokinetic analyses of clozapine either in healthy volunteers or patients from inception to April 2019 was conducted in PubMed and SCOPUS databases. Reviews, methodology articles, in vitro and animal studies, and noncompartmental analysis were excluded. Results: Twelve studies were included in this review. Clozapine pharmacokinetics was described as one-compartment with first-order absorption and elimination in most of the studies. Significant interindividual variations of clozapine pharmacokinetic parameters were found in most of the included studies. Age, sex, smoking status, and cytochrome P450 1A2 were found to be the most common identified covariates affecting these parameters. External validation was only performed in one study to determine the predictive performance of the models. Conclusions: Large pharmacokinetic variability remains despite the inclusion of several covariates. This can be improved by including other potential factors such as genetic polymorphisms, metabolic factors, and significant drug-drug interactions in a well-designed population pharmacokinetic model in the future, taking into account the incorporation of larger sample size and more stringent sampling strategy. External validation should also be performed to the previously published models to compare their predictive performances.