Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
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Eklärungen für Patienten zu den Wirkstoffen
Für die Kombination von Mexiletin und Abirateron liegen uns keine zusätzlichen Warnhinweise vor. Bitte konsultieren Sie zusätzlich die jeweiligen Fachinformationen.
|Mexiletin||1.06 [0.64,4.21] 1,2||1.06|
Die genannten Expositionsveränderungen beziehen sich jeweils auf Veränderungen der Plasmakonzentrations-Zeit-Kurve [ AUC ]. Die Exposition von Mexiletin erhöht sich auf 106%, wenn eine Kombination mit Abirateron (106%) erfolgt. Die AUC liegt dabei je nach CYP2D6, CYP2B6
Für die Berechnung der individuellen Expositionsveränderungen durch die Wechselwirkungen werden als Ausgangsbasis die pharmakokinetischen Parameter der durchschnittlichen Population verwendet.
Mexiletin hat eine mittlere orale Bioverfügbarkeit [ F ] von 76%, weshalb die maximalen Plasmaspiegel [ Cmax ] sich bei einer Interaktion tendentiell verändern. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] beträgt 6.3 Stunden und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden ungefähr nach 25.2 Stunden erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 58% eher schwach und das Verteilungsvolumen [ Vd ] ist mit 446 Liter sehr gross, da die Substanz eine tiefe hepatische Extraktionsrate von 0.24 besitzt, kann eine Verdrängung aus der Proteinbindung [Pb] im Rahmen einer Interaktion die Exposition erhöhen. Die Metabolisierung findet unter anderem über CYP1A2, CYP2B6 und CYP2D6 statt.
Abirateron hat eine mittlere orale Bioverfügbarkeit [ F ] von 50%, weshalb die maximalen Plasmaspiegel [ Cmax ] sich bei einer Interaktion tendentiell verändern. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] beträgt 18 Stunden und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden ungefähr nach 72 Stunden erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 99.8% sehr stark und das Verteilungsvolumen [ Vd ] ist mit 2815 Liter sehr gross, Die Metabolisierung findet vor allem über CYP3A4 statt. Unter anderem ist Abirateron ein Hemmer von CYP1A2 und CYP2D6.
|Serotonerge Effekte a||0||Ø||Ø|
Bewertung: Gemäss unseren Erkenntnissen erhöhen weder Mexiletin noch Abirateron die serotonerge Aktivität.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Bewertung: Gemäss unseren Erkenntnissen erhöhen weder Mexiletin noch Abirateron die anticholinerge Aktivität.
Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
Abirateron kann potentiell die QT-Zeit verlängern, aber Arrhythmien vom Typ Torsades de pointes sind uns nicht bekannt. Für Mexiletin ist uns kein QT-Zeit verlängerndes Potential bekannt.
|Periphere Ödeme||20.0 %||n.a.||20.0|
|Erhöhte ALT||13.0 %||n.a.||13.0|
|Erhöhte AST||13.0 %||n.a.||13.0|
Vorhofflimmern (2.6%): Abirateron
Angina pectoris (1.6%): Abirateron
Atrioventrikulärer Block: Mexiletin
Verschwommenes Sehen: Mexiletin
Stevens Johnson-Syndrom: Mexiletin
Lupus erythematodes: Mexiletin
Basierend auf Ihren
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: To study the effects of cirrhosis of the liver on the pharmacokinetics of mexiletine a single i.v. dose of 200 mg was administered to six cirrhotic patients and to six healthy controls. The distribution of mexiletine in both study groups was similar, as indicated by similar values of V1 and Vss, but it tended to occur more slowly in the cirrhotics. The plasma protein binding of mexiletine was unchanged in the patients with cirrhosis. The elimination of mexiletine was markedly retarded in the cirrhotics, as indicated by its lower total clearance (2.31 vs. 8.27 ml/kg/h,) lower total elimination rate constant (0.059 vs 0.353 h-1), and longer elimination half-life (28.7 vs 9.9 h). The antipyrine half-life was 38.3 h in the patients and 14.7 h in the controls. One healthy volunteer had a Morgagni-Stokes-Adams type of syncopal attack 5 min after administration of mexiletine due to disturbance of AV conduction induced by the drug. Thus, on a pharmacokinetic basis the loading dose of mexiletine need not be modified in cirrhotic patients, whereas the maintenance dosage should be reduced to one fourth - one third of the usual dose.
Abstract: Cimetidine, a commonly used H2-receptor antagonist, was found to interact adversely with many drugs, including class I antiarrhythmics such as lidocaine and quinidine. To test the effect of cimetidine on the kinetics of mexiletine, a class I antiarrhythmic similar to lidocaine, the absorption and disposition of mexiletine were followed in six healthy subjects before and after 1 week of cimetidine, 300 mg by mouth four times a day. Cimetidine did not alter the distribution and elimination of mexiletine, as shown by similar mean kinetics including total body clearance, AUC, and the elimination t1/2 before and after cimetidine treatment. Cimetidine did have a significant effect on mexiletine absorption, as demonstrated by a longer mean absorption t1/2 (from 0.20 +/- 0.14 to 0.61 +/- 0.35 hours), a longer mean time to peak mexiletine concentration (from 1.13 +/- 0.31 to 1.88 +/- 0.83 hours), and decreased mexiletine plasma concentration (from 0.74 +/- 0.19 to 0.59 +/- 0.15 mg/ml). We conclude that cimetidine does not alter the disposition of oral mexiletine in normal subjects.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: To study the effects of enzyme induction on its pharmacokinetics, a single oral dose of the new antiarrhythmic agent mexiletine hydrochloride 400 mg was administered to 8 healthy volunteers before and after treatment with rifampicin 300 mg b.i.d. for ten days. The absorption and distribution of mexiletine were not changed after rifampicin, but its elimination half-life fell from 8.5 +/- 0.8 h (mean +/- SE) to 5.0 +/- 0.4 h (p less than 0.01), and its nonrenal clearance increased from 435 +/- 68 ml/min to 711 +/- 101 ml/min (p less than 0.01). The mean renal clearance of mexiletine did not change, but it showed an exponential correlation with urinary pH. The amount of unchanged mexiletine excreted in urine over two days decreased from 32 +/- 7 to 18 +/- 3 mg (p less than 0.01). The half-life of antipyrine fell from 11.8 +/- 0.4 to 5.5 +/- 0.3 h and its clearance increased from 40 +/- 3 ml to 74 +/- 3 ml/min (p less than 0.01). There was a significant (p less than 0.05) positive linear correlation between both the half-lives and the clearances of antipyrine and mexiletine. The clearances were positively correlated with serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. The results suggest that the dosage of mexiletine should be adjusted when enzyme inducing drugs are started or stopped during therapy with it.
Abstract: Single-dose kinetics of mexiletine (MEX) was studied in six healthy subjects after three different formulations. The respective doses were 200 mg (intravenous infusion), 400 mg (two conventional capsules), and 432 mg (sustained-release dosage forms). By a three-compartment open model with lag time the kinetic parameters of the drug were calculated from the experimental plasma level data. The mathematical analysis of the processes of distribution and elimination was restricted to the intravenous data only, and the resulting transfer constants were introduced into the evaluations of the oral experiments. With this procedure one common value for the plasma t 1/2 of elimination was obtained (t 1/2 gamma = 6.34 +/- 1.5 hr). Mean values for the total volume of distribution (Vdtot) and the total body clearance (Cltot) were 5.5 l/kg and 10.3 ml/min/kg. After capsules, peak plasma concentrations (Cmax = 0.77 microgram/ml) were reached after 2.2 hr. and the sustained-release form built up a flat maximum of concentration (Cmax = 0.34 microgram/ml) after 9.2 hr. Mexiletine is highly bioavailable, almost identical for the two oral formulations: 87.3% (capsule) and 78.7% (slow release). Under physiologic urinary pH1 7.5% to 9.2% of the dose was excreted unchanged by the kidneys.
Abstract: It was reported previously that mexiletine undergoes stereoselective disposition in humans and that formation of three of its major metabolites co-segregates with polymorphic debrisoquin 4-hydroxylase (CYP2D6) activity. In this study, the hypothesis was tested that the CYP2D6-mediated oxidation pathways of mexiletine are responsible for the stereoselective disposition of the racemate in humans. Fourteen healthy subjects (10 extensive metabolizers [EMs] and 4 poor metabolizers [PMs]) participated in this study. They received a single 200-mg oral dose of racemic mexiletine hydrochloride on two occasions: once alone and once during administration of low-dose quinidine (50 mg four times a day). Blood and urine samples were obtained over 48 hr after the administration of mexiletine and analyzed by a stereoselective high-performance liquid chromatography assay. As reported previously, RS-mexiletine disposition was altered by a genetically determined (PM) or drug-induced (quinidine) decrease in CYP2D6 activity. In contrast, R/S ratio of the apparent total and nonrenal clearances of mexiletine and the R/S ratio of the urinary recovery of both enantiomers were similar in EMs and PMs. Moreover, these ratios were unaltered by quinidine administration. Partial metabolic clearance of N-hydroxymexiletine glucuronide, a non-CYP2D6 dependent metabolite, was highly stereoselective; the R/S ratio was 11.3 +/- 3.4. This ratio was similar in subjects with either an EM or a PM phenotype and was not altered by quinidine administration. Thus, the results obtained in this study suggest that non-CYP2D6-dependent metabolic pathways are responsible for the stereoselective disposition of mexiletine in humans.
Abstract: Marked interindividual variation has been observed in the pharmacokinetics of the antiarrhythmic agent mexiletine. The fact that its urinary excretion is dependent on urinary pH may account, in part, for such variation. The influence that genetic differences in hepatic metabolism of the debrisoquine-type may have on mexiletine pharmacokinetics was considered in this study. The pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of mexiletine (250 mg administered intravenously) were investigated in 5 rapid extensive metabolisers (EM), 5 slow EM and 5 poor metabolisers (PM) of debrisoquine, under conditions of controlled urinary pH. Mexiletine disposition kinetics was found to be altered in PM individuals. These subjects showed higher total area under the curve (AUC), (15.7 versus 8.16 micrograms.h.ml-1) prolonged elimination half-lives (in serum and urine) (serum: 18.5 versus 11.6 h, urine: 19.2 versus 11.7 h) and lower total clearance values compared with EM (216 versus 450 ml.min-1). In this respect, slow EM individuals generally presented intermediate values of those pharmacokinetic parameters. A higher incidence of adverse-effects was also observed among slow EM and PM subjects. It is concluded that genetic differences in mexiletine oxidation of the debrisoquine-type have an influence on its observed pharmacokinetic variability. The clinical consequences are discussed.
Abstract: AIMS: Mexiletine has been reported to be hydroxylated by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) in humans. However, the involvement of CYP1A2 in the metabolism of mexiletine has been proposed based on the interaction with theophylline which is mainly metabolized by CYP1A2. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of human CYP1A2 in mexiletine metabolism. METHODS: Human CYP isoforms involved in mexiletine metabolism were investigated using microsomes from human liver and B-lymphoblastoid cells expressing human CYPs. The contributions of CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 to mexiletine metabolism were estimated by the relative activity factor (RAF). RESULTS: Mexiletine p- and 2-hydroxylase activities in human liver microsomes were inhibited by ethoxyresorufin and furafylline as well as quinidine. Mexiletine p- and 2-hydroxylase activities in microsomes from nine human livers correlated significantly with bufuralol 1'-hydroxylase activity (r = 0.907, P < 0.001 and r = 0.886, P < 0.01, respectively). Microsomes of B-lymphoblastoid cells expressing human CYP1A2 exhibited lower mexiletine p- and 2-hydroxylase activities than those expressing human CYP2D6. It was estimated by RAF that the major isoform involved in mexiletine metabolism was CYP2D6, and the contribution of CYPIA2 to both mexiletine p- and 2-hydroxylase activities was 7-30% in human liver microsomes. However, the Km values of the expressed CYP1A2 (approximately 15 microM) were almost identical with those of the expressed CYP2D6 (approximately 22 microM) and human liver microsomes. CONCLUSIONS: Mexiletine is a substrate of CYP1A2. The data obtained in this study suggest that the interaction of mexiletine with theophylline might be due to competitive inhibition of CYP1A2.
Abstract: Mexiletine, a class Ib antiarrhythmic agent, is rapidly and completely absorbed following oral administration with a bioavailability of about 90%. Peak plasma concentrations following oral administration occur within 1 to 4 hours and a linear relationship between dose and plasma concentration is observed in the dose range of 100 to 600 mg. Mexiletine is weakly bound to plasma proteins (70%). Its volume of distribution is large and varies from 5 to 9 L/kg in healthy individuals. Mexiletine is eliminated slowly in humans (with an elimination half-life of 10 hours). It undergoes stereoselective disposition caused by extensive metabolism. Eleven metabolites of mexiletine are presently known, but none of these metabolites possesses any pharmacological activity. The major metabolites are hydroxymethyl-mexiletine, p-hydroxy-mexiletine, m-hydroxy-mexiletine and N-hydroxy-mexiletine. Formation of hydroxymethyl-mexiletine, p-hydroxy-mexiletine and m-hydroxy-mexiletine is genetically determined and cosegregates with polymorphic debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase [cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6] activity. On the other hand, CYP1A2 seems to be implicated in the N-oxidation of mexiletine. Various physiological, pathological, pharmacological and environmental factors influence the disposition of mexiletine. Myocardial infarction, opioid analgesics, atropine and antacids slow the rate of absorption, whereas metoclopramide enhances it. Rifampicin (rifampin), phenytoin and cigarette smoking significantly enhance the rate of elimination of mexiletine, whereas ciprofloxacin, propafenone and liver cirrhosis decrease it. Cimetidine, ranitidine, fluconazole and omeprazole do not modify the disposition of mexiletine. Conversely, mexiletine is known to alter the disposition of other drugs, such as caffeine and theophylline. Factors affecting the elimination of mexiletine may be clinically important and dosage adjustments are often necessary.
Abstract: Three open-label, single-dose studies investigated the impact of hepatic or renal impairment on abiraterone acetate pharmacokinetics and safety/tolerability in non-cancer patients. Patients (n = 8 each group) with mild/moderate hepatic impairment or end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and age-, BMI-matched healthy controls received a single oral 1,000 mg abiraterone acetate (tablet dose); while patients (n = 8 each) with severe hepatic impairment and matched healthy controls received 125- and 2,000-mg abiraterone acetate (suspension doses), respectively (systemic exposure of abiraterone acetate suspension is approximately half to that of tablet formulation). Blood was sampled at specified timepoints up to 72 or 96 hours postdose to measure plasma abiraterone concentrations. Abiraterone exposure was comparable between healthy controls and patients with mild hepatic impairment or ESRD, but increased by 4-fold in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. Despite a 16-fold reduction in dose, abiraterone exposure in patients with severe hepatic impairment was about 22% and 44% of the Cmax and AUC∞ of healthy controls, respectively. These results suggest that abiraterone pharmacokinetics were not changed markedly in patients with ESRD or mild hepatic impairment. However, the capacity to eliminate abiraterone was substantially compromised in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment. A single-dose administration of abiraterone acetate was well-tolerated.
Abstract: Two novel oral drugs that target androgen signaling have recently become available for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Abiraterone acetate inhibits the synthesis of the natural ligands of the androgen receptor, whereas enzalutamide directly inhibits the androgen receptor by several mechanisms. Abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide appear to be equally effective for patients with mCRPC pre- and postchemotherapy. Rational decision making for either one of these drugs is therefore potentially driven by individual patient characteristics. In this review, an overview of the pharmacokinetic characteristics is given for both drugs and potential and proven drug-drug interactions are presented. Additionally, the effect of patient-related factors on drug disposition are summarized and the limited data on the exposure-response relationships are described. The most important pharmacological feature of enzalutamide that needs to be recognized is its capacity to induce several key enzymes in drug metabolism. The potency to cause drug-drug interactions needs to be addressed in patients who are treated with multiple drugs simultaneously. Abiraterone has a much smaller drug-drug interaction potential; however, it is poorly absorbed, which is affected by food intake, and a large interpatient variability in drug exposure is observed. Dose reductions of abiraterone or, alternatively, the selection of enzalutamide, should be considered in patients with hepatic dysfunction. Understanding the pharmacological characteristics and challenges of both drugs could facilitate decision making for either one of the drugs.
Abstract: We present a case of a 77 year-old gentleman with previous coronary artery bypass grafting, admitted to hospital with recurrent torsades de pointes (TdP) due to abiraterone-induced hypokalaemia and prolonged QTc. The patient was on abiraterone and prednisone for metastatic prostate cancer. He required multiple defibrillations for recurrent TdP. Abiraterone is a relatively novel drug used in metastatic prostate cancer and we discuss this potential adverse effect and its management in this unusual presentation.