Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
Varianten ✨Für die rechenintensive Bewertung der Varianten bitte das kostenpflichtige Standard Abonnement wählen.
Eklärungen für Patienten zu den Wirkstoffen
|Nelfinavir||1.26 [1,3.24] 1||1.26||n.a.|
Die genannten Expositionsveränderungen beziehen sich jeweils auf Veränderungen der Plasmakonzentrations-Zeit-Kurve [ AUC ]. Die Exposition von Alfentanil erhöht sich auf 1209%, wenn eine Kombination mit Erythromycin (266%) und Nelfinavir (347%) erfolgt. Dadurch können vermehrt Nebenwirkungen auftreten. Die Exposition von Erythromycin erhöht sich auf 152%, wenn eine Kombination mit Nelfinavir (152%) erfolgt. Dadurch können vermehrt Nebenwirkungen auftreten. Den Einfluss von Alfentanil können wir aktuell nicht abschätzen. Die Exposition von Nelfinavir erhöht sich auf 126%, wenn eine Kombination mit Erythromycin (126%) erfolgt. Die AUC liegt dabei je nach CYP2C19
Für die Berechnung der individuellen Expositionsveränderungen durch die Wechselwirkungen werden als Ausgangsbasis die pharmakokinetischen Parameter der durchschnittlichen Population verwendet.
Erythromycin hat eine tiefe orale Bioverfügbarkeit [ F ] von 24%, weshalb die maximalen Plasmaspiegel [ Cmax ] sich bei einer Interaktion tendentiell stark verändern. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] ist mit 2.3 Stunden eher kurz und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden schnell erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 73% mässig stark und das Verteilungsvolumen [ Vd ] ist mit 56 Liter gross, weshalb bei einer mittleren hepatische Extraktionsrate von 0.42 sowohl der Leberblutfluss [ Q ] als auch eine Veränderung der Proteinbindung [ Pb ] relevant sind. Die Metabolisierung findet vor allem über CYP3A4 statt und der aktive Transport erfolgt zum Teil über MRP2 und PGP. Unter anderem ist Erythromycin ein Hemmer von CYP3A4, MRP4 und PGP.
Alfentanil hat eine mittlere orale Bioverfügbarkeit [ F ] von 41%, weshalb die maximalen Plasmaspiegel [ Cmax ] sich bei einer Interaktion tendentiell verändern. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] ist mit 1.1 Stunden eher kurz und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden schnell erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 90% mässig stark und das Verteilungsvolumen [ Vd ] liegt mit 36 Liter im mittleren Bereich. da die Substanz eine tiefe hepatische Extraktionsrate von 0.24 besitzt, kann eine Verdrängung aus der Proteinbindung [Pb] im Rahmen einer Interaktion die Exposition erhöhen. Die Metabolisierung findet vor allem über CYP3A4 statt. Unter anderem ist Alfentanil ein Hemmer von PGP.
Nelfinavir hat eine mittlere orale Bioverfügbarkeit [ F ] von 50%, weshalb die maximalen Plasmaspiegel [ Cmax ] sich bei einer Interaktion tendentiell verändern. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] ist mit 4.25 Stunden eher kurz und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden schnell erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 98% stark und das Verteilungsvolumen [ Vd ] ist mit 315 Liter sehr gross, da die Substanz eine tiefe hepatische Extraktionsrate von 0.27 besitzt, kann eine Verdrängung aus der Proteinbindung [Pb] im Rahmen einer Interaktion die Exposition erhöhen. Die Metabolisierung findet unter anderem über CYP2C19, CYP2D6 und CYP3A4 statt und der aktive Transport erfolgt zum Teil über MRP4 und PGP. Unter anderem ist Nelfinavir ein Hemmer von CYP3A4 und PGP.
|Serotonerge Effekte a||1||Ø||+||Ø|
Empfehlung: Insbesondere nach einer Dosiserhöhung und bei Dosierungen im oberen therapeutischen Bereich sollte vorsichtshalber auf Symptome einer serotonergen Überstimulation geachtet werden.
Bewertung: Alfentanil beeinflusst das serotonerge System nur mild. Das Risiko für ein serotonerges Syndrom ist bei dieser Medikation eher als gering einzustufen, wenn die Dosierung sich im üblichen Bereich befindet. Gemäss unseren Erkenntnissen erhöhen weder Erythromycin noch Nelfinavir die serotonerge Aktivität.
Bewertung: Gemäss unseren Erkenntnissen erhöhen weder Erythromycin, Alfentanil noch Nelfinavir die anticholinerge Aktivität.
Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
Bewertung: In Kombination können Erythromycin und Nelfinavir potentiell ventrikuläre Arrhythmien vom Typ Torsades de pointes auslösen. Für Alfentanil ist uns kein QT-Zeit verlängerndes Potential bekannt.
Verlust von Appetit: Erythromycin
Clostridium difficile Durchfall: Erythromycin
Allergische Hautreaktionen wie Juckreiz und Hautausschlag: Erythromycin
Ventrikuläre Arrhythmie: Erythromycin
Stevens Johnson-Syndrom: Erythromycin
Toxische epidermale Nekrolyse: Erythromycin
Cholestatische Hepatitis: Erythromycin
Krampfanfall: Erythromycin, Alfentanil
Erhöhter Hirndruck: Alfentanil
Tubulointerstitielle Nephritis: Erythromycin
Diabetes mellitus: Nelfinavir
Basierend auf Ihren
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Erythromycin is a widely used antibiotic in today's armamentarium of antibiotics. Although erythromycin induced ventricular tachyarrhythmia is rare, this potentially life-threatening reaction should be kept in mind. The relative rarity of 'torsades de pointes' arrhythmia suggests that other predisposing factors contribute to the acquired long QT syndrome. Since more and more macrolide products have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States, the potential problem with 'torsades de pointes' may exist with each of the macrolide antibiotic. Until the exact mechanisms of the arrhythmia are worked out, close monitoring of rhythms and QT intervals of high risk patients who require erythromycin is certainly advisable. Only a heightened awareness among the physicians and medical personnel can the adverse outcome be minimized.
Abstract: To determine the role of acid hydrolysis on the gastrointestinal absorption of erythromycin, six healthy subjects received erythromycin as a 240 mg intravenous dose, a 250 mg oral solution administered via endoscope directly into the duodenum and bypassing the stomach, and an enteric-coated 250 mg capsule. Blood samples were collected for 6 hours and serum erythromycin quantified by a microbiological method. The time to achieve maximum serum concentrations for the solution was 0.25 +/- 0.08 (mean +/- SD) hours and for the capsule was 2.92 +/- 0.55 hours. The absolute bioavailability of erythromycin from the capsule was 32 +/- 7% and for the duodenal solution 43 +/- 14%. The ratio of the areas under the serum erythromycin concentration-time curve of capsule to solution was 80 +/- 28% (range 38 to 110%). There is substantial loss of erythromycin apart from gastric acid hydrolysis, which cannot be accounted for by hepatic first-pass metabolism. Attempts to further improve the oral bioavailability of erythromycin beyond 50% by manipulation of formulation are likely to be futile.
Abstract: Using a combination of iterative structure-based design and an analysis of oral pharmacokinetics and antiviral activity, AG1343 (Viracept, nelfinavir mesylate), a nonpeptidic inhibitor of HIV-1 protease, was identified. AG1343 is a potent enzyme inhibitor (Ki = 2 nM) and antiviral agent (HIV-1 ED50 = 14 nM). An X-ray cocrystal structure of the enzyme-AG1343 complex reveals how the novel thiophenyl ether and phenol-amide substituents of the inhibitor interact with the S1 and S2 subsites of HIV-1 protease, respectively. In vivo studies indicate that AG1343 is well absorbed orally in a variety of species and possesses favorable pharmacokinetic properties in humans. AG1343 (Viracept) has recently been approved for marketing for the treatment of AIDS.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, adverse effects, drug interactions, and dosage guidelines of nelfinavir mesylate. DATA SOURCE: A MEDLINE search restricted to English-language literature from January 1966 to February 1998 and an extensive review of journals was conducted to prepare this article. MeSH headings included protease inhibitors, nelfinavir mesylate, and AG1343. Abstracts presented at meetings and data submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were also reviewed. DATA EXTRACTION: The data on efficacy, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects, and drug interactions were obtained from in vitro studies, as well as open-label and controlled trials. DATA SYNTHESIS: Nelfinavir inhibits HIV protease enzyme resulting in formation of immature and noninfectious virions. In combination with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nelfinavir is effective in reducing the viral load below the quantifiable limit (< 500 copies/mL) and increasing the mean CD4+ cell count. This antiviral effect is sustained at least over 21 months. The bioavailability of nelfinavir ranges from 20% to 80%, and it increases when nelfinavir is administered with food. Following multiple dosing of nelfinavir 750 mg three times daily, maximum concentration at steady-state was 3-4 micrograms/mL and minimum concentration was 1-3 micrograms/mL. The elimination half-life for nelfinavir ranges from three to five hours. Nelfinavir is primarily metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and excreted in the feces. Current dosing recommendations are 750 mg three times daily for adults and adolescents and 20-30 mg/kg/dose three times daily for children aged 2-13 years. Studies of twice-daily regimens in adults are being conducted and are promising. Use of nelfinavir as salvage therapy is also being studied. Some of the commonly reported adverse events of nelfinavir are diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the limited published data, the FDA has approved nelfinavir in combination therapy for the treatment of HIV infection. The choice of antiretroviral (ARV) regimens should be made based on the risk of disease progression as indicated by HIV RNA concentrations and CD4+ cell counts, patients' previous ARV experiences and responses, concomitant drug therapy, compliance history, underlying disease states, and adverse reaction history.
Abstract: A population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted on nelfinavir in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who were enrolled in a phase III clinical trial. The data consisted of 509 plasma concentrations from 174 patients who received nelfinavir at a dose of 500 or 750 mg three times a day. The analysis was performed using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling as implemented in NONMEM (version 4.0; double precision). A one-compartment model with first-order absorption best described the data. The timing and small number of early postdose blood levels did not allow accurate estimation of volume of distribution (V/F) and the absorption rate constant (k(a)). As a result, two models were used to analyze the data: model 1, in which oral clearance (CL/F), V/F, and k(a) were estimated, and model 2, in which V/F and k(a) were fixed to known values and only CL/F was estimated. Estimates of CL/F ranged from 41. 9 to 45.1 liters/h, values in close agreement with previous studies. Neither body weight, age, sex, race, dose level, baseline viral load, metabolite-to-parent drug plasma concentration ratio, history of liver disease, nor elevated results of liver function tests appeared to be significant covariates for clearance. The only significant covariate-parameter relationship was concomitant use of fluconazole on CL/F, which was associated with a modest reduction in interindividual variability of CL/F. Patients who received concomitant therapy with fluconazole had a statistically significant reduction in nelfinavir CL/F of 26 to 30%. Since serious dose-limiting toxicity and concentration-related toxicities are not apparent for nelfinavir, this effect of fluconazole is unlikely to be of clinical significance.
Abstract: Understanding drug interactions between antiretrovirals and opiate therapies may decrease toxicities and enhance adherence, with improved HIV outcomes in injection drug users. We report results of a clinical pharmacology study designed to examine the interaction of the protease inhibitor, nelfinavir, with methadone and LAAM (N = 48). Nelfinavir decreased methadone exposure, but no withdrawal was observed over the five day study period. LAAM and dinorLAAM concentrations were decreased, while norLAAM concentrations were increased, with minimal overall change in LAAM/metabolite exposure. Methadone and LAAM did not affect nelfinavir concentrations, but methadone decreased M8 metabolite exposure. While no toxicities were observed, clinicians should be aware of the potential for drug interactions when patients require treatment with nelfinavir and these opiate medications.
Abstract: The synthetic opioid alfentanil is an analgesic and an in vivo probe for hepatic and first-pass CYP3A activity. Alfentanil is a particularly useful CYP3A probe because pupil diameter change is a surrogate for plasma concentrations, thereby affording noninvasive assessment of CYP3A. Alfentanil undergoes extensive CYP3A4 metabolism via two major pathways, forming noralfentanil and N-phenylpropionamide. This investigation evaluated alfentanil metabolism in vitro to noralfentanil and N-phenylpropionamide, by expressed CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 in addition to CYP3A4, with and without coexpressed or exogenous cytochrome b(5). Effects of the CYP3A inhibitors troleandomycin and ketoconazole were also determined. Rates of noralfentanil and N-phenylpropionamide formation by CYP3A4 and 3A5 in the absence of b(5) were generally equivalent, although the metabolite formation ratio differed, whereas those by CYP3A7 were substantially less. CYP3A4 and 3A5 were equipotently inhibited by troleandomycin, whereas ketoconazole was an order of magnitude more potent toward CYP3A4. Cytochrome b(5) qualitatively and quantitatively altered alfentanil metabolism, with b(5) coexpression having a greater effect than exogenous addition. Addition or coexpression of b(5) markedly stimulated the formation of both metabolites and changed the formation of noralfentanil but not N-phenylpropionamide from apparent single-site to multisite Michaelis-Menten kinetics. These results demonstrate that alfentanil is a substrate for CYP3A5 in addition to CYP3A4, and the effects of the CYP3A inhibitors troleandomycin and ketoconazole are CYP3A enzyme-selective. Alfentanil is one of the few CYP3A substrates that is metabolized in vitro as avidly by both CYP3A4 and 3A5. Polymorphic CYP3A5 expression may contribute to inter-individual variability in alfentanil metabolism.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to assess the bioequivalence between the commercial 250 mg nelfinavir tablet and the new 625 mg nelfinavir tablet (Roche) which was developed to reduce the daily pill burden for patients from 10 to 4 tablets in a nelfinavir 1250 mg twice daily regimen. METHODS: A total of 52 healthy male subjects were enrolled in this randomized four-period crossover study to receive single oral doses of 1250 mg nelfinavir administered as five commercial 250 mg tablets (reference formulation) and as two new 625 mg tablets (test formulation). Each of the two formulations were taken after an overnight fast and immediately after intake of a standard breakfast (820 kcal) on separate occasions. Blood samples were collected pre-dose and at appropriate intervals after drug administration. Plasma concentrations of nelfinavir and its main metabolite M8 were assayed by a validated LC-MS/ MS assay and the pharmacokinetics of nelfinavir and M8 were derived using standard non-compartmental analysis. RESULTS: The primary parameters for bioequivalence testing were the logarithmically transformed AUC(0-inf) and C(max) of nelfinavir taken from 50 subjects who completed all four treatments. Bioequivalence was accepted if the 90% confidence interval (CI) was contained entirely in the equivalence region (80%, 125%). In the fed state, this criterion was met for AUC (effect ratio = 95%; CI = 87%, 103%) and Cmax (effect ratio = 101%; CI = 94%, 109%) and bioequivalence of the two treatments could be concluded. In the fasted state, AUC clearly failed to meet the bioequivalence criteria (effect ratio = 73%; CI = 59%, 90%) and Cmax was borderline outside the lower acceptance region (effect ratio = 97%; CI = 79.6%, 118%). Therefore, bioequivalence could not be concluded under fasted condition. Food increased the systemic exposure to nelfinavir (as reflected by comparison of the logarithmically transformed AUC(0-inf) values under fed and fasted conditions) by six- and eight-fold after dosing with the 250 mg and the 625 mg tablet, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Bioequivalence of the new 625 mg nelfinavir tablet relative to the commercial 250 mg tablet, at a dose of 1250 mg, was confirmed in the fed state but not under fasted conditions. As nelfinavir is recommended to be taken with food, the new tablet is well-suited to decrease the daily pill burden for patients on a nelfinavir twice daily regimen and to enhance patient's compliance and adherence.
Abstract: This investigation determined the ability of alfentanil miosis and single-point concentrations to detect various degrees of CYP3A inhibition. Results were compared with those for midazolam, an alternative CYP3A probe. Twelve volunteers were studied in a randomized 4-way crossover, targeting 12%, 25%, and 50% inhibition of hepatic CYP3A. They received 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg oral fluconazole, followed 1 hour later by 1 mg intravenous midazolam and then 15 microg/kg intravenous alfentanil 1 hour later. The next day, they received fluconazole, followed by 3 mg oral midazolam and 40 microg/kg oral alfentanil. Dark-adapted pupil diameters were measured coincident with blood sampling. Area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) ratios (fluconazole/control) after 100, 200, and 400 mg fluconazole were (geometric mean) 1.3*, 1.4*, and 2.0* for intravenous midazolam and 1.2*, 1.6*, and 2.2* for intravenous alfentanil (*significantly different from control), indicating 16% to 21%, 31% to 36%, and 43% to 53% inhibition of hepatic CYP3A. Single-point concentration ratios were 1.5*, 1.8*, and 2.4* for intravenous midazolam (at 5 hours) and 1.2*, 1.6*, and 2.2* for intravenous alfentanil (at 4 hours). Pupil miosis AUC ratios were 0.9, 1.0, and 1.2*. After oral dosing, plasma AUC ratios were 2.3*, 3.6*, and 5.3* for midazolam and 1.8*, 2.9*, and 4.9* for alfentanil; plasma single-point ratios were 2.4*, 4.5*, and 6.9* for midazolam and 1.8*, 2.9*, and 4.9* for alfentanil, and alfentanil miosis ratios were 1.1, 1.9*, and 2.7*. Plasma concentration AUC ratios of alfentanil and midazolam were equivalent for detecting hepatic and first-pass CYP3A inhibition. Single-point concentrations were an acceptable surrogate for formal AUC determinations and as sensitive as AUCs for detecting CYP3A inhibition. Alfentanil miosis could detect 50% to 70% inhibition of CYP3A activity, but was less sensitive than plasma AUCs. Further refinements are needed to increase the sensitivity of alfentanil miosis for detecting small CYP3A changes.
Abstract: UNLABELLED: The effect of nelfinavir 1250 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) on the pharmacokinetics of methadone was determined in 14 HIV-negative methadone users. DESIGN: The methadone dose (20-140 mg/day) was stabilized and fixed for at least 1 month before nelfinavir (1250 mg b.i.d. for 8 days) was added to the regimen. The concentrations of methadone enantiomers were measured before and during nelfinavir treatment, and the concentrations of nelfinavir and its active metabolite, AG1402, were measured during nelfinavir treatment. Adverse events and withdrawal/intoxication symptoms were monitored throughout the study. RESULTS: Nelfinavir reduced the area under the concentration-time curve of R-methadone, and S-methadone by 43% and 51%, respectively. Nelfinavir and AG1402 concentrations were within the normal range of historical data, and no subject experienced withdrawal symptoms during the study or required dose adjustment during or after the study. CONCLUSIONS: Although nelfinavir reduced the plasma concentrations of both R- and S-methadone, it seems to have no impact on the maintenance dose of methadone. A routine reduction of methadone dose is not recommended when coadministered with nelfinavir.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Alfentanil is a short-acting synthetic opioid analgesic, which is extensively metabolized, mainly by hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A enzymes. Concomitant administration of alfentanil and CYP3A inhibitors may lead to clinically important drug interactions. We investigated the possible interactions between alfentanil and orally administered voriconazole and terbinafine. METHODS: A randomized crossover study design in 3 phases was used. Twelve healthy volunteers were given 20 microg/kg intravenous alfentanil without pretreatment (control), after oral voriconazole administration (400 mg twice on the first day and 200 mg twice on the second day), or after oral terbinafine administration (250 mg once daily for 3 days). Plasma concentrations of alfentanil were measured for 10 hours, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by use of noncompartmental methods. RESULTS: Voriconazole decreased the mean plasma clearance of intravenous alfentanil by 85%, from the control value of 4.4+/-2.4 mL.min-1.kg-1 to 0.67+/-0.27 mL.min-1.kg-1 (P<.001), and prolonged its elimination half-life from 1.5+/-0.49 hours to 6.6+/-1.8 hours (P<.001). The area under the alfentanil plasma concentration-time curve was increased by 6-fold by voriconazole (P<.001). Terbinafine had no statistically significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of alfentanil. Alfentanil administration caused nausea in 5 volunteers and vomiting in 2. These side effects all occurred in volunteers in the voriconazole phase. CONCLUSION: Oral voriconazole, but not terbinafine, markedly inhibited the metabolism of alfentanil. Caution should be exercised when alfentanil is given to patients receiving voriconazole. It is reasonable to assume that patients receiving voriconazole require 70% to 90% less alfentanil for the maintenance of analgesia than patients who are not receiving concomitant CYP3A inhibitors.
Abstract: The hepatic and first-pass cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A) probe alfentanil (ALF) is also metabolized in vitro by CYP3A5. Human hepatic microsomal ALF metabolism is higher in livers with at least one CYP3A5*1 allele and higher CYP3A5 protein content, compared with CYP3A5*3 homozygotes with little CYP3A5. The influence of CYP3A5 genotype on ALF pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics was studied, and compared to midazolam (MDZ), another CYP3A probe. Healthy volunteers (58 men, 41 women) were genotyped for CYP3A5 *1, *3, *6, and *7 alleles. They received intravenous MDZ then ALF, and oral MDZ and ALF the next day. Plasma MDZ and ALF concentrations were determined by mass spectrometry. Dark-adapted pupil diameters were determined coincident with blood sampling. In CYP3A5(*)3/(*)3 (n=62), (*)1/(*)3 (n=28), and (*)1/(*)1 (n=8) genotypes, systemic clearances of ALF were 4.6+/-1.8, 4.8+/-1.7, and 3.9+/-1.7 ml/kg/min and those of MDZ were 7.8+/-2.3, 7.7+/-2.3, and 6.0+/-1.4 ml/kg/min, respectively (not significant), and apparent oral clearances were 11.8+/-7.2, 13.3+/-6.1, and 12.6+/-8.2 ml/kg/min for ALF and 35.2+/-19.0, 36.4+/-15.7, and 29.4+/-9.3 ml/kg/min for MDZ (not significant). Clearances were not different between African Americans (n=25) and Whites (n=68), or between CYP3A5 genotypes within African Americans. ALF pharmacodynamics was not different between CYP3A5 genotypes. There was consistent concordance between ALF and MDZ, in clearances and extraction ratios. Thus, in a relatively large cohort of healthy subjects with constitutive CYP3A activity, CYP3A5 genotype had no effect on the systemic or apparent oral clearances, or pharmacodynamics, of the CYP3A probes ALF and MDZ, despite affecting their hepatic microsomal metabolism.
Abstract: The numbers of patients dying with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), particularly those managed conservatively (without dialysis) or withdrawing from dialysis is increasing rapidly in developed countries. There is growing awareness of the extensive symptom control needs of these patients. Pain is a common problem, and has been both under-recognized and under-treated. It is challenging to manage, largely because of the constraints very poor renal function places on use of medication. Although pharmacological reviews of opioid use in renal failure have been published, there is a need for clinical recommendations to aid palliative and renal specialists in providing effective pain control. This review describes the pharmacological evidence for and against the use of the different opioid medications, and translates this into clinical recommendations for ESRD patients managed conservatively, not for those on dialysis for whom there are different pharmacological considerations. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is recommended at Step 1 of the World Health Organization ladder. Of the Step 2 analgesics, tramadol is the least problematic, although dose reduction and increased dosing interval are required, and caution should be exercised. Of the Step 3 analgesics, fentanyl, alfentanil and methadone are recommended. There is limited evidence for buprenorphine, although theoretical reasons why it may be a good choice for these patients. Hydromorphone and oxycodone cannot be recommended because of extremely limited evidence, although each is likely a better choice than morphine or diamorphine. Morphine and diamorphine themselves are not recommended because of known accumulation of potentially toxic metabolites.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Methadone clearance is highly variable, and drug interactions are problematic. Both have been attributed to CYP3A, but actual mechanisms are unknown. Drug interactions can provide such mechanistic information. Ritonavir/indinavir, one of the earliest protease inhibitor combinations, may inhibit CYP3A. We assessed ritonavir/indinavir effects on methadone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, intestinal and hepatic CYP3A activity, and intestinal transporters (P-glycoprotein) activity. CYP3A and transporters were assessed with alfentanil and fexofenadine, respectively. METHODS: Twelve healthy human immunodeficiency virus-negative volunteers underwent a sequential three-part crossover. On three consecutive days, they received oral alfentanil/fexofenadine, intravenous alfentanil, and intravenous plus oral (deuterium-labeled) methadone, repeated after acute (3 days) and steady-state (2 weeks) ritonavir/indinavir. Plasma and urine analytes were measured by mass spectrometry. Opioid effects were assessed by miosis. RESULTS: Alfentanil apparent oral clearance was inhibited more than 97% by both acute and steady-state ritonavir/indinavir, and systemic clearance was inhibited more than 90% due to diminished hepatic and intestinal extraction. Ritonavir/indinavir increased fexofenadine area under the plasma concentration-time curve four- to five-fold, suggesting significant inhibition of gastrointestinal P-glycoprotein. Ritonavir/indinavir slightly increased methadone N-demethylation, but it had no significant effects on methadone plasma concentrations or on systemic or apparent oral clearance, renal clearance, hepatic extraction or clearance, or bioavailability. Ritonavir/indinavir had no significant effects on methadone plasma concentration-effect relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of both hepatic and intestinal CYP3A activity is responsible for ritonavir/indinavir drug interactions. Methadone disposition was unchanged, despite profound inhibition of CYP3A activity, suggesting little or no role for CYP3A in clinical methadone metabolism and clearance. Methadone bioavailability was unchanged, despite inhibition of gastrointestinal P-glycoprotein activity, suggesting that this transporter does not limit methadone intestinal absorption.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Methadone plasma concentrations are decreased by nelfinavir. Methadone clearance and the drug interactions have been attributed to CYP3A4, but actual mechanisms of methadone clearance and the nelfinavir interaction are unknown. We assessed nelfinavir effects on methadone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, intestinal and hepatic CYP3A4/5 activity, and intestinal P-glycoprotein transport activity. CYP3A4/5 and transporters were assessed using alfentanil and fexofenadine, respectively. METHODS: Twelve healthy HIV-negative volunteers underwent a sequential crossover. On three consecutive days they received oral alfentanil plus fexofenadine, intravenous alfentanil, and intravenous plus oral methadone. This was repeated after nelfinavir. Plasma and urine analytes were measured by mass spectrometry. Opioid effects were measured by pupil diameter change (miosis). RESULTS: Nelfinavir decreased intravenous and oral methadone plasma concentrations 40-50%. Systemic clearance, hepatic clearance, and hepatic extraction all increased 1.6- and 2-fold, respectively, for R- and S-methadone; apparent oral clearance increased 1.7- and 1.9-fold. Nelfinavir stereoselectively increased (S>R) methadone metabolism and metabolite formation clearance, and methadone renal clearance. Methadone bioavailability and P-glycoprotein activity were minimally affected. Nelfinavir decreased alfentanil systemic and apparent oral clearances 50 and 76%, respectively. Nelfinavir appeared to shift the methadone plasma concentration-effect (miosis) curve leftward and upward. CONCLUSIONS: Nelfinavir induced methadone clearance by increasing renal clearance, and more so by stereoselectively increasing hepatic metabolism, extraction and clearance. Induction occurred despite 50% inhibition of hepatic CYP3A4/5 activity and more than 75% inhibition of first-pass CYP3A4/5 activity, suggesting little or no role for CYP3A in clinical methadone disposition. Nelfinavir may alter methadone pharmacodynamics, increasing clinical effects.
Abstract: This was a randomized, 4-way crossover, third-party-blinded study in 68 healthy subjects to assess the effect of nelfinavir on QTc interval. Treatments included (A) nelfinavir 1250 mg every 12 hours on days 1-4, (B) nelfinavir 1250 mg every 12 hours on days 1-3 plus 3125 mg on day 4, (C) placebo, and (D) moxifloxacin 400 mg every 24 hours on days 1-4. Pharmacokinetics and triplicate 12-lead electrocardiograms were performed over 12 hours on days 1 and 4. Time-matched, placebo-subtracted, baseline-adjusted changes in QT intervals with Fridericia's (QTcF) correction were determined following nelfinavir and moxifloxacin administration. Neither dose of nelfinavir had a clinically relevant effect on the QTcF interval on day 4 (primary endpoint) and day 1 because at every time point the upper 90% confidence limit was below 10 milliseconds and, furthermore, the mean difference was below 5 milliseconds. Additionally, there was no clinically relevant effect on QTcB (Bazett's correction), uncorrected QT, or the RR interval on days 1 or 4. Pharmacokinetics confirmed adequate systemic exposure to nelfinavir and moxifloxacin. While nelfinavir exposure was higher in poor compared with extensive metabolizers of CYP2C19 isozyme, there were no corresponding significant differences in QTcF change from placebo. At clinically relevant, doses nelfinavir is unlikely to cause QTc prolongation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The objective of this research was to identify the impact of genetic variants of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) on nelfinavir pharmacokinetics and response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1-infected children. METHODS: HIV-1-infected children (n = 152) from Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trial Group 366 or 377 receiving nelfinavir as a component of HAART were evaluated. Genomic DNA was assayed for ABCB1 and CYP genetic variants using real-time polymerase chain reaction Nelfinavir oral clearance (CL/F), M8 to nelfinavir ratios, CD4 T cells, and HIV-1-RNA were measured during HAART. RESULTS: Nelfinavir CL/F and M8 to nelfinavir ratios were significantly associated with the CYP2C19-G681A genotypes (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the CYP2C19-G681A genotype was related to virologic responses at week 24 (P = 0.01). A multivariate analysis demonstrated that age (P = 0.03), concomitant protease inhibitor use (P < 0.001), and the CYP2C19-G681A genotype (P < 0.001) remained significant covariates associated with nelfinavir CL/F. CONCLUSIONS: CYP2C19 genotypes altered nelfinavir pharmacokinetics and the virologic response to HAART in HIV-1-infected children. These findings suggest that CYP2C19 genotypes are important determinants of nelfinavir pharmacokinetics and virologic response in HIV-1-infected children.
Abstract: Nonrenal clearance of drugs can be significantly lower in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) than in those with normal renal function. Using erythromycin (ER) as a probe compound, we investigated whether this decrease in nonrenal clearance is due to reduced hepatic clearance (CL(H)) and/or gut metabolism. We also examined the potential effects of the uremic toxins 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furan propanoic acid (CMPF) and indoxyl sulfate (Indox) on ER disposition. Route-randomized, two-way crossover pharmacokinetic studies of ER were conducted in 12 ESRD patients and 12 healthy controls after oral (250 mg) and intravenous (125 mg) dosing with ER. In patients with ESRD, CL(H) decreased 31% relative to baseline values (0.35 +/- 0.14 l/h/kg vs. 0.51 +/- 0.13 l/h/kg, P = 0.01), with no change in steady-state volume of distribution. With oral dosing, the bioavailability of ER increased 36% in patients with ESRD, and this increase was not related to changes in gut availability. As expected, plasma levels of CMPF and Indox were significantly higher in the patients than in the healthy controls. However, no correlation was observed between CL(H) of ER and the levels of uremic toxins.
Abstract: The macrolide antiobiotic erythromycin undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism and is commonly used as a probe for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 activity. By means of a transporter screen, erythromycin was identified as a substrate for the transporter ABCC2 (MRP2) and its murine ortholog, Abcc2. Because these proteins are highly expressed on the biliary surface of hepatocytes, we hypothesized that impaired Abcc2 function may influence the rate of hepatobiliary excretion and thereby enhance erythromycin metabolism. Using Abcc2 knockout mice, we found that Abcc2 deficiency was associated with a significant increase in erythromycin metabolism, whereas murine Cyp3a protein expression and microsomal Cyp3a activity were not affected. Next, in a cohort of 108 human subjects, we observed that homozygosity for a common reduced-function variant in ABCC2 (rs717620) was also linked to an increase in erythromycin metabolism but was not correlated with the clearance of midazolam. These results suggest that impaired ABCC2 function can alter erythromycin metabolism, independent of changes in CYP3A4 activity.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Opioid use in patients with renal impairment can lead to increased adverse effects. Opioids differ in their effect in renal impairment in both efficacy and tolerability. This systematic literature review forms the basis of guidelines for opioid use in renal impairment and cancer pain as part of the European Palliative Care Research Collaborative's opioid guidelines project. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify and assess the quality of evidence for the safe and effective use of opioids for the relief of cancer pain in patients with renal impairment and to produce guidelines. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MedLine, EMBASE and CINAHL were systematically searched in addition to hand searching of relevant journals. SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies were included if they reported a clinical outcome relevant to the use of selected opioids in cancer-related pain and renal impairment. The selected opioids were morphine, diamorphine, codeine, dextropropoxyphene, dihydrocodeine, oxycodone, hydromorphone, buprenorphine, tramadol, alfentanil, fentanyl, sufentanil, remifentanil, pethidine and methadone. No direct comparator was required for inclusion. Studies assessing the long-term efficacy of opioids during dialysis were excluded. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: This is a narrative systematic review and no meta-analysis was performed. The Grading of RECOMMENDATIONS Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to assess the quality of the studies and to formulate guidelines. MAIN RESULTS: Fifteen original articles were identified. Eight prospective and seven retrospective clinical studies were identified but no randomized controlled trials. No results were found for diamorphine, codeine, dihydrocodeine, buprenorphine, tramadol, dextropropoxyphene, methadone or remifentanil. CONCLUSIONS: All of the studies identified have a significant risk of bias inherent in the study methodology and there is additional significant risk of publication bias. Overall evidence is of very low quality. The direct clinical evidence in cancer-related pain and renal impairment is insufficient to allow formulation of guidelines but is suggestive of significant differences in risk between opioids. RECOMMENDATIONS: RECOMMENDATIONS regarding opioid use in renal impairment and cancer pain are made on the basis of pharmacokinetic data, extrapolation from non-cancer pain studies and from clinical experience. The risk of opioid use in renal impairment is stratified according to the activity of opioid metabolites, potential for accumulation and reports of successful or harmful use. Fentanyl, alfentanil and methadone are identified, with caveats, as the least likely to cause harm when used appropriately. Morphine may be associated with toxicity in patients with renal impairment. Unwanted side effects with morphine may be satisfactorily dealt with by either increasing the dosing interval or reducing the 24 hour dose or by switching to an alternative opioid.
Abstract: Mechanisms by which efavirenz diminishes methadone plasma concentrations are unknown. This investigation determined efavirenz influence on clinical methadone disposition and miosis, intravenous and oral alfentanil clearance (hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 3A4/5 (CYP3A4/5) activity), fexofenadine disposition (intestinal transporters activity), and efavirenz clearance and 8-hydroxylation (CYP2B6 activity), and human hepatocyte effects. Efavirenz induced systemic and oral alfentanil clearances two- to fivefold and induced efavirenz 8-hydroxylation. Efavirenz stereoselectively decreased methadone plasma concentrations 50-70%. Methadone systemic and oral clearances, hepatic clearance and extraction ratio, N-demethylation, and metabolite formation clearance were stereoselectively increased two- to threefold. Bioavailability decreased. Efavirenz shifted methadone concentration-miosis curves leftward and upward. Efavirenz induced hepatocyte CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 expression, activity, and methadone N-demethylation. Results show that efavirenz coinduced hepatic CYP2B6 and CYP3A4/5, coinduced hepatic and intestinal CYP3A4/5, and coinduced gastrointestinal CYP3A4/5 and efflux transporters. Methadone disposition was most consistent with efavirenz induction of hepatic CYP2B6-mediated methadone N-demethylation. Efavirenz may alter methadone pharmacodynamics.
Abstract: Elevations in serum bilirubin during drug treatment may indicate global liver dysfunction and a high risk of liver failure. However, drugs also can increase serum bilirubin in the absence of hepatic injury by inhibiting specific enzymes/transporters. We constructed a mechanistic model of bilirubin disposition based on known functional polymorphisms in bilirubin metabolism/transport. Using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model-predicted drug exposure and enzyme/transporter inhibition constants determined in vitro, our model correctly predicted indinavir-mediated hyperbilirubinemia in humans and rats. Nelfinavir was predicted not to cause hyperbilirubinemia, consistent with clinical observations. We next examined a new drug candidate that caused both elevations in serum bilirubin and biochemical evidence of liver injury in rats. Simulations suggest that bilirubin elevation primarily resulted from inhibition of transporters rather than global liver dysfunction. We conclude that mechanistic modeling of bilirubin can help elucidate underlying mechanisms of drug-induced hyperbilirubinemia, and thereby distinguish benign from clinically important elevations in serum bilirubin.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: According to current US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidance documents, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling is a powerful tool to explore and quantitatively predict drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and may offer an alternative to dedicated clinical trials. This study provides whole-body PBPK models of rifampicin, itraconazole, clarithromycin, midazolam, alfentanil, and digoxin within the Open Systems Pharmacology (OSP) Suite. All models were built independently, coupled using reported interaction parameters, and mutually evaluated to verify their predictive performance by simulating published clinical DDI studies. In total, 112 studies were used for model development and 57 studies for DDI prediction. 93% of the predicted area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) ratios and 94% of the peak plasma concentration (C) ratios are within twofold of the observed values. This study lays a cornerstone for the qualification of the OSP platform with regard to reliable PBPK predictions of enzyme-mediated and transporter-mediated DDIs during model-informed drug development. All presented models are provided open-source and transparently documented.