Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
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Eklärungen für Patienten zu den Wirkstoffen
Für die Kombination von Oxaliplatin und Asenapin liegen uns keine zusätzlichen Warnhinweise vor. Bitte konsultieren Sie zusätzlich die jeweiligen Fachinformationen.
Die genannten Expositionsveränderungen beziehen sich jeweils auf Veränderungen der Plasmakonzentrations-Zeit-Kurve [ AUC ]. Für Oxaliplatin erwarten wir keine Veränderung der Exposition, wenn eine Kombination mit Asenapin (100%) erfolgt. Für Asenapin erwarten wir keine Veränderung der Exposition, wenn eine Kombination mit Oxaliplatin (100%) erfolgt.
Für die Berechnung der individuellen Expositionsveränderungen durch die Wechselwirkungen werden als Ausgangsbasis die pharmakokinetischen Parameter der durchschnittlichen Population verwendet.
Für Oxaliplatin ist die Bioverfügbarkeit nicht bekannt. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] ist mit 0.29166667 Stunden eher kurz und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden schnell erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist nicht bekannt. Die Metabolisierung erfolgt nicht über die gängigen Cytochrome.
Asenapin hat eine tiefe orale Bioverfügbarkeit [ F ] von 2%, weshalb die maximalen Plasmaspiegel [ Cmax ] sich bei einer Interaktion tendentiell stark verändern. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] beträgt 24 Stunden und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden ungefähr nach 96 Stunden erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 95% mässig stark und das Verteilungsvolumen [ Vd ] ist mit 1700 Liter sehr gross. Die Metabolisierung findet vor allem über CYP1A2 statt und der aktive Transport erfolgt insbesondere über UGT1A4.
|Serotonerge Effekte a||0||Ø||Ø|
Bewertung: Gemäss unseren Erkenntnissen erhöhen weder Oxaliplatin noch Asenapin die serotonerge Aktivität.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||Ø||+|
Empfehlung: Insbesondere nach einer Dosiserhöhung und bei Dosierungen im oberen therapeutischen Bereich sollte vorsichtshalber auf anticholinerge Symptome geachtet werden.
Bewertung: Asenapin beeinflusst das anticholinerge System nur mild. Das Risiko für ein anticholinerge Syndrom ist bei dieser Medikation eher als gering einzustufen, wenn die Dosierung sich im üblichen Bereich befindet. Gemäss unseren Erkenntnisse erhöht Oxaliplatin nicht die anticholinerge Aktivität.
Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
Bewertung: In Kombination können Oxaliplatin und Asenapin potentiell ventrikuläre Arrhythmien vom Typ Torsades de pointes auslösen.
|Verlust von Appetit||20.0 %||20.0||n.a.|
Schläfrigkeit (14.7%): Asenapin
Akathisie (9.5%): Asenapin
Schwindel (5.5%): Asenapin
Malignes neuroleptisches Syndrom: Asenapin
Stomatitis (14%): Oxaliplatin
Leukopenie (13%): Oxaliplatin
Neutropenie (7%): Oxaliplatin, Asenapin
Hämolytische Anämie: Oxaliplatin
Atemnot (13%): Oxaliplatin
Husten (11%): Oxaliplatin
Gewichtszunahme (11.5%): Asenapin
Hyperglykämie (8.4%): Asenapin
Metabolische Azidose: Oxaliplatin
Rückenschmerzen (11%): Oxaliplatin
Periphere Ödeme (5%): Oxaliplatin
Orthostatische Hypotonie (1.5%): Asenapin
Suizidalität (2.5%): Asenapin
Venöse Verschlusskrankheit der Leber: Oxaliplatin
Angioödem: Oxaliplatin, Asenapin
Überempfindlichkeitsreaktion: Oxaliplatin, Asenapin
Hämolytisch-urämisches Syndrom: Oxaliplatin
Proximale Tubulopathie: Oxaliplatin
Tubulointerstitielle Nephritis: Oxaliplatin
Basierend auf Ihren
Abstract: Oxaliplatin is a novel platinum complex used for the treatment of metastatic colorectal carcinoma. The pharmacokinetics of the free fraction of oxaliplatin in blood were evaluated in 10 patients given 85 mg/m2 of oxaliplatin using an infusion time of 2 h. Blood samples were collected during and after the infusion and immediately placed on ice. The samples were ultrafiltrated centripetally and the concentration of oxaliplatin in the ultrafiltrate was determined by liquid chromatography in combination with postcolumn derivatization. The in vitro degradation rate was determined in blood from the patients taken immediately before drug administration. The maximal blood concentration (C(max)) and terminal half-life (t1/2) were 1.44 +/- 0.20 (SD) microg/mL and 14.1 min (range: 10.2-24.5), respectively. The area under the blood concentration time curve (AUC), clearance (CL), and distribution volume (V(ss)) were (means +/- SD) 161 +/- 22 microg min/mL, 32.1 +/- 4.2 L/h/m2, and 0.26 +/- 0.06 L/kg, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the clearance of oxaliplatin in the patients and the degradation rate in whole blood (r = 0.746; p = 0.017). Oxaliplatin has a short elimination half-life, which is in a sharp contrast to previously reported elimination half-lives obtained by analysis of the platinum content in plasma and ultrafiltrate. The correlation between in vivo and in vitro data suggests that the degradation in whole blood plays a role for the elimination of the drug.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To characterize the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oxaliplatin in cancer patients with impaired renal function. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Thirty-four patients were stratified by 24-h urinary creatinine clearance (CrCL) into four renal dysfunction groups: group A (control, CrCL, >or=60 mL/min), B (mild, CrCL, 40-59 mL/min), C (moderate, CrCL, 20-39 mL/min), and D (severe, CrCL, <20 mL/min). Patients were treated with 60 to 130 mg/m2 oxaliplatin infused over 2 h every 3 weeks. Pharmacokinetic monitoring of platinum in plasma, plasma ultrafiltrates, and urine was done during cycles 1 and 2. RESULTS: Plasma ultrafiltrate platinum clearance strongly correlated with CrCL (r2 = 0.712). Platinum elimination from plasma was triphasic, and maximal platinum concentrations (Cmax) were consistent across all renal impairment groups. However, only the beta-half-life was significantly prolonged by renal impairment, with values of 14.0 +/- 4.3, 20.3 +/- 17.7, 29.2 +/- 29.6, and 68.1 h in groups A, B, C, and D, respectively (P = 0.002). At a dose level of 130 mg/m2, the area under the concentration time curve increased in with the degree of renal impairment, with values of 16.4 +/- 5.03, 39.7 +/- 11.5, and 44.6 +/- 14.6 mug.h/mL, in groups A, B, and C, respectively. However, there was no increase in pharmacodynamic drug-related toxicities. Estimated CrCL using the Cockcroft-Gault method approximated the measured 24-h urinary CrCL (mean prediction error, -5.0 mL/min). CONCLUSIONS: Oxaliplatin pharmacokinetics are altered in patients with renal impairment, but a corresponding increase in oxaliplatin-related toxicities is not observed.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: An assessment of the effects of asenapine on QTc interval in patients with schizophrenia revealed a discrepancy between the results obtained by two different methods: an intersection-union test (IUT) (as recommended in the International Conference on Harmonisation E14 guidance) and an exposure-response (E-R) analysis. Simulations were performed in order to understand and reconcile this discrepancy. Although estimates of the time-matched, placebo-corrected mean change in QTc from baseline (ddQTc) at peak plasma concentrations from the E-R analysis ranged from 2 to 5 ms per dose level, the IUT applied to simulated data from the E-R model yielded maximum ddQTc estimates of 7-10 ms for the various doses of asenapine. These results indicate that the IUT can produce biased estimates that may induce a high false-positive rate in individual thorough QTc trials. In such cases, simulations from an E-R model can aid in reconciling the results from the two methods and may support the use of E-R results as a basis for labeling.
Abstract: The metabolism and excretion of asenapine [(3aRS,12bRS)-5-chloro-2-methyl-2,3,3a,12b-tetrahydro-1H-dibenzo[2,3:6,7]-oxepino [4,5-c]pyrrole (2Z)-2-butenedioate (1:1)] were studied after sublingual administration of [(14)C]-asenapine to healthy male volunteers. Mean total excretion on the basis of the percent recovery of the total radioactive dose was ∼90%, with ∼50% appearing in urine and ∼40% excreted in feces; asenapine itself was detected only in feces. Metabolic profiles were determined in plasma, urine, and feces using high-performance liquid chromatography with radioactivity detection. Approximately 50% of drug-related material in human plasma was identified or quantified. The remaining circulating radioactivity corresponded to at least 15 very polar, minor peaks (mostly phase II products). Overall, >70% of circulating radioactivity was associated with conjugated metabolites. Major metabolic routes were direct glucuronidation and N-demethylation. The principal circulating metabolite was asenapine N(+)-glucuronide; other circulating metabolites were N-desmethylasenapine-N-carbamoyl-glucuronide, N-desmethylasenapine, and asenapine 11-O-sulfate. In addition to the parent compound, asenapine, the principal excretory metabolite was asenapine N(+)-glucuronide. Other excretory metabolites were N-desmethylasenapine-N-carbamoylglucuronide, 11-hydroxyasenapine followed by conjugation, 10,11-dihydroxy-N-desmethylasenapine, 10,11-dihydroxyasenapine followed by conjugation (several combinations of these routes were found) and N-formylasenapine in combination with several hydroxylations, and most probably asenapine N-oxide in combination with 10,11-hydroxylations followed by conjugations. In conclusion, asenapine was extensively and rapidly metabolized, resulting in several regio-isomeric hydroxylated and conjugated metabolites.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The effects of hepatic or renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of atypical antipsychotics are not well understood. Drug exposure may increase in patients with hepatic disease, owing to a reduction of certain metabolic enzymes. The objective of the present study was to study the effects of hepatic or renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of asenapine and its N-desmethyl and N⁺-glucuronide metabolites. METHODS: Two clinical studies were performed to assess exposure to asenapine, desmethylasenapine and asenapine N⁺-glucuronide in subjects with hepatic or renal impairment. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from plasma concentration-time data, using standard noncompartmental methods. The pharmacokinetic variables that were studied included the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and the time to reach the maximum plasma concentration (t(max)). Eligible subjects, from inpatient and outpatient clinics, were aged ≥18 years with a body mass index of ≥18 kg/m² and ≤32 kg/m². Sublingual asenapine (Saphris®) was administered as a single 5 mg dose. RESULTS: Thirty subjects participated in the hepatic impairment study (normal hepatic function, n = 8; mild hepatic impairment [Child-Pugh class A], n = 8; moderate hepatic impairment [Child-Pugh class B], n = 8; severe hepatic impairment [Child-Pugh class C], n = 6). Thirty-three subjects were enrolled in the renal impairment study (normal renal function, n = 9; mild renal impairment, n = 8; moderate renal impairment, n = 8; severe renal impairment, n = 8). Asenapine and N-desmethylasenapine exposures were unaltered in subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment, compared with healthy controls. Severe hepatic impairment was associated with increased area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(∞)) values for total asenapine, N-desmethylasenapine and asenapine N⁺-glucuronide (5-, 3-, and 2-fold, respectively), with slight increases in the C(max) of asenapine but 3- and 2-fold decreases in the C(max) values for N-desmethylasenapine and asenapine N⁺-glucuronide, respectively, compared with healthy controls. The mean AUC(∞) of unbound asenapine was more than 7-fold higher in subjects with severe hepatic impairment than in healthy controls. Mild renal impairment was associated with slight elevations in the AUC(∞) of asenapine compared with healthy controls; alterations observed with moderate and severe renal impairment were marginal. N-desmethylasenapine exposure was only slightly altered by renal impairment. No correlations were observed between exposure and creatinine clearance. CONCLUSION: Severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C) was associated with pronounced increases in asenapine exposure, but significant increases were not seen with mild (Child-Pugh class A) or moderate (Child-Pugh class B) hepatic impairment, or with any degree of renal impairment. Asenapine is not recommended in patients with severe hepatic impairment; no dose adjustment is needed in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment, or in patients with renal impairment.
Abstract: Proximal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) (Type II RTA) is characterized by a defect in the ability to reabsorb HCO(3) in the proximal tubule. This is usually manifested as bicarbonate wastage in the urine reflecting that the defect in proximal tubular transport is severe enough that the capacity for bicarbonate reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop and more distal nephron segments is overwhelmed. More subtle defects in proximal bicarbonate transport likely go clinically unrecognized owing to compensatory reabsorption of bicarbonate distally. Inherited proximal RTA is more commonly autosomal recessive and has been associated with mutations in the basolateral sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1). Mutations in this transporter lead to reduced activity and/or trafficking, thus disrupting the normal bicarbonate reabsorption process of the proximal tubules. As an isolated defect for bicarbonate transport, proximal RTA is rare and is more often associated with the Fanconi syndrome characterized by urinary wastage of solutes like phosphate, uric acid, glucose, amino acids, low-molecular-weight proteins as well as bicarbonate. A vast array of rare tubular disorders may cause proximal RTA but most commonly it is induced by drugs. With the exception of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors which cause isolated proximal RTA, drug-induced proximal RTA is associated with Fanconi syndrome. Drugs that have been recently recognized to cause severe proximal RTA with Fanconi syndrome include ifosfamide, valproic acid and various antiretrovirals such as Tenofovir particularly when given to human immunodeficiency virus patients receiving concomitantly protease inhibitors such as ritonavir or reverse transcriptase inhibitors such as didanosine.
Abstract: A 67-year-old woman presented with a history of dilated cardiomyopathy with congestive heart failure since 2003, who subsequently developed lower rectal cancer (adenocarcinoma) with liver, bone, and lymph node metastasis. Abdominoperineal resection and hepatectomy were performed. The patient received two rounds of intravenous chemotherapy, including 12 and six courses of FOLFOX4 (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin; 85 mg/m(2) per cycle). She underwent a third round of intravenous FOLFOX4 because of tumor progression. During the 21(st) course of FOLFOX4 regimen, the patient developed ST segment depression in lead II and prolongation of QT interval with polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, torsades de pointes right after the start of oxaliplatin infusion. Immediate defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation were administered, and the patient regained spontaneous circulation and consciousness. Twelve-lead electrocardiogram showed ST segment elevation in III, aVF, and ST segment depression in V4-6 after resuscitation. To our knowledge, prolongation of QT interval with torsades de pointes and coronary spasm with myocardial injury that were stabilized in one patient following oxaliplatin infusion has not been reported. We present a patient with these rare complications.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: Asenapine is one of the newer atypical antipsychotics on the market. It is a sublingually administered drug that is indicated for the treatment of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and is considered to be safe and well tolerated. Herein, we report a 71-year-old female with a history of bipolar disorder who had ventricular trigemini and experienced a large increase in her QTc interval after starting treatment with asenapine. These changes ceased following withdrawal of asenapine. In this case report, we discuss the importance of cardiac monitoring when switching antipsychotics, even to those that are considered to have low cardiac risk.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.
Abstract: A highly selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay has been described for the determination of asenapine (ASE) in presence of its inactive metabolites-desmethyl asenapine (DMA) and asenapine--glucuronide (ASG). ASE, and ASE 13C-d3, used as internal standard (IS), were extracted from 300 µL human plasma by a simple and precise liquid-liquid extraction procedure using methyl-butyl ether. Baseline separation of ASE from its inactive metabolites was achieved on Chromolith Performance RP(100 mm × 4.6 mm) column using acetonitrile-5.0 mM ammonium acetate-10% formic acid (90:10:0.1, v/v/v) within 4.5 min. Quantitation of ASE was done on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization in the positive mode. The protonated precursor to product ion transitions monitored for ASE and ASE 13C-d3 were286.1 → 166.0 and290.0 → 166.1, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of the method were 0.0025 ng/mL and 0.050 ng/mL respectively in a linear concentration range of 0.050-20.0 ng/mL for ASE. The intra-batch and inter-batch precision (% CV) and mean relative recovery across quality control levels were ≤ 5.8% and 87.3%, respectively. Matrix effect, evaluated as IS-normalized matrix factor, ranged from 1.03 to 1.05. The stability of ASE under different storage conditions was ascertained in presence of the metabolites. The developed method is much simpler, matrix free, rapid and economical compared to the existing methods. The method was successfully used for a bioequivalence study of asenapine in healthy Indian subjects for the first time.