Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
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Eklärungen für Patienten zu den Wirkstoffen
Für die Kombination von Atomoxetin und Astemizol liegen uns keine zusätzlichen Warnhinweise vor. Bitte konsultieren Sie zusätzlich die jeweiligen Fachinformationen.
|Atomoxetin||1 [0.41,5.06] 1||1|
Die genannten Expositionsveränderungen beziehen sich jeweils auf Veränderungen der Plasmakonzentrations-Zeit-Kurve [ AUC ]. Für Atomoxetin erwarten wir keine Veränderung der Exposition, wenn eine Kombination mit Astemizol (100%) erfolgt. Die AUC liegt dabei je nach CYP2D6
Für die Berechnung der individuellen Expositionsveränderungen durch die Wechselwirkungen werden als Ausgangsbasis die pharmakokinetischen Parameter der durchschnittlichen Population verwendet.
Atomoxetin hat eine mittlere orale Bioverfügbarkeit [ F ] von 63%, weshalb die maximalen Plasmaspiegel [ Cmax ] sich bei einer Interaktion tendentiell verändern. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] ist mit 5.2 Stunden eher kurz und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden schnell erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 98% stark und das Verteilungsvolumen [ Vd ] ist mit 60 Liter gross, da die Substanz eine tiefe hepatische Extraktionsrate von 0.28 besitzt, kann eine Verdrängung aus der Proteinbindung [Pb] im Rahmen einer Interaktion die Exposition erhöhen. Die Metabolisierung findet unter anderem über CYP2C19 und CYP2D6 statt.
Astemizol hat eine tiefe orale Bioverfügbarkeit [ F ] von 3%, weshalb die maximalen Plasmaspiegel [ Cmax ] sich bei einer Interaktion tendentiell stark verändern. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] beträgt 22 Stunden und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden ungefähr nach 88 Stunden erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 97% stark. Die Metabolisierung findet unter anderem über CYP2D6 und CYP3A4 statt.
|Serotonerge Effekte a||0||Ø||Ø|
Bewertung: Gemäss unseren Erkenntnissen erhöhen weder Atomoxetin noch Astemizol die serotonerge Aktivität.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Bewertung: Gemäss unseren Erkenntnissen erhöhen weder Atomoxetin noch Astemizol die anticholinerge Aktivität.
Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
Bewertung: In Kombination können Atomoxetin und Astemizol potentiell ventrikuläre Arrhythmien vom Typ Torsades de pointes auslösen.
|Verlust von Appetit||16.0 %||16.0||n.a.|
Schläfrigkeit (10%): Atomoxetin
Schwindel (8%): Atomoxetin
Müdigkeit (10%): Atomoxetin
Dysmenorrhoe (3%): Atomoxetin
Erektile Dysfunktion: Atomoxetin
Gewichtsverlust (2%): Atomoxetin
Basierend auf Ihren
Abstract: Astemizole is a long-acting, highly selective histamine1-receptor antagonist with minimal central and anticholinergic effects. Comparison studies have shown astemizole to be equal or superior to currently available antihistamines, beclomethasone nasal spray, and cromolyn sodium in relieving allergic symptoms of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. Other uses include treatment of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria. Astemizole is not as effective for treatment of acute allergic symptoms because of its delayed onset of action. Astemizole and its active metabolite, desmethylastemizole, have long elimination half-lives permitting once-daily dosing. The incidence of sedation is lower than with conventional antihistamines, but increased appetite and weight gain do occur. Astemizole should be useful for both maintenance and prophylactic therapy in patients with chronic allergic conditions who cannot tolerate the sedative or anticholinergic effects of conventional antihistamines.
Abstract: Astemizole is an H1-histamine receptor antagonist with a long duration of action permitting once daily administration. Its efficacy in seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis has been convincingly demonstrated, and several comparative studies suggest that astemizole is at least as effective as some other H1-histamine receptor antagonists. A few smaller studies have shown beneficial effects on the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria (but not atopic dermatitis). While astemizole appears to share with other H1-histamine receptor antagonists a tendency to increase appetite and cause weight gain after prolonged use, it offers the important advantage of an absence of significant central nervous system depression or anticholinergic effects with usual doses. Thus, astemizole offers a worthwhile improvement in side effect profile over 'traditional' H1-histamine receptor antagonists, especially in patients bothered by the sedative effects of these drugs.
Abstract: An overdose of astemizole predisposes the myocardium to ventricular dysrhythmias, including torsades de pointes. Herein we describe a case of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia and also review previous case reports in the literature. All the patients were young, and dysrhythmias developed only in those with corrected QT intervals greater than 500 ms. Although several mechanisms have been postulated, no clear explanation has been provided for why astemizole promotes myocardial dysrhythmias. Treatment of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes includes discontinuing use of astemizole, intravenous administration of magnesium sulfate and isoproterenol, temporary cardiac pacing, and, when necessary, direct current cardioversion. A cardiac cause of syncope or convulsions must not be overlooked, especially in patients taking H1 antagonists because they often have these symptoms before hospitalization or detection of torsades de pointes (or both).
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: A 26 year-old woman was admitted to the hospital two hours after astemizole overdose. Electrocardiograph showed a prolonged QT interval. Torsade de pointes occurred 13 h after ingestion. Plasma levels of astemizole plus hydroxylated metabolites showed an apparent plasma half-life of 17 h. The possible occurrence of torsade de pointes in astemizole overdose, and the long elimination time of astemizole and hydroxylated metabolites, makes it necessary to maintain ECG monitoring until QT interval has returned to normal.
Abstract: AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic itraconazole treatment on the pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of single dose astemizole in healthy subjects was studied. METHODS: Twelve male volunteers were taking orally 200 mg twice daily itraconazole or placebo for 14 days with a washout period of 4 weeks in between. Approximately 2 h after the morning dose of itraconazole or placebo on day 11, 10 mg astemizole was orally administered. The plasma concentrations of astemizole and desmethylastemizole were measured by radioimmunoassay up to 504 h after administration; electrocardiograms with analysis of the QTc interval were recorded up to 24 h post administration. RESULTS: Itraconazole treatment did not significantly change the peak concentration of astemizole (0.74 vs 0.81 ng ml-1) but it increased the area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (5.46 to 9.95 ng ml-1 h) and from 0 to infinity (17.4 to 48.2 ng ml-1 h), and the elimination half-life (2.1 to 3.6 days). The systemic bioavailability of desmethylastemizole was also increased. The QTc interval did not increase after astemizole administration and there was no difference in the QTc intervals between the itraconazole and placebo session. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic administration of itraconazole influences the metabolism of single dose astemizole in normal volunteers without changes of cardiac repolarization during the first 24 h after astemizole administration. However, the reduction in astemizole clearance under concomitant administration of itraconazole may result in a marked increase in astemizole plasma concentrations and QTc alterations during chronic combined intake of astemizole with itraconazole.
Abstract: Second-generation histamine H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines) have been developed to reduce or eliminate the sedation and anticholinergic adverse effects that occur with older H1 receptor antagonists. This article evaluates second-generation antihistamines, including acrivastine, astemizole, azelastine, cetirizine, ebastine, fexofenadine, ketotifen, loratadine, mizolastine and terfenadine, for significant features that affect choice. In addition to their primary mechanism of antagonising histamine at the H1 receptor, these agents may act on other mediators of the allergic reaction. However, the clinical significance of activity beyond that mediated by histamine H1 receptor antagonism has yet to be demonstrated. Most of the agents reviewed are metabolised by the liver to active metabolites that play a significant role in their effect. Conditions that result in accumulation of astemizole, ebastine and terfenadine may prolong the QT interval and result in torsade de pointes. The remaining agents reviewed do not appear to have this risk. For allergic rhinitis, all agents are effective and the choice should be based on other factors. For urticaria, cetirizine and mizolastine demonstrate superior suppression of wheal and flare at the dosages recommended by the manufacturer. For atopic dermatitis, as adjunctive therapy to reduce pruritus, cetirizine, ketotifen and loratadine demonstrate efficacy. Although current evidence does not suggest a primary role for these agents in the management of asthma, it does support their use for asthmatic patients when there is coexisting allergic rhinitis, dermatitis or urticaria.
Abstract: AIMS: The aims of the present study were to investigate the metabolism of astemizole in human liver microsomes, to assess possible pharmacokinetic drug-interactions with astemizole and to compare its metabolism with terfenadine, a typical H1 receptor antagonist known to be metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4. METHODS: Astemizole or terfenadine were incubated with human liver microsomes or recombinant cytochromes P450 in the absence or presence of chemical inhibitors and antibodies. RESULTS: Troleandomycin, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, markedly reduced the oxidation of terfenadine (26% of controls) in human liver microsomes, but showed only a marginal inhibition on the oxidation of astemizole (81% of controls). Three metabolites of astemizole were detected in a liver microsomal system, i.e. desmethylastemizole (DES-AST), 6-hydroxyastemizole (6OH-AST) and norastemizole (NOR-AST) at the ratio of 7.4 : 2.8 : 1. Experiments with recombinant P450s and antibodies indicate a negligible role for CYP3A4 on the main metabolic route of astemizole, i.e. formation of DES-AST, although CYP3A4 may mediate the relatively minor metabolic routes to 6OH-AST and NOR-AST. Recombinant CYP2D6 catalysed the formation of 6OH-AST and DES-AST. Studies with human liver microsomes, however, suggest a major role for a mono P450 in DES-AST formation. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to terfenadine, a minor role for CYP3A4 and involvement of multiple P450 isozymes are suggested in the metabolism of astemizole. These differences in P450 isozymes involved in the metabolism of astemizole and terfenadine may associate with distinct pharmacokinetic influences observed with coadministration of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Atomoxetine (Strattera, a potent and selective inhibitor of the presynaptic norepinephrine transporter, is used clinically for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents and adults. Atomoxetine has high aqueous solubility and biological membrane permeability that facilitates its rapid and complete absorption after oral administration. Absolute oral bioavailability ranges from 63 to 94%, which is governed by the extent of its first-pass metabolism. Three oxidative metabolic pathways are involved in the systemic clearance of atomoxetine: aromatic ring-hydroxylation, benzylic hydroxylation and N-demethylation. Aromatic ring-hydroxylation results in the formation of the primary oxidative metabolite of atomoxetine, 4-hydroxyatomoxetine, which is subsequently glucuronidated and excreted in urine. The formation of 4-hydroxyatomoxetine is primarily mediated by the polymorphically expressed enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6. This results in two distinct populations of individuals: those exhibiting active metabolic capabilities (CYP2D6 extensive metabolisers) and those exhibiting poor metabolic capabilities (CYP2D6 poor metabolisers) for atomoxetine. The oral bioavailability and clearance of atomoxetine are influenced by the activity of CYP2D6; nonetheless, plasma pharmacokinetic parameters are predictable in extensive and poor metaboliser patients. After single oral dose, atomoxetine reaches maximum plasma concentration within about 1-2 hours of administration. In extensive metabolisers, atomoxetine has a plasma half-life of 5.2 hours, while in poor metabolisers, atomoxetine has a plasma half-life of 21.6 hours. The systemic plasma clearance of atomoxetine is 0.35 and 0.03 L/h/kg in extensive and poor metabolisers, respectively. Correspondingly, the average steady-state plasma concentrations are approximately 10-fold higher in poor metabolisers compared with extensive metabolisers. Upon multiple dosing there is plasma accumulation of atomoxetine in poor metabolisers, but very little accumulation in extensive metabolisers. The volume of distribution is 0.85 L/kg, indicating that atomoxetine is distributed in total body water in both extensive and poor metabolisers. Atomoxetine is highly bound to plasma albumin (approximately 99% bound in plasma). Although steady-state concentrations of atomoxetine in poor metabolisers are higher than those in extensive metabolisers following administration of the same mg/kg/day dosage, the frequency and severity of adverse events are similar regardless of CYP2D6 phenotype.Atomoxetine administration does not inhibit or induce the clearance of other drugs metabolised by CYP enzymes. In extensive metabolisers, potent and selective CYP2D6 inhibitors reduce atomoxetine clearance; however, administration of CYP inhibitors to poor metabolisers has no effect on the steady-state plasma concentrations of atomoxetine.
Abstract: AIM: The effects of atomoxetine (20 and 60 mg twice daily), 400 mg moxifloxacin and placebo on QT(c) in 131 healthy CYP2D6 poor metabolizer males were compared. METHODS: Atomoxetine doses were selected to result in plasma concentrations that approximated expected plasma concentrations at both the maximum recommended dose and at a supratherapeutic dose in CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers. Ten second electrocardiograms were obtained for time-matched baseline on days -2 and -1, three time points after dosing on day 1 for moxifloxacin and five time points on day 7 for atomoxetine and placebo. Maximum mean placebo-subtracted change from baseline model-corrected QT (QT(c)M) on day 7 was the primary endpoint. RESULTS: QT(c)M differences for atomoxetine 20 and 60 mg twice daily were 0.5 ms (upper bound of the one-sided 95% confidence interval 2.2 ms) and 4.2 ms (upper bound of the one-sided 95% confidence interval 6.0 ms), respectively. As plasma concentration of atomoxetine increased, a statistically significant increase in QT(c) was observed. The moxifloxacin difference from placebo met the a priori definition of non-inferiority. Maximum mean placebo-subtracted change from baseline QT(c)M for moxifloxacin was 4.8 ms and this difference was statistically significant. Moxifloxacin plasma concentrations were below the concentrations expected from the literature. However, the slope of the plasma concentration-QT(c) change observed was consistent with the literature. CONCLUSION: Atomoxetine was not associated with a clinically significant change in QT(c). However, a statistically significant increase in QT(c) was associated with increasing plasma concentrations.
Abstract: Atomoxetine is indicated for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and is predominantly metabolized by the CYP2D6 enzyme. Differences in pharmacokinetic parameters as well as clinical treatment outcomes across CYP2D6 genotype groups have resulted in dosing recommendations within the product label, but clinical studies supporting the use of genotype guided dosing are currently lacking. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic and clinical studies have primarily focused on extensive as compared with poor metabolizers, with little information known about other metabolizer categories as well as genes involved in the pharmacodynamics of atomoxetine. This review describes the pharmacogenetic associations with atomoxetine pharmacokinetics, treatment response and tolerability with considerations for the clinical utility of this information.
Abstract: Atomoxetine is a selective norepinephrine (NE) reuptake inhibitor approved for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children (≥6 years of age), adolescents, and adults. Its metabolism and disposition are fairly complex, and primarily governed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 (CYP2D6), whose protein expression varies substantially from person to person, and by race and ethnicity because of genetic polymorphism. These differences can be substantial, resulting in 8-10-fold differences in atomoxetine exposure between CYP2D6 poor metabolizers and extensive metabolizers. In this review, we have attempted to revisit and analyze all published clinical pharmacokinetic data on atomoxetine inclusive of public access documents from the new drug application submitted to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The present review focuses on atomoxetine metabolism, disposition, and genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 as they specifically relate to atomoxetine, and provides an in-depth discussion of the fundamental pharmacokinetics of the drug including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in pediatric and adult populations. Further, a summary of relationships between genetic variants of CYP2D6 and to some degree, CYP2C19, are provided with respect to atomoxetine plasma concentrations, central nervous system (CNS) pharmacokinetics, and associated clinical implications for pharmacotherapy. Lastly, dosage adjustments based on pharmacokinetic principles are discussed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The effects of atomoxetine on QT in adults remain unclear. In this study, we examined whether the use of atomoxetine to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults is associated with QT prolongation. METHODS: Forty-one subjects with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were enrolled in this study. Participants were administered 40, 80, or 120 mg atomoxetine daily and were maintained on their respective dose for at least 2 weeks. We conducted electrocardiographic measurements and blood tests, measuring plasma atomoxetine concentrations after treatment. Electrocardiograms of 24 of the patients were also obtained before atomoxetine treatment. The QT interval was corrected using Bazett (QTcB) and Fridericia (QTcF) correction formulas. RESULTS: In these 24 patients, only the female patients had prolonged QTcB (P = 0.039) after atomoxetine treatment. There was no correlation between plasma atomoxetine concentrations and the corrected QT interval (QTc), or between atomoxetine dosage and the QTc. However, in female patients, there was a significant positive correlation between atomoxetine dosage and the QTcB (r = 0.631, P = 0.012), and there was a marginally significant positive correlation between atomoxetine dosage and the QTcF (r = 0.504, P = 0.055). In male patients, there was no correlation between atomoxetine dosage and the QTcB or QTcF intervals. There was no correlation between plasma atomoxetine concentrations and the QTc in either female or male patients. IMPLICATIONS: Clinicians should exhibit caution when prescribing atomoxetine, particularly for female patients.
Abstract: Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling of drug disposition and drug-drug interactions (DDIs) has become a key component of drug development. PBPK modeling has also been considered as an approach to predict drug disposition in special populations. However, whether models developed and validated in healthy populations can be extrapolated to special populations is not well established. The goal of this study was to determine whether a drug-specific PBPK model validated using healthy populations could be used to predict drug disposition in specific populations and in organ impairment patients. A full PBPK model of atomoxetine was developed using a training set of pharmacokinetic (PK) data from CYP2D6 genotyped individuals. The model was validated using drug-specific acceptance criteria and a test set of 14 healthy subject PK studies. Population PBPK models were then challenged by simulating the effects of ethnicity, DDIs, pediatrics, and renal and hepatic impairment on atomoxetine PK. Atomoxetine disposition was successfully predicted in 100% of healthy subject studies, 88% of studies in Asians, 79% of DDI studies, and 100% of pediatric studies. However, the atomoxetine area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) was overpredicted by 3- to 4-fold in end stage renal disease and hepatic impairment. The results show that validated PBPK models can be extrapolated to different ethnicities, DDIs, and pediatrics but not to renal and hepatic impairment patients, likely due to incomplete understanding of the physiologic changes in these conditions. These results show that systematic modeling efforts can be used to further refine population models to improve the predictive value in this area.