Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
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Eklärungen für Patienten zu den Wirkstoffen
Für die Kombination von Chinin und Astemizol liegen uns keine zusätzlichen Warnhinweise vor. Bitte konsultieren Sie zusätzlich die jeweiligen Fachinformationen.
Die genannten Expositionsveränderungen beziehen sich jeweils auf Veränderungen der Plasmakonzentrations-Zeit-Kurve [ AUC ]. Eine Veränderung der Exposition von Chinin haben wir nicht erkannt. Den Einfluss von Astemizol können wir aktuell nicht abschätzen. Eine Veränderung der Exposition von Astemizol haben wir nicht erkannt. Den Einfluss von Chinin können wir aktuell nicht abschätzen.
Für die Berechnung der individuellen Expositionsveränderungen durch die Wechselwirkungen werden als Ausgangsbasis die pharmakokinetischen Parameter der durchschnittlichen Population verwendet.
Chinin hat eine hohe orale Bioverfügbarkeit [ F ] von 85%, weshalb die maximalen Plasmaspiegel [ Cmax ] sich bei einer Interaktion tendentiell wenig verändern. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] beträgt 11.5 Stunden und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden ungefähr nach 46 Stunden erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 89.5% mässig stark und das Verteilungsvolumen [ Vd ] liegt mit 50 Liter im mittleren Bereich. da die Substanz eine tiefe hepatische Extraktionsrate von 0.06 besitzt, kann eine Verdrängung aus der Proteinbindung [Pb] im Rahmen einer Interaktion die Exposition erhöhen. Die Metabolisierung findet unter anderem über CYP1A2, CYP2E1 und CYP3A4 statt und der aktive Transport erfolgt zum Teil über OATP1A2 und PGP. Unter anderem ist Chinin ein Hemmer von CYP2D6 und CYP3A4.
Astemizol hat eine tiefe orale Bioverfügbarkeit [ F ] von 3%, weshalb die maximalen Plasmaspiegel [ Cmax ] sich bei einer Interaktion tendentiell stark verändern. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] beträgt 22 Stunden und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden ungefähr nach 88 Stunden erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 97% stark. Die Metabolisierung findet unter anderem über CYP2D6 und CYP3A4 statt. Unter anderem ist Astemizol ein Hemmer von CYP3A4 und PGP.
|Serotonerge Effekte a||0||Ø||Ø|
Bewertung: Gemäss unseren Erkenntnissen erhöhen weder Chinin noch Astemizol die serotonerge Aktivität.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Bewertung: Gemäss unseren Erkenntnissen erhöhen weder Chinin noch Astemizol die anticholinerge Aktivität.
Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
Bewertung: In Kombination können Chinin und Astemizol potentiell ventrikuläre Arrhythmien vom Typ Torsades de pointes auslösen.
|Disseminierte intravasale Koagulopathie||0.0 %||0.001||n.a.|
|Thrombotische thrombozytopenische Purpura||0.0 %||0.001||n.a.|
|Verschwommenes Sehen||0.0 %||0.001||n.a.|
|Hämolytisch-urämisches Syndrom||0.0 %||0.001||n.a.|
Basierend auf Ihren
Abstract: Astemizole is a long-acting, highly selective histamine1-receptor antagonist with minimal central and anticholinergic effects. Comparison studies have shown astemizole to be equal or superior to currently available antihistamines, beclomethasone nasal spray, and cromolyn sodium in relieving allergic symptoms of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. Other uses include treatment of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria. Astemizole is not as effective for treatment of acute allergic symptoms because of its delayed onset of action. Astemizole and its active metabolite, desmethylastemizole, have long elimination half-lives permitting once-daily dosing. The incidence of sedation is lower than with conventional antihistamines, but increased appetite and weight gain do occur. Astemizole should be useful for both maintenance and prophylactic therapy in patients with chronic allergic conditions who cannot tolerate the sedative or anticholinergic effects of conventional antihistamines.
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of orally administered quinine were determined in six normal volunteers before and after a 7-day course of cimetidine (1 g day-1) or ranitidine (300 mg day-1). Peak plasma quinine concentration and the time of peak concentration were not altered after cimetidine or ranitidine pretreatment. After cimetidine pretreatment there was a significant reduction in the apparent oral clearance of quinine, from 0.182 +/- 0.063 (mean +/- s.d.) to 0.133 +/- 0.055 1 h-1 kg-1 (P less than 0.05). This was reflected in a 49% (range 17 to 90%) increase in the mean elimination half-life from 7.6 +/- 1.3 to 11.3 +/- 3.7 h (P less than 0.05). In contrast to cimetidine, ranitidine had no significant effect on the clearance or half-life of quinine. The apparent interaction between quinine and cimetidine may have therapeutic implications. Special care should be taken in patients taking these two common drugs concomitantly. Additionally, to avoid unnecessary risks due to drug interaction, the use of ranitidine may be preferable in the patients in whom it is desirable to administer an H2-receptor antagonist together with quinine.
Abstract: Astemizole is an H1-histamine receptor antagonist with a long duration of action permitting once daily administration. Its efficacy in seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis has been convincingly demonstrated, and several comparative studies suggest that astemizole is at least as effective as some other H1-histamine receptor antagonists. A few smaller studies have shown beneficial effects on the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria (but not atopic dermatitis). While astemizole appears to share with other H1-histamine receptor antagonists a tendency to increase appetite and cause weight gain after prolonged use, it offers the important advantage of an absence of significant central nervous system depression or anticholinergic effects with usual doses. Thus, astemizole offers a worthwhile improvement in side effect profile over 'traditional' H1-histamine receptor antagonists, especially in patients bothered by the sedative effects of these drugs.
Abstract: An overdose of astemizole predisposes the myocardium to ventricular dysrhythmias, including torsades de pointes. Herein we describe a case of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia and also review previous case reports in the literature. All the patients were young, and dysrhythmias developed only in those with corrected QT intervals greater than 500 ms. Although several mechanisms have been postulated, no clear explanation has been provided for why astemizole promotes myocardial dysrhythmias. Treatment of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes includes discontinuing use of astemizole, intravenous administration of magnesium sulfate and isoproterenol, temporary cardiac pacing, and, when necessary, direct current cardioversion. A cardiac cause of syncope or convulsions must not be overlooked, especially in patients taking H1 antagonists because they often have these symptoms before hospitalization or detection of torsades de pointes (or both).
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: A 26 year-old woman was admitted to the hospital two hours after astemizole overdose. Electrocardiograph showed a prolonged QT interval. Torsade de pointes occurred 13 h after ingestion. Plasma levels of astemizole plus hydroxylated metabolites showed an apparent plasma half-life of 17 h. The possible occurrence of torsade de pointes in astemizole overdose, and the long elimination time of astemizole and hydroxylated metabolites, makes it necessary to maintain ECG monitoring until QT interval has returned to normal.
Abstract: The effect of rifampicin and isoniazid pretreatment on the pharmacokinetics of quinine after a single oral dose (600 mg quinine sulphate) was studied in nine healthy young Thai male volunteers using a three-way randomized crossover design. Subjects were studied over three 2 day periods, during which they received no pretreatment, or pretreatment with daily 600 mg p.o. rifampicin for 2 weeks, or isoniazid 300 mg p.o. daily for 1 week, prior to quinine administration. The mean (+/- s.d.) clearance (CL/F) of quinine coadministered with rifampicin (0.87 +/- 0.35 1 h-1 kg-1) was significantly greater than that of quinine alone (0.14 +/- 0.05 1 h-1 kg-1). The mean difference in clearance from the control treatment was 0.73 1 h-1 kg-1, with 95% confidence interval (C.I.) of 0.48 to 0.98. The unbound clearance (CLu/F) of quinine, which reflects the activity of the drug-metabolizing enzymes, was considerably greater (6.9-fold) in subjects when rifampicin was coadministered with quinine than that of quinine alone (6.9 +/- 3.6 vs 1.0 +/- 0.5 1 h-1 kg-1; the 95% C.I. for the mean difference was 3.3 to 8.5). The mean elimination half-life of quinine when coadministered with rifampicin (5.5 +/- 3.0 h) was significantly shorter than when quinine was given alone (11.1 +/- 3.0 h; the 95% C.I. for the mean difference was -8.6 to -2.6). In contrast to rifampicin, pretreatment for 1 week with 300 mg oral isoniazid had no significant effects on the pharmacokinetics of quinine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Abstract: Malaria is associated with a reduction in the systemic clearance and apparent volume of distribution of the cinchona alkaloids; this reduction is proportional to the disease severity. There is increased plasma protein binding, predominantly to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, and elimination half-lives (in healthy adults quinine t1/2z = 11 hours, quinidine t1/2z = 8 hours) are prolonged by 50%. Systemic clearance is predominantly by hepatic biotransformation to more polar metabolites (quinine 80%, quinidine 65%) and the remaining drug is eliminated unchanged by the kidney. Quinine is well absorbed by mouth or following intramuscular injection even in severe cases of malaria (estimated bioavailability more than 85%). Quinine and chloroquine may cause potentially lethal hypotension if given by intravenous injection. Chloroquine is extensively distributed with an enormous total apparent volume of distribution (Vd) more than 100 L/kg, and a terminal elimination half-life of 1 to 2 months. As a consequence, distribution rather than elimination processes determine the blood concentration profile of chloroquine in patients with acute malaria. Parenteral chloroquine should be given either by continuous intravenous infusion, or by frequent intramuscular or subcutaneous injections of relatively small doses. Oral bioavailability exceeds 75%. Amodiaquine is a pro-drug for the active antimalarial metabolite desethylamodiaquine. Its pharmacokinetic properties are similar to these of chloroquine although the Vd is smaller (17 to 34 L/kg) and the terminal elimination half-life is 1 to 3 weeks.
Abstract: AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic itraconazole treatment on the pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of single dose astemizole in healthy subjects was studied. METHODS: Twelve male volunteers were taking orally 200 mg twice daily itraconazole or placebo for 14 days with a washout period of 4 weeks in between. Approximately 2 h after the morning dose of itraconazole or placebo on day 11, 10 mg astemizole was orally administered. The plasma concentrations of astemizole and desmethylastemizole were measured by radioimmunoassay up to 504 h after administration; electrocardiograms with analysis of the QTc interval were recorded up to 24 h post administration. RESULTS: Itraconazole treatment did not significantly change the peak concentration of astemizole (0.74 vs 0.81 ng ml-1) but it increased the area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (5.46 to 9.95 ng ml-1 h) and from 0 to infinity (17.4 to 48.2 ng ml-1 h), and the elimination half-life (2.1 to 3.6 days). The systemic bioavailability of desmethylastemizole was also increased. The QTc interval did not increase after astemizole administration and there was no difference in the QTc intervals between the itraconazole and placebo session. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic administration of itraconazole influences the metabolism of single dose astemizole in normal volunteers without changes of cardiac repolarization during the first 24 h after astemizole administration. However, the reduction in astemizole clearance under concomitant administration of itraconazole may result in a marked increase in astemizole plasma concentrations and QTc alterations during chronic combined intake of astemizole with itraconazole.
Abstract: Because of serious cardiovascular events, warnings against concomitant use of certain medications with the use of antihistamine (HismanalR have been published and added to product labeling. Quinine, the optical isomer to quinidine, is included in these warnings. We present the case of a patient with only mild electrolyte disturbances who experienced an episode of torsades de pointes after a single dose of quinine while taking astemizole.
Abstract: Second-generation histamine H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines) have been developed to reduce or eliminate the sedation and anticholinergic adverse effects that occur with older H1 receptor antagonists. This article evaluates second-generation antihistamines, including acrivastine, astemizole, azelastine, cetirizine, ebastine, fexofenadine, ketotifen, loratadine, mizolastine and terfenadine, for significant features that affect choice. In addition to their primary mechanism of antagonising histamine at the H1 receptor, these agents may act on other mediators of the allergic reaction. However, the clinical significance of activity beyond that mediated by histamine H1 receptor antagonism has yet to be demonstrated. Most of the agents reviewed are metabolised by the liver to active metabolites that play a significant role in their effect. Conditions that result in accumulation of astemizole, ebastine and terfenadine may prolong the QT interval and result in torsade de pointes. The remaining agents reviewed do not appear to have this risk. For allergic rhinitis, all agents are effective and the choice should be based on other factors. For urticaria, cetirizine and mizolastine demonstrate superior suppression of wheal and flare at the dosages recommended by the manufacturer. For atopic dermatitis, as adjunctive therapy to reduce pruritus, cetirizine, ketotifen and loratadine demonstrate efficacy. Although current evidence does not suggest a primary role for these agents in the management of asthma, it does support their use for asthmatic patients when there is coexisting allergic rhinitis, dermatitis or urticaria.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: As quinine is mainly metabolised by human liver CYP3A4 and grapefruit juice inhibits CYP3A4, the effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of quinine following a single oral dose of 600 mg quinine sulphate was investigated. METHODS: The study was carried out in ten healthy volunteers using a randomised cross-over design. Subjects were studied on three occasions, with a washout period of 2 weeks. During each period, subjects received a pretreatment of 200 ml orange juice (control), full-strength grapefruit juice or half-strength grapefruit juice twice daily for 5 days. On day 6, the subjects were given a single oral dose of 600 mg quinine sulphate with 200 ml of one of the juices. Plasma and urine samples for measurement of quinine and its major metabolite, 3-hydroxyquinine, were collected over a 48-h period and analysed by means of a high-performance liquid chromatography method. RESULTS: The intake of grapefruit juice did not significantly alter the oral pharmacokinetics of quinine. There were no significant differences among the three treatment periods with regard to pharmacokinetic parameters of quinine, including the peak plasma drug concentration (Cmax), the time to reach Cmax (tmax), the terminal elimination half-life (t1/2), the area under the concentration-time curve and the apparent oral clearance. The pharmacokinetics of the 3-hydroxyquinine metabolite were slightly changed when volunteers received grapefruit juice. The mean Cmax of the metabolite (0.25+/-0.09 mg l(-1), mean +/- SD) while subjects received full-strength grapefruit juice was significantly less than during the control period (0.31+/-0.06 mg l(-1), P < 0.05) and during the intake of half-strength grapefruit juice (0.31+/-0.07 mg l(-1), P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that there is no significant interaction between the parent compound quinine and grapefruit juice, so it is not necessary to advise patients against ingesting grapefruit juice at the same time that they take quinine. Since quinine is a low clearance drug with a relatively high oral bioavailability, and is primarily metabolised by human liver CYP3A4, the lack of effect of grapefruit juice on quinine pharmacokinetics supports the view that the site of CYP inhibition by grapefruit juice is mainly in the gut.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the roles of CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 in the 3-hydroxylation of quinine in vivo. METHODS: In a randomized, three-way crossover study, nine healthy Swedish volunteers received single oral doses of quinine hydrochloride (500 mg), quinine hydrochloride (500 mg) plus ketoconazole (100 mg twice daily for 3 days), and quinine hydrochloride (500 mg) plus fluvoxamine (25 mg twice daily for 2 days) on three different occasions. Blood and urine samples were collected before quinine intake and up to 96 hours thereafter. Plasma and urine samples were analyzed for both quinine and its main metabolite 3-hydroxyquinine with HPLC methods. RESULTS: Coadministration with ketoconazole (which inhibits CYP3A4) decreased the mean apparent oral clearance of quinine significantly (P < .001) by 31% (from 8.7 to 6.0 L/h), whereas coadministration with fluvoxamine (which inhibits CYP1A2 and to some extent CYP2C19) had no significant effect (P > .05) on the mean apparent oral clearance of quinine. Coadministration with ketoconazole also decreased the mean area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) of 3-hydroxyquinine (from 28.4 to 19.7 micromol x h x L(-1); P < .001), whereas coadministration with fluvoxamine increased 3-hydroxyquinine AUC significantly (from 28.4 to 30.2 micromol x h x L(-1); P < .05). CONCLUSION: Cytochrome P450 3A4 is important for the 3-hydroxylation of quinine in vivo. On the other hand, CYP1A2 had no significant effect on this metabolic pathway.
Abstract: Obesity can modify the pharmacokinetics of lipophilic drugs. As quinine is a lipophilic drug, this study was conducted to determine whether the pharmacokinetics of quinine is altered in obese subjects. Nine obese Thai men were compared with 8 age-matched lean men. After an oral dose of quinine had been given to the men, plasma quinine concentrations were measured up to 48 h after the dosing. Mean peak plasma quinine concentration in the obese group was significantly lower than that observed in the controls (4.0 +/- 0.8 vs 5.0 +/- 0.3 mg/L, P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in time to reach the peak plasma concentration, half-life and total clearance of quinine between the 2 groups. The mean clearances of quinine normalized to the ideal bodyweight (IBW) in the obese and the control groups were not significantly different (0.091 +/- 0.018 vs 0.091 +/- 0.024 L/h/kg IBW, P > 0.05). As there are similarities in the total clearance and the clearance of quinine based on IBW, the maintenance dose of quinine should be given to obese patients on the basis of ideal bodyweight, not on total bodyweight.
Abstract: AIMS: The aims of the present study were to investigate the metabolism of astemizole in human liver microsomes, to assess possible pharmacokinetic drug-interactions with astemizole and to compare its metabolism with terfenadine, a typical H1 receptor antagonist known to be metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4. METHODS: Astemizole or terfenadine were incubated with human liver microsomes or recombinant cytochromes P450 in the absence or presence of chemical inhibitors and antibodies. RESULTS: Troleandomycin, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, markedly reduced the oxidation of terfenadine (26% of controls) in human liver microsomes, but showed only a marginal inhibition on the oxidation of astemizole (81% of controls). Three metabolites of astemizole were detected in a liver microsomal system, i.e. desmethylastemizole (DES-AST), 6-hydroxyastemizole (6OH-AST) and norastemizole (NOR-AST) at the ratio of 7.4 : 2.8 : 1. Experiments with recombinant P450s and antibodies indicate a negligible role for CYP3A4 on the main metabolic route of astemizole, i.e. formation of DES-AST, although CYP3A4 may mediate the relatively minor metabolic routes to 6OH-AST and NOR-AST. Recombinant CYP2D6 catalysed the formation of 6OH-AST and DES-AST. Studies with human liver microsomes, however, suggest a major role for a mono P450 in DES-AST formation. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to terfenadine, a minor role for CYP3A4 and involvement of multiple P450 isozymes are suggested in the metabolism of astemizole. These differences in P450 isozymes involved in the metabolism of astemizole and terfenadine may associate with distinct pharmacokinetic influences observed with coadministration of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4.
Abstract: AIMS: Quinine is often used to prevent muscle cramps in patients with chronic renal failure. A standard dose of 300 mg at bedtime is usually recommended, but little is known about the pharmacokinetics of quinine in the presence of renal failure. METHODS: We studied the pharmacokinetics of quinine in eight normal subjects and eight patients with chronic renal failure on haemodialysis after a single oral dose of quinine sulphate (300 mg). RESULTS: The concentration of alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AAG), the major binding protein for quinine, was increased in haemodialysis patients compared with control subjects (1.52 g l-1 vs 0.63 g l-1 [mean difference 1.033; 95% CI 0.735, 1.330]) whereas albumin levels were decreased (30 g l-1 vs 40 g l-1 [mean difference 9.5; 95% CI 3.048, 15.952]). Accordingly, the free fraction of quinine was decreased (0.024 vs 0.063 [mean difference 0.0380; 95% CI 0.0221, 0.0539]) and the apparent volume of distribution tended to decrease (0.95 l kg-1 vs 1.43 l kg-1 [mean difference 0.480; 95% CI 0.193, 1.154]). The quinine binding ratio correlated with the plasma concentration of AAG but not that of albumin. The clearance of free (unbound) quinine was increased in haemodialysis patients compared with controls (67.9 ml min-1 kg-1 vs 41.1 ml min-1 kg-1 [mean difference -26.8; 95% CI, -56.994, 3.469]), and the area under the curve (AUC) of the two main metabolites, 3-hydroxyquinine and 10,11-dihydroxydihydroquinine were increased. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic renal failure, there is an increase in plasma protein binding and in the clearance of free drug, resulting in lower plasma concentration of free quinine.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To study the correlation between CYP3A5 genotype and quinine 3-hydroxylation in black Tanzanian and Swedish Caucasians as well as to investigate the interethnic differences in CYP3A activity between the two populations. METHODS: Tanzanian (n=144) and Swedish (n=136) healthy study participants were given a single oral 250 mg dose of quinine hydrochloride and a 16-h post-dose blood sample was collected. The metabolic ratio of quinine/3-hydroxyquinine was determined in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. All the participants were genotyped for the known mutations of CYP3A5, which are relevant for the respective population. Correlation between quinine metabolic ratio and CYP3A5 genotype as well as the interethnic difference in CYP3A activity between the two populations was studied. RESULTS: Tanzanians had significantly higher (P<0.0001) mean quinine metabolic ratio (9.5+/-3.5) than Swedes (7.6+/-3.1). As expected, the frequency of high CYP3A5 expression alleles was higher in Tanzanians (51%) than in Swedes (7%). The mean+/-SD quinine metabolic ratio (10.7+/-3.9) in Tanzanians homozygous for low CYP3A5 expression gene was significantly higher than the corresponding mean metabolic ratio in participants heterozygous (9.5+/-3.3; P=0.02) or homozygous (8.1+/-3.1; P=0.002) for high expression CYP3A5 alleles, respectively. A tendency to higher quinine metabolic ratio in Swedes with low expression alleles compared with those with one or two high expression alleles was observed. Tanzanians homozygous for low CYP3A5 expression gene (i.e. only CYP3A4 is expressed) had significantly (P<0.0001) higher quinine metabolic ratio (10.7+/-3.9) than corresponding Swedes (7.7+/-3.1). CONCLUSIONS: Clear interethnic differences were observed in the activity of CYP3A between Tanzanians and Swedes. A significant association is noted between CYP3A5 genotype and quinine 3-hydroxylation in Tanzanians, indicating a significant contribution of CYP3A5 to total 3A activity. The CYP3A4 catalyzed hydroxylation of quinine (two low CYP3A5 expression alleles) was lower in Tanzanians than in Swedes.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Nevirapine and quinine are likely to be administered concurrently in the treatment of patients with HIV and malaria. Both drugs are metabolised to a significant extent by cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A4 and nevirapine is also an inducer of this enzyme. This study therefore evaluated the effect of nevirapine on the pharmacokinetics of quinine. METHODS: Quinine (600 mg single dose) was administered either alone or with the 17th dose of nevirapine (200 mg every 12 h for 12 days) to 14 healthy volunteers in a crossover fashion. Blood samples collected at predetermined time intervals were analysed for quinine and its major metabolite, 3-hydroxquinine, using a validated HPLC method. KEY FINDINGS: Administration of quinine plus nevirapine resulted in significant decreases (P < 0.01) in the total area under the concentration-time curve (AUC(T)), maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and terminal elimination half-life (T((1/2)beta)) of quinine compared with values with quinine dosing alone (AUC: 53.29 +/- 4.01 vs 35.48 +/- 2.01 h mg/l; C(max): 2.83 +/- 0.16 vs 1.81 +/- 0.06 mg/l; T((1/2)beta): 11.35 +/- 0.72 vs 8.54 +/- 0.76 h), while the oral plasma clearance markedly increased (11.32 +/- 0.84 vs 16.97 +/- 0.98 l/h). In the presence of nevirapine there was a pronounced increase in the ratio of AUC(metabolite)/AUC (unchanged drug) and highly significant increases in C(max) and AUC of the metabolite (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Nevirapine significantly alters the pharmacokinetics of quinine. An increase in the dose of quinine may be necessary when the drug is co-administered with nevirapine.
Abstract: We determined the relationship between plasma and red blood cell concentrations of quinine in children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria from an endemic area of Amazonian region. Quinine was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. In the steady state the ratio between plasma and red blood cell quinine concentration was 1.89 +/- 1.25 ranging from 1.05 to 2.34. This result demonstrated that quinine do not concentrate in red blood cell of Brazilian children and characterize the absence of interracial difference in this relationship.
Abstract: Rituximab can cause late-onset neutropenia that may result in serious life-threatening complications. The author describes the pathophysiology, incidence, and management of this adverse reaction and presents two case histories.
Abstract: Non-chemotherapy idiosyncratic drug-induced neutropenia (IDIN) is a relatively rare but potentially fatal disorder that occurs in susceptible individuals, with an incidence of 2.4 to 15.4 cases per million population. Affected patients typically experience severe neutropenia within several weeks to several months after first exposure to a drug, and mortality is ∼5%. The drugs most frequently associated with IDIN include metamizole, clozapine, sulfasalazine, thiamazole, carbimazole, amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, ticlopidine, and valganciclovir. The idiosyncratic nature of IDIN, the lack of mouse models and diagnostic testing, and its low overall incidence make rigorous studies to elucidate possible mechanisms exceptionally difficult. An immune mechanism for IDIN involving neutrophil destruction by hapten (drug)-specific antibodies and drug-induced autoantibodies is frequently suggested, but strong supporting evidence is lacking. Although laboratory testing for neutrophil drug-dependent antibodies is rarely performed because of the complexity and low sensitivity of tests currently in use, these assays could possibly be enhanced by using reactive drug metabolites in place of the parent drug. Patients typically experience acute, severe neutropenia, or agranulocytosis (<0.5 × 10neutrophils/L) and symptoms of fever, chills, sore throat, and muscle and joint pain. Diagnosis can be difficult, but timely recognition is critical because if left untreated, there is an increase in mortality. Expanded studies of the production and mechanistic role of reactive drug metabolites, genetic associations, and improved animal models of IDIN are essential to further our understanding of this important disorder.