Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
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Eklärungen für Patienten zu den Wirkstoffen
Für die Kombination von Fluoxetin und Astemizol liegen uns keine zusätzlichen Warnhinweise vor. Bitte konsultieren Sie zusätzlich die jeweiligen Fachinformationen.
Die genannten Expositionsveränderungen beziehen sich jeweils auf Veränderungen der Plasmakonzentrations-Zeit-Kurve [ AUC ]. Eine Veränderung der Exposition von Fluoxetin haben wir nicht erkannt. Den Einfluss von Astemizol können wir aktuell nicht abschätzen. Eine Veränderung der Exposition von Astemizol haben wir nicht erkannt. Den Einfluss von Fluoxetin können wir aktuell nicht abschätzen.
Für die Berechnung der individuellen Expositionsveränderungen durch die Wechselwirkungen werden als Ausgangsbasis die pharmakokinetischen Parameter der durchschnittlichen Population verwendet.
Fluoxetin hat eine mittlere orale Bioverfügbarkeit [ F ] von 60%, weshalb die maximalen Plasmaspiegel [ Cmax ] sich bei einer Interaktion tendentiell verändern. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] beträgt 24 Stunden und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden ungefähr nach 96 Stunden erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 94.5% mässig stark und das Verteilungsvolumen [ Vd ] ist mit 2275 Liter sehr gross, weshalb bei einer mittleren hepatische Extraktionsrate von 0.33 sowohl der Leberblutfluss [ Q ] als auch eine Veränderung der Proteinbindung [ Pb ] relevant sind. Die Metabolisierung findet unter anderem über CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 und CYP3A4 statt. Unter anderem ist Fluoxetin ein Hemmer von CYP2D6 und CYP3A4.
Astemizol hat eine tiefe orale Bioverfügbarkeit [ F ] von 3%, weshalb die maximalen Plasmaspiegel [ Cmax ] sich bei einer Interaktion tendentiell stark verändern. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] beträgt 22 Stunden und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden ungefähr nach 88 Stunden erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 97% stark. Die Metabolisierung findet unter anderem über CYP2D6 und CYP3A4 statt. Unter anderem ist Astemizol ein Hemmer von CYP3A4.
|Serotonerge Effekte a||2||++||Ø|
Empfehlung: Insbesondere nach einer Dosiserhöhung und bei Dosierungen im oberen therapeutischen Bereich sollte vorsichtshalber auf Symptome einer serotonergen Überstimulation geachtet werden.
Bewertung: Fluoxetin moduliert das serotonerge System in moderatem Ausmass. Das Risiko für ein serotonerges Syndrom ist bei dieser Medikation eher als gering einzustufen, wenn die Dosierung sich im üblichen Bereich befindet. Gemäss unseren Erkenntnissen erhöht Astemizol nicht die serotonerge Aktivität.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||+||Ø|
Empfehlung: Insbesondere nach einer Dosiserhöhung und bei Dosierungen im oberen therapeutischen Bereich sollte vorsichtshalber auf anticholinerge Symptome geachtet werden.
Bewertung: Fluoxetin beeinflusst das anticholinerge System nur mild. Das Risiko für ein anticholinerge Syndrom ist bei dieser Medikation eher als gering einzustufen, wenn die Dosierung sich im üblichen Bereich befindet. Gemäss unseren Erkenntnisse erhöht Astemizol nicht die anticholinerge Aktivität.
Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
Bewertung: In Kombination können Fluoxetin und Astemizol potentiell ventrikuläre Arrhythmien vom Typ Torsades de pointes auslösen.
|Verlust von Appetit||10.4 %||10.4||n.a.|
Xerostomie (8%): Fluoxetin
Tremor (8%): Fluoxetin
Schwindel (6.5%): Fluoxetin
Verschwommenes Sehen: Fluoxetin
Erythema multiforme: Fluoxetin
Verlängerte Blutungszeit: Fluoxetin
Anaphylaktische Reaktion: Fluoxetin
Basierend auf Ihren
Abstract: Astemizole is a long-acting, highly selective histamine1-receptor antagonist with minimal central and anticholinergic effects. Comparison studies have shown astemizole to be equal or superior to currently available antihistamines, beclomethasone nasal spray, and cromolyn sodium in relieving allergic symptoms of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. Other uses include treatment of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria. Astemizole is not as effective for treatment of acute allergic symptoms because of its delayed onset of action. Astemizole and its active metabolite, desmethylastemizole, have long elimination half-lives permitting once-daily dosing. The incidence of sedation is lower than with conventional antihistamines, but increased appetite and weight gain do occur. Astemizole should be useful for both maintenance and prophylactic therapy in patients with chronic allergic conditions who cannot tolerate the sedative or anticholinergic effects of conventional antihistamines.
Abstract: Astemizole is an H1-histamine receptor antagonist with a long duration of action permitting once daily administration. Its efficacy in seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis has been convincingly demonstrated, and several comparative studies suggest that astemizole is at least as effective as some other H1-histamine receptor antagonists. A few smaller studies have shown beneficial effects on the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria (but not atopic dermatitis). While astemizole appears to share with other H1-histamine receptor antagonists a tendency to increase appetite and cause weight gain after prolonged use, it offers the important advantage of an absence of significant central nervous system depression or anticholinergic effects with usual doses. Thus, astemizole offers a worthwhile improvement in side effect profile over 'traditional' H1-histamine receptor antagonists, especially in patients bothered by the sedative effects of these drugs.
Abstract: A 48-year-old man presented to the emergency department with confusion, agitation, diaphoresis, and muscle rigidity after beginning treatment with fluoxetine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. He had discontinued treatment with tranylcypromine, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, 2 weeks earlier. The constellation of findings was diagnostic of the serotonin syndrome.
Abstract: An overdose of astemizole predisposes the myocardium to ventricular dysrhythmias, including torsades de pointes. Herein we describe a case of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia and also review previous case reports in the literature. All the patients were young, and dysrhythmias developed only in those with corrected QT intervals greater than 500 ms. Although several mechanisms have been postulated, no clear explanation has been provided for why astemizole promotes myocardial dysrhythmias. Treatment of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes includes discontinuing use of astemizole, intravenous administration of magnesium sulfate and isoproterenol, temporary cardiac pacing, and, when necessary, direct current cardioversion. A cardiac cause of syncope or convulsions must not be overlooked, especially in patients taking H1 antagonists because they often have these symptoms before hospitalization or detection of torsades de pointes (or both).
Abstract: Fluoxetine is well absorbed after oral intake, is highly protein bound, and has a large volume of distribution. The elimination half-life of fluoxetine is about 1 to 4 days, while that of its metabolite norfluoxetine ranges from 7 to 15 days. Fluoxetine has a nonlinear pharmacokinetic profile. Therefore, the drug should be used with caution in patients with a reduced metabolic capability (i.e. hepatic dysfunction). In contrast with its effect on the pharmacokinetics of other antidepressants, age does not affect fluoxetine pharmacokinetics. This finding together with the better tolerability profile of fluoxetine (compared with tricyclic antidepressants) makes this drug particularly suitable for use in elderly patients with depression. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine are not affected by either obesity or renal impairment. On the basis of results of plasma concentration-clinical response relationship studies, there appears to be a therapeutic window for fluoxetine. Concentrations of fluoxetine plus norfluoxetine above 500 micrograms/L appear to be associated with a poorer clinical response than lower concentrations. Fluoxetine interacts with some other drugs. Concomitant administration of fluoxetine increased the blood concentrations of antipsychotics or antidepressants. The interactions between fluoxetine and lithium, tryptophan and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, in particular, are potentially serious, and can lead to the 'serotonergic syndrome'. This is because of synergistic pharmacodynamic effects and the influence of fluoxetine on the bioavailability of these compounds.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: A 26 year-old woman was admitted to the hospital two hours after astemizole overdose. Electrocardiograph showed a prolonged QT interval. Torsade de pointes occurred 13 h after ingestion. Plasma levels of astemizole plus hydroxylated metabolites showed an apparent plasma half-life of 17 h. The possible occurrence of torsade de pointes in astemizole overdose, and the long elimination time of astemizole and hydroxylated metabolites, makes it necessary to maintain ECG monitoring until QT interval has returned to normal.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Substrates and inhibitors of the cytochrome P450 isozyme CYP2D6 have overlapping structural characteristics. Two prototype serotonin uptake inhibitors, sertraline and fluoxetine, share these structural criteria and have been identified as potent inhibitors of CYP2D6 in vitro. The current study was undertaken to investigate whether genetically determined CYP2D6 activity alters the disposition of sertraline or fluoxetine or both. METHODS: Single doses of sertraline (50 mg) and fluoxetine (20 mg) were administered successively to 20 young men with high (extensive metabolizers; n = 10) and low (poor metabolizers; n = 10) CYP2D6 activity. Blood and urine samples were collected for 5 to 7 half-lives and sertraline, desmethylsertraline, fluoxetine, and norfluoxetine were determined by GC and HPLC techniques. RESULTS: Poor metabolizers had significantly greater fluoxetine peak plasma concentrations (Cmax; increases 57%), area under the concentration versus time curve (AUCzero-->infinity; increases 290%), and terminal elimination half-life (increases 216%) compared with extensive metabolizers. The total amount of fluoxetine excreted in the urine during 8 days was almost three times higher in poor metabolizers than in extensive metabolizers (719 versus 225 micrograms; p < 0.05), whereas the total amount of norfluoxetine excreted in urine of poor metabolizers was about half of that of extensive metabolizers (524 versus 1047 micrograms; p < 0.05). Norfluoxetine Cmax and AUCzero-->t were significantly smaller in poor metabolizers (decreases 55% and decreases 53%, respectively), and the partial metabolic clearance of fluoxetine into norfluoxetine was 10 times smaller in this group (4.3 +/- 1.9 versus 0.4 +/- 0.1 L/hr; p < 0.05). No significant differences between extensive and poor metabolizers were found for sertraline and desmethylsertraline pharmacokinetics. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that poor metabolizers accumulate fluoxetine but not sertraline and that CYP2D6 plays an important role in the demethylation of fluoxetine but not of sertraline.
Abstract: AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic itraconazole treatment on the pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of single dose astemizole in healthy subjects was studied. METHODS: Twelve male volunteers were taking orally 200 mg twice daily itraconazole or placebo for 14 days with a washout period of 4 weeks in between. Approximately 2 h after the morning dose of itraconazole or placebo on day 11, 10 mg astemizole was orally administered. The plasma concentrations of astemizole and desmethylastemizole were measured by radioimmunoassay up to 504 h after administration; electrocardiograms with analysis of the QTc interval were recorded up to 24 h post administration. RESULTS: Itraconazole treatment did not significantly change the peak concentration of astemizole (0.74 vs 0.81 ng ml-1) but it increased the area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (5.46 to 9.95 ng ml-1 h) and from 0 to infinity (17.4 to 48.2 ng ml-1 h), and the elimination half-life (2.1 to 3.6 days). The systemic bioavailability of desmethylastemizole was also increased. The QTc interval did not increase after astemizole administration and there was no difference in the QTc intervals between the itraconazole and placebo session. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic administration of itraconazole influences the metabolism of single dose astemizole in normal volunteers without changes of cardiac repolarization during the first 24 h after astemizole administration. However, the reduction in astemizole clearance under concomitant administration of itraconazole may result in a marked increase in astemizole plasma concentrations and QTc alterations during chronic combined intake of astemizole with itraconazole.
Abstract: Second-generation histamine H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines) have been developed to reduce or eliminate the sedation and anticholinergic adverse effects that occur with older H1 receptor antagonists. This article evaluates second-generation antihistamines, including acrivastine, astemizole, azelastine, cetirizine, ebastine, fexofenadine, ketotifen, loratadine, mizolastine and terfenadine, for significant features that affect choice. In addition to their primary mechanism of antagonising histamine at the H1 receptor, these agents may act on other mediators of the allergic reaction. However, the clinical significance of activity beyond that mediated by histamine H1 receptor antagonism has yet to be demonstrated. Most of the agents reviewed are metabolised by the liver to active metabolites that play a significant role in their effect. Conditions that result in accumulation of astemizole, ebastine and terfenadine may prolong the QT interval and result in torsade de pointes. The remaining agents reviewed do not appear to have this risk. For allergic rhinitis, all agents are effective and the choice should be based on other factors. For urticaria, cetirizine and mizolastine demonstrate superior suppression of wheal and flare at the dosages recommended by the manufacturer. For atopic dermatitis, as adjunctive therapy to reduce pruritus, cetirizine, ketotifen and loratadine demonstrate efficacy. Although current evidence does not suggest a primary role for these agents in the management of asthma, it does support their use for asthmatic patients when there is coexisting allergic rhinitis, dermatitis or urticaria.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: AIMS: The aims of the present study were to investigate the metabolism of astemizole in human liver microsomes, to assess possible pharmacokinetic drug-interactions with astemizole and to compare its metabolism with terfenadine, a typical H1 receptor antagonist known to be metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4. METHODS: Astemizole or terfenadine were incubated with human liver microsomes or recombinant cytochromes P450 in the absence or presence of chemical inhibitors and antibodies. RESULTS: Troleandomycin, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, markedly reduced the oxidation of terfenadine (26% of controls) in human liver microsomes, but showed only a marginal inhibition on the oxidation of astemizole (81% of controls). Three metabolites of astemizole were detected in a liver microsomal system, i.e. desmethylastemizole (DES-AST), 6-hydroxyastemizole (6OH-AST) and norastemizole (NOR-AST) at the ratio of 7.4 : 2.8 : 1. Experiments with recombinant P450s and antibodies indicate a negligible role for CYP3A4 on the main metabolic route of astemizole, i.e. formation of DES-AST, although CYP3A4 may mediate the relatively minor metabolic routes to 6OH-AST and NOR-AST. Recombinant CYP2D6 catalysed the formation of 6OH-AST and DES-AST. Studies with human liver microsomes, however, suggest a major role for a mono P450 in DES-AST formation. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to terfenadine, a minor role for CYP3A4 and involvement of multiple P450 isozymes are suggested in the metabolism of astemizole. These differences in P450 isozymes involved in the metabolism of astemizole and terfenadine may associate with distinct pharmacokinetic influences observed with coadministration of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4.
Abstract: AIMS: The study was designed to investigate whether genetically determined CYP2C19 activity affects the metabolism of fluoxetine in healthy subjects. METHODS: A single oral dose of fluoxetine (40 mg) was administrated successively to 14 healthy young men with high (extensive metabolizers, n=8) and low (poor metabolizers, n = 6) CYP2C19 activity. Blood samples were collected for 5-7 half-lives and fluoxetine, and norfluoxetine were determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Poor metabolizers (PMs) showed a mean 46% increase in fluoxetine peak plasma concentrations (Cmax, P < 0.001), 128% increase in area under the concentration vs time curve (AUC(0, infinity), P < 0.001), 113% increase in terminal elimination half-life (t(1/2)) (P < 0.001), and 55% decrease in CLo (P < 0.001) compared with extensive metabolizers (EMs). Mean +/- (s.d) norfluoxetine AUC(0, 192 h) was significantly lower in PMs than that in EMs (1343 +/- 277 vs 2935 +/- 311, P < 0.001). Mean fluoxetine Cmax and AUC(0, infinity) in wild-type homozygotes (CYP2C19*1/CYP2C19*1) were significantly lower than that in PMs (22.4 +/- 3.9 vs 36.7 +/- 8.9, P < 0.001; 732 +/- 42 vs 2152 +/- 492, P < 0.001, respectively). Mean oral clearance in individuals with the wild type homozygous genotype was significantly higher than that in heterozygotes and that in PMs (54.7 +/- 3.4 vs 36.0 +/- 8.7, P < 0.01; 54.7 +/- 3.4 vs 20.6 +/- 6.2, P < 0.001, respectively). Mean norfluoxetine AUC(0, 192 h) in PMs was significantly lower than that in wild type homozygotes (1343 +/- 277 vs 3163 +/- 121, P < 0.05) and that in heterozygotes (1343 +/- 277 vs 2706 +/- 273, P < 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that CYP2C19 appears to play a major role in the metabolism of fluoxetine, and in particular its N-demethylation among Chinese healthy subjects.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to measure the anticholinergic activity (AA) of medications commonly used by older adults. A radioreceptor assay was used to investigate the AA of 107 medications. Six clinically relevant concentrations were assessed for each medication. Rodent forebrain and striatum homogenate was used with tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate. Drug-free serum was added to medication and atropine standard-curve samples. For medications that showed detectable AA, average steady-state peak plasma and serum concentrations (C(max)) in older adults were used to estimate relationships between in vitro dose and AA. All results are reported in pmol/mL of atropine equivalents. At typical doses administered to older adults, amitriptyline, atropine, clozapine, dicyclomine, doxepin, L-hyoscyamine, thioridazine, and tolterodine demonstrated AA exceeding 15 pmol/mL. Chlorpromazine, diphenhydramine, nortriptyline, olanzapine, oxybutynin, and paroxetine had AA values of 5 to 15 pmol/mL. Citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, lithium, mirtazapine, quetiapine, ranitidine, and temazepam had values less than 5 pmol/mL. Amoxicillin, celecoxib, cephalexin, diazepam, digoxin, diphenoxylate, donepezil, duloxetine, fentanyl, furosemide, hydrocodone, lansoprazole, levofloxacin, metformin, phenytoin, propoxyphene, and topiramate demonstrated AA only at the highest concentrations tested (patients with above-average C(max) values, who receive higher doses, or are frail may show AA). The remainder of the medications investigated did not demonstrate any AA at the concentrations examined. Psychotropic medications were particularly likely to demonstrate AA. Each of the drug classifications investigated (e.g., antipsychotic, cardiovascular) had at least one medication that demonstrated AA at therapeutic doses. Clinicians can use this information when choosing between equally efficacious medications, as well as in assessing overall anticholinergic burden.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal relationship between cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications and memory and executive function in older men. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred forty-four community-dwelling men aged 65 and older with diagnosed hypertension. MEASUREMENTS: The outcomes were measured using the Hopkins Verbal Recall Test (HVRT) for short-term memory and the instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) scale for executive function at baseline and during follow-up. Anticholinergic medication use was ascertained using participants' primary care visit records and quantified as total anticholinergic burden using a clinician-rated anticholinergic score. RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications over the preceding 12 months was associated with poorer performance on the HVRT and IADLs. On average, a 1-unit increase in the total anticholinergic burden per 3 months was associated with a 0.32-point (95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.05-0.58) and 0.10-point (95% CI=0.04-0.17) decrease in the HVRT and IADLs, respectively, independent of other potential risk factors for cognitive impairment, including age, education, cognitive and physical function, comorbidities, and severity of hypertension. The association was attenuated but remained statistically significant with memory (0.29, 95% CI=0.01-0.56) and executive function (0.08, 95% CI=0.02-0.15) after further adjustment for concomitant non-anticholinergic medications. CONCLUSION: Cumulative anticholinergic exposure across multiple medications over 1 year may negatively affect verbal memory and executive function in older men. Prescription of drugs with anticholinergic effects in older persons deserves continued attention to avoid deleterious adverse effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although some of the aetiological factors are known, it is not yet known whether drugs with anticholinergic activity (AA) contribute to this cognitive decline. Such knowledge would provide opportunities to prevent acceleration of cognitive decline in PD. OBJECTIVE: To study whether the use of agents with anticholinergic properties is an independent risk factor for cognitive decline in patients with PD. METHODS: A community-based cohort of patients with PD (n=235) were included and assessed at baseline. They were reassessed 4 and 8 years later. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A detailed assessment of the AA of all drugs prescribed was made, and AA was classified according to a standardised scale. Relationships between cognitive decline and AA load and duration of treatment were assessed using bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses. RESULTS: More than 40% used drugs with AA at baseline. During the 8-year follow-up, the cognitive decline was higher in those who had been taking AA drugs (median decline on MMSE 6.5 points) compared with those who had not taken such drugs (median decline 1 point; p=0.025). In linear regression analyses adjusting for age, baseline cognition and depression, significant associations with decline on MMSE were found for total AA load (standardised beta=0.229, p=0.04) as well as the duration of using AA drugs (standardised beta 0.231, p=0.032). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an association between anticholinergic drug use and cognitive decline in PD. This may provide an important opportunity for clinicians to avoid increasing progression of cognitive decline by avoiding drugs with AA. Increased awareness by clinicians is required about the classes of drugs that have anticholinergic properties.
Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIMS: The nature and extent of adverse cognitive effects due to the prescription of anticholinergic drugs in older people with and without dementia is unclear. METHODS: We calculated the anticholinergic load (ACL) of medications taken by participants of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of ageing, a cohort of 211 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 133 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients and 768 healthy controls (HC) all aged over 60 years. The association between ACL and cognitive function was examined for each diagnostic group (HC, MCI, AD). RESULTS: A high ACL within the HC group was associated with significantly slower response speeds for the Stroop color and incongruent trials. No other significant relationships between ACL and cognition were noted. CONCLUSION: In this large cohort, prescribed anticholinergic drugs appeared to have modest effects upon psychomotor speed and executive function, but not on other areas of cognition in healthy older adults.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Serotonin syndrome is a rare but serious complication of treatment with serotonergic agents. In its severe manifestations, death can ensue. Early recognition and aggressive management are crucial to mitigating the syndrome. Often the presentation can be subtle and easy to miss. CASE REPORTS: We present 2 cases of serotonin syndrome seen in the psychiatric consultation service of a busy academic hospital. Both patients had favorable outcomes because of early recognition and aggressive management. CONCLUSION: Physicians should carefully consider and rule out the clinical diagnosis of serotonin syndrome when presented with an agitated or confused patient who is taking serotonergic agents.
Abstract: The accurate estimation of "in vivo" inhibition constants () of inhibitors and fraction metabolized () of substrates is highly important for drug-drug interaction (DDI) prediction based on physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. We hypothesized that analysis of the pharmacokinetic alterations of substrate metabolites in addition to the parent drug would enable accurate estimation of in vivoandTwenty-four pharmacokinetic DDIs caused by P450 inhibition were analyzed with PBPK models using an emerging parameter estimation method, the cluster Newton method, which enables efficient estimation of a large number of parameters to describe the pharmacokinetics of parent and metabolized drugs. For each DDI, two analyses were conducted (with or without substrate metabolite data), and the parameter estimates were compared with each other. In 17 out of 24 cases, inclusion of substrate metabolite information in PBPK analysis improved the reliability of bothandImportantly, the estimatedfor the same inhibitor from different DDI studies was generally consistent, suggesting that the estimatedfrom one study can be reliably used for the prediction of untested DDI cases with different victim drugs. Furthermore, a large discrepancy was observed between the reported in vitroand the in vitro estimates for some inhibitors, and the current in vivoestimates might be used as reference values when optimizing in vitro-in vivo extrapolation strategies. These results demonstrated that better use of substrate metabolite information in PBPK analysis of clinical DDI data can improve reliability of top-down parameter estimation and prediction of untested DDIs.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.