Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
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Eklärungen für Patienten zu den Wirkstoffen
Für die Kombination von Astemizol und Maprotilin liegen uns keine zusätzlichen Warnhinweise vor. Bitte konsultieren Sie zusätzlich die jeweiligen Fachinformationen.
|Maprotilin||1 [0.44,3.53] 1||1|
Die genannten Expositionsveränderungen beziehen sich jeweils auf Veränderungen der Plasmakonzentrations-Zeit-Kurve [ AUC ]. Für Astemizol erwarten wir keine Veränderung der Exposition, wenn eine Kombination mit Maprotilin (100%) erfolgt. Für Maprotilin erwarten wir keine Veränderung der Exposition, wenn eine Kombination mit Astemizol (100%) erfolgt. Die AUC liegt dabei je nach CYP2D6
Für die Berechnung der individuellen Expositionsveränderungen durch die Wechselwirkungen werden als Ausgangsbasis die pharmakokinetischen Parameter der durchschnittlichen Population verwendet.
Astemizol hat eine tiefe orale Bioverfügbarkeit [ F ] von 3%, weshalb die maximalen Plasmaspiegel [ Cmax ] sich bei einer Interaktion tendentiell stark verändern. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] beträgt 22 Stunden und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden ungefähr nach 88 Stunden erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 97% stark. Die Metabolisierung findet unter anderem über CYP2D6 und CYP3A4 statt.
Maprotilin hat eine hohe orale Bioverfügbarkeit [ F ] von 84%, weshalb die maximalen Plasmaspiegel [ Cmax ] sich bei einer Interaktion tendentiell wenig verändern. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] ist mit 42.5 Stunden eher lang und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden erst nach mehr als 170 Stunden erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 88% mässig stark und das Verteilungsvolumen [ Vd ] ist mit 983 Liter sehr gross, da die Substanz eine tiefe hepatische Extraktionsrate von 0.09 besitzt, kann eine Verdrängung aus der Proteinbindung [Pb] im Rahmen einer Interaktion die Exposition erhöhen. Die Metabolisierung findet unter anderem über CYP1A2 und CYP2D6 statt.
|Serotonerge Effekte a||0||Ø||Ø|
Bewertung: Gemäss unseren Erkenntnissen erhöhen weder Astemizol noch Maprotilin die serotonerge Aktivität.
|Kiesel & Durán b||2||Ø||++|
Empfehlung: Insbesondere nach einer Dosiserhöhung und bei Dosierungen im oberen therapeutischen Bereich sollte vorsichtshalber auf anticholinerge Symptome geachtet werden.
Bewertung: Maprotilin moduliert das anticholinerge System in moderatem Ausmass. Das Risiko für ein anticholinerge Syndrom ist bei dieser Medikation eher als gering einzustufen, wenn die Dosierung sich im üblichen Bereich befindet. Gemäss unseren Erkenntnisse erhöht Astemizol nicht die anticholinerge Aktivität.
Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
Bewertung: In Kombination können Astemizol und Maprotilin potentiell ventrikuläre Arrhythmien vom Typ Torsades de pointes auslösen.
|Verschwommenes Sehen||8.0 %||n.a.||8.0|
Paralytischer Ileus: Maprotilin
Basierend auf Ihren
Abstract: Astemizole is a long-acting, highly selective histamine1-receptor antagonist with minimal central and anticholinergic effects. Comparison studies have shown astemizole to be equal or superior to currently available antihistamines, beclomethasone nasal spray, and cromolyn sodium in relieving allergic symptoms of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. Other uses include treatment of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria. Astemizole is not as effective for treatment of acute allergic symptoms because of its delayed onset of action. Astemizole and its active metabolite, desmethylastemizole, have long elimination half-lives permitting once-daily dosing. The incidence of sedation is lower than with conventional antihistamines, but increased appetite and weight gain do occur. Astemizole should be useful for both maintenance and prophylactic therapy in patients with chronic allergic conditions who cannot tolerate the sedative or anticholinergic effects of conventional antihistamines.
Abstract: Astemizole is an H1-histamine receptor antagonist with a long duration of action permitting once daily administration. Its efficacy in seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis has been convincingly demonstrated, and several comparative studies suggest that astemizole is at least as effective as some other H1-histamine receptor antagonists. A few smaller studies have shown beneficial effects on the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria (but not atopic dermatitis). While astemizole appears to share with other H1-histamine receptor antagonists a tendency to increase appetite and cause weight gain after prolonged use, it offers the important advantage of an absence of significant central nervous system depression or anticholinergic effects with usual doses. Thus, astemizole offers a worthwhile improvement in side effect profile over 'traditional' H1-histamine receptor antagonists, especially in patients bothered by the sedative effects of these drugs.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Six male subjects received simultaneously single 50-mg oral doses of a maprotiline hydrochloride tablet and a trideuterated maprotiline hydrochloride aqueous solution. No side effects or other problems were encountered. The blood levels of unlabeled and isotope-labeled maprotiline for each subject were essentially superimposable. Peak levels, averaging about 50 ng/ml, were attained between 8 and 24 hr after drug. The biologic t1/2 (beta-phase) averaged 58 hr for the unlabeled and 60.5 hr for the labeled drug. The total areas under the curves (extended to time infinity) averaged 3,862 and 3,944 ng . hr/ml for maprotiline and trideuterated maprotiline, respectively (differences between the two are not significant). At the 95% degree of confidence the Westlake confidence limits show less than 10% differences between the formulations with respect to area under the curve data (calculated both to 168 hr and extended to time infinity), peak blood levels, and biologic t1/2s. There were no differences between formulations with respect to times of peak concentrations. Estimates were made for apparent volumes of distribution (about 1,000 l), apparent blood clearance (about 14 l/hr), lag times (about 1.42 hr for tablets and 1.31 hr for solution), and absorption rate constants (about 0.34 hr-1 for the tablets and 0.42 hr-1 for the solution).
Abstract: The kinetics of maprotiline have been evaluated in six normal volunteers following rapid intravenous administration of 75 mg. Blood levels could be resolved using a biexponential equation. Mean estimates of half-life, volume of distribution and systemic clearance were 40 +/- 15 h, 51.7 +/- 18.01/kg and 0.92 +/- 0.24/kg/h, respectively. Blood/plasma concentrations varied between subjects from 0.77 to 1.64. A comparison of the bioavailability of two oral doses (a 75 mg tablet and three 25 mg tablets) was carried out in the same volunteers. No significant difference was observed between the maprotiline concentrations obtained for the two doses at sampling times up to 26 h. No significant difference was found in the area under the concentration vs. time curves for the two doses. Equivalent bioavailability can be assumed. On the basis of the intravenous injection study, systemic bioavailability averaged 66% and 70% for the 75 mg and three 25 mg tablets respectively.
Abstract: An overdose of astemizole predisposes the myocardium to ventricular dysrhythmias, including torsades de pointes. Herein we describe a case of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia and also review previous case reports in the literature. All the patients were young, and dysrhythmias developed only in those with corrected QT intervals greater than 500 ms. Although several mechanisms have been postulated, no clear explanation has been provided for why astemizole promotes myocardial dysrhythmias. Treatment of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes includes discontinuing use of astemizole, intravenous administration of magnesium sulfate and isoproterenol, temporary cardiac pacing, and, when necessary, direct current cardioversion. A cardiac cause of syncope or convulsions must not be overlooked, especially in patients taking H1 antagonists because they often have these symptoms before hospitalization or detection of torsades de pointes (or both).
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: A 26 year-old woman was admitted to the hospital two hours after astemizole overdose. Electrocardiograph showed a prolonged QT interval. Torsade de pointes occurred 13 h after ingestion. Plasma levels of astemizole plus hydroxylated metabolites showed an apparent plasma half-life of 17 h. The possible occurrence of torsade de pointes in astemizole overdose, and the long elimination time of astemizole and hydroxylated metabolites, makes it necessary to maintain ECG monitoring until QT interval has returned to normal.
Abstract: The authors report the case of a patient who presented with wave burst arrhythmia related to long-term treatment with maprotiline. This case is interesting, as few cases of this type of complication have been reported in patients receiving long-term tetracyclic antidepressants, and the development of such a complication indicates the need for regular electrocardiographie surveillance of patients treated with heterocyclic antidepressants. Lastly, prolonged intensive care monitoring is required in the case of maprotiline-induced wave burst arrhythmia.
Abstract: AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic itraconazole treatment on the pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of single dose astemizole in healthy subjects was studied. METHODS: Twelve male volunteers were taking orally 200 mg twice daily itraconazole or placebo for 14 days with a washout period of 4 weeks in between. Approximately 2 h after the morning dose of itraconazole or placebo on day 11, 10 mg astemizole was orally administered. The plasma concentrations of astemizole and desmethylastemizole were measured by radioimmunoassay up to 504 h after administration; electrocardiograms with analysis of the QTc interval were recorded up to 24 h post administration. RESULTS: Itraconazole treatment did not significantly change the peak concentration of astemizole (0.74 vs 0.81 ng ml-1) but it increased the area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (5.46 to 9.95 ng ml-1 h) and from 0 to infinity (17.4 to 48.2 ng ml-1 h), and the elimination half-life (2.1 to 3.6 days). The systemic bioavailability of desmethylastemizole was also increased. The QTc interval did not increase after astemizole administration and there was no difference in the QTc intervals between the itraconazole and placebo session. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic administration of itraconazole influences the metabolism of single dose astemizole in normal volunteers without changes of cardiac repolarization during the first 24 h after astemizole administration. However, the reduction in astemizole clearance under concomitant administration of itraconazole may result in a marked increase in astemizole plasma concentrations and QTc alterations during chronic combined intake of astemizole with itraconazole.
Abstract: Second-generation histamine H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines) have been developed to reduce or eliminate the sedation and anticholinergic adverse effects that occur with older H1 receptor antagonists. This article evaluates second-generation antihistamines, including acrivastine, astemizole, azelastine, cetirizine, ebastine, fexofenadine, ketotifen, loratadine, mizolastine and terfenadine, for significant features that affect choice. In addition to their primary mechanism of antagonising histamine at the H1 receptor, these agents may act on other mediators of the allergic reaction. However, the clinical significance of activity beyond that mediated by histamine H1 receptor antagonism has yet to be demonstrated. Most of the agents reviewed are metabolised by the liver to active metabolites that play a significant role in their effect. Conditions that result in accumulation of astemizole, ebastine and terfenadine may prolong the QT interval and result in torsade de pointes. The remaining agents reviewed do not appear to have this risk. For allergic rhinitis, all agents are effective and the choice should be based on other factors. For urticaria, cetirizine and mizolastine demonstrate superior suppression of wheal and flare at the dosages recommended by the manufacturer. For atopic dermatitis, as adjunctive therapy to reduce pruritus, cetirizine, ketotifen and loratadine demonstrate efficacy. Although current evidence does not suggest a primary role for these agents in the management of asthma, it does support their use for asthmatic patients when there is coexisting allergic rhinitis, dermatitis or urticaria.
Abstract: AIMS: The aims of the present study were to investigate the metabolism of astemizole in human liver microsomes, to assess possible pharmacokinetic drug-interactions with astemizole and to compare its metabolism with terfenadine, a typical H1 receptor antagonist known to be metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4. METHODS: Astemizole or terfenadine were incubated with human liver microsomes or recombinant cytochromes P450 in the absence or presence of chemical inhibitors and antibodies. RESULTS: Troleandomycin, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, markedly reduced the oxidation of terfenadine (26% of controls) in human liver microsomes, but showed only a marginal inhibition on the oxidation of astemizole (81% of controls). Three metabolites of astemizole were detected in a liver microsomal system, i.e. desmethylastemizole (DES-AST), 6-hydroxyastemizole (6OH-AST) and norastemizole (NOR-AST) at the ratio of 7.4 : 2.8 : 1. Experiments with recombinant P450s and antibodies indicate a negligible role for CYP3A4 on the main metabolic route of astemizole, i.e. formation of DES-AST, although CYP3A4 may mediate the relatively minor metabolic routes to 6OH-AST and NOR-AST. Recombinant CYP2D6 catalysed the formation of 6OH-AST and DES-AST. Studies with human liver microsomes, however, suggest a major role for a mono P450 in DES-AST formation. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to terfenadine, a minor role for CYP3A4 and involvement of multiple P450 isozymes are suggested in the metabolism of astemizole. These differences in P450 isozymes involved in the metabolism of astemizole and terfenadine may associate with distinct pharmacokinetic influences observed with coadministration of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: From case reports of patients treated with the tetracyclic antidepressant drug maprotiline, it appears that this drug is subject to polymorphic metabolism. Thus, we studied formation of the major maprotiline metabolite desmethylmaprotiline to identify the human cytochrome P-450 enzymes (CYP) involved. In incubations with human liver microsomes from two different donors, the substrate maprotiline was used at five different concentrations (5 to 500 microM). For selective inhibition of CYPs, quinidine (0.5-50 microM; CYP2D6), furafylline (0.3-30 microM; CYP1A2), ketoconazole (0.2-20 microM; CYP3A4), mephenytoin (20-200 microM; CYP2C19), chlorzoxazone (1-100 microM; CYP2E1), sulphaphenazole (0.2-100 microM; CYP2C9) and coumarin (0.2-100 microM; CYP2A6) were used. Desmethylmaprotiline concentrations were measured by HPLC, and enzyme kinetic parameters were estimated using extended Michaelis-Menten equations with non-linear regression. Relevant inhibition of the desmethylmaprotiline formation rate was observed in incubations with quinidine, furafylline and ketoconazole only. Formation rates of desmethylmaprotiline were consistent with a two enzyme model with a high (K(M)=71 and 84 microM) and a low (K(M)=531 and 426 microM) affinity site for maprotiline in the two samples, respectively. The high affinity site was competitively inhibited by quinidine (K(i,nc) 0.13 and 0.61 microM), the low-affinity site was non-competitively inhibited by furafylline (K(i,nc) 0.11 and 1.3 microM). Thus it appears that CYP2D6 and CYPIA2 contribute to maprotiline demethylation. Based on the parameters obtained, for plasma concentrations of 1 microM 83% (mean) of desmethylmaprotiline formation in vivo is expected to be mediated by CYP2D6 while 17% only may be attributed to CYPIA2 activity.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.