Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
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Eklärungen für Patienten zu den Wirkstoffen
Für die Kombination von Montelukast, Cimetidin und Roflumilast liegen uns keine zusätzlichen Warnhinweise vor. Bitte konsultieren Sie zusätzlich die jeweiligen Fachinformationen.
|Montelukast||1.06 [1.06,10.68] 1||1.06||1|
Die genannten Expositionsveränderungen beziehen sich jeweils auf Veränderungen der Plasmakonzentrations-Zeit-Kurve [ AUC ]. Die Exposition von Montelukast erhöht sich auf 106%, wenn eine Kombination mit Cimetidin (106%) und Roflumilast (100%) erfolgt. Eine Veränderung der Exposition von Cimetidin haben wir nicht erkannt. Den Einfluss von Montelukast und Roflumilast können wir aktuell nicht abschätzen. Die Exposition von Roflumilast erhöht sich auf 150%, wenn eine Kombination mit Montelukast (96%) und Cimetidin (161%) erfolgt.
Für die Berechnung der individuellen Expositionsveränderungen durch die Wechselwirkungen werden als Ausgangsbasis die pharmakokinetischen Parameter der durchschnittlichen Population verwendet.
Montelukast hat eine mittlere orale Bioverfügbarkeit [ F ] von 64%, weshalb die maximalen Plasmaspiegel [ Cmax ] sich bei einer Interaktion tendentiell verändern. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] ist mit 4.1 Stunden eher kurz und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden schnell erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 99.7% sehr stark und das Verteilungsvolumen [ Vd ] ist mit 10 Liter klein, Die Metabolisierung findet unter anderem über CYP2C8, CYP2C9 und CYP3A4 statt und der aktive Transport erfolgt insbesondere über OATP1B1. Unter anderem ist Montelukast ein Induktor von CYP1A2.
Cimetidin hat eine mittlere orale Bioverfügbarkeit [ F ] von 65%, weshalb die maximalen Plasmaspiegel [ Cmax ] sich bei einer Interaktion tendentiell verändern. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] ist mit 1.6333333 Stunden eher kurz und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden schnell erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 19% sehr schwach und das Verteilungsvolumen [ Vd ] ist mit 91 Liter sehr gross. Die Metabolisierung erfolgt nicht über die gängigen Cytochrome und der aktive Transport erfolgt zum Teil über BCRP und PGP. Unter anderem ist Cimetidin ein Hemmer von CYP3A4 und CYP1A2.
Roflumilast hat eine mittlere orale Bioverfügbarkeit [ F ] von 79%, weshalb die maximalen Plasmaspiegel [ Cmax ] sich bei einer Interaktion tendentiell verändern. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] beträgt 14.8 Stunden und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden ungefähr nach 59.2 Stunden erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 99% sehr stark und das Verteilungsvolumen [ Vd ] ist mit 204 Liter sehr gross, da die Substanz eine tiefe hepatische Extraktionsrate von 0.11 besitzt, kann eine Verdrängung aus der Proteinbindung [Pb] im Rahmen einer Interaktion die Exposition erhöhen. Die Metabolisierung findet unter anderem über CYP1A2 und CYP3A4 statt. Unter anderem ist Roflumilast ein Hemmer von BCRP.
|Serotonerge Effekte a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Bewertung: Gemäss unseren Erkenntnissen erhöhen weder Montelukast, Cimetidin noch Roflumilast die serotonerge Aktivität.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||Ø||+||Ø|
Empfehlung: Insbesondere nach einer Dosiserhöhung und bei Dosierungen im oberen therapeutischen Bereich sollte vorsichtshalber auf anticholinerge Symptome geachtet werden.
Bewertung: Cimetidin beeinflusst das anticholinerge System nur mild. Das Risiko für ein anticholinerge Syndrom ist bei dieser Medikation eher als gering einzustufen, wenn die Dosierung sich im üblichen Bereich befindet. Gemäss unseren Erkenntnissen erhöhen weder Montelukast noch Roflumilast die anticholinerge Aktivität.
Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
Empfehlung: Bitte achten Sie darauf, dass beeinflussbare Risikofaktoren minimiert werden. Elektrolytstörungen, wie tiefe Werte von Calcium, Kalium und Magnesium sollten ausgeglichen werden. Die niedrigst wirksame Dosis von Cimetidin sollte eingesetzt werden.
Bewertung: Cimetidin kann potentiell die QT-Zeit verlängern und bei Vorliegen von Risikofaktoren können Arrhythmien vom Typ Torsades de pointes begünstigt werden. Für Montelukast und Roflumilast ist uns kein QT-Zeit verlängerndes Potential bekannt.
|Verlust von Appetit||2.1 %||n.a.||n.a.||2.1|
Infektion der oberen Atemwege: Montelukast
Aggressives Verhalten: Montelukast
Suizidalität: Montelukast, Roflumilast
Basierend auf Ihren
Abstract: Recently, the use of astemizole and terfenadine, both non-sedating H1-antihistamines, caused considerable concern. Several case reports suggested an association of both drugs with an increased risk of torsades de pointes, a special form of ventricular tachycardia. The increased risk of both H1-antihistamines was associated with exposure to supratherapeutic doses; for terfenadine the risk was also associated with concomitant exposure to the cytochrome P-450 inhibitors ketoconazole, erythromycin and cimetidine. To predict the size of the population that runs the risk of developing this potentially fatal adverse reaction in the Netherlands, the prevalence of prescribing supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was studied. Data were obtained from the PHARMO data base in 1990, a pharmacy-based record linkage system encompassing a catchment population of 300,000 individuals. The results of the study showed that the prescribing of supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was low. Furthermore, the results of a sensitivity analysis showed that the risk of fatal torsades de pointes has to be as high as 1 in 10,000 to cause one death in the Netherlands in one year.
Abstract: Astemizole (Hismanal), an antihistamine agent, has been reported to be associated with ventricular arrhythmias. In this paper we present a case of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) in a 77-year-old woman who had been taking astemizole (10 mg/day) for 6 months because of allergic skin disease. At the time of admission, the serum concentration of astemizole and its metabolites was markedly elevated at 15.85 ng/ml, approximately 3 times the normal level. The patient was also taking cimetidine, a known inhibitor of cytochrome P-450 enzymatic activity, and during her admission was diagnosed as having vasospastic angina. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of astemizole-induced QT prolongation and TdP in Japan.
Abstract: Renal drug interactions can result from competitive inhibition between drugs that undergo extensive renal tubular secretion by transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of itraconazole, a known P-gp inhibitor, on the renal tubular secretion of cimetidine in healthy volunteers who received intravenous cimetidine alone and following 3 days of oral itraconazole (400 mg/day) administration. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured continuously during each study visit using iothalamate clearance. Iothalamate, cimetidine, and itraconazole concentrations in plasma and urine were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet (HPLC/UV) methods. Renal tubular secretion (CL(sec)) of cimetidine was calculated as the difference between renal clearance (CL(r)) and GFR (CL(ioth)) on days 1 and 5. Cimetidine pharmacokinetic estimates were obtained for total clearance (CL(T)), volume of distribution (Vd), elimination rate constant (K(el)), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-240 min)), and average plasma concentration (Cp(ave)) before and after itraconazole administration. Plasma itraconazole concentrations following oral dosing ranged from 0.41 to 0.92 microg/mL. The cimetidine AUC(0-240 min) increased by 25% (p < 0.01) following itraconazole administration. The GFR and Vd remained unchanged, but significant reductions in CL(T) (655 vs. 486 mL/min, p < 0.001) and CL(sec) (410 vs. 311 mL/min, p = 0.001) were observed. The increased systemic exposure of cimetidine during coadministration with itraconazole was likely due to inhibition of P-gp-mediated renal tubular secretion. Further evaluation of renal P-gp-modulating drugs such as itraconazole that may alter the renal excretion of coadministered drugs is warranted.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of steady-state dosing of fluvoxamine, an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 and CYP2C19, on the pharmacokinetics of roflumilast, an oral, once-daily phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor and its pharmacodynamically active metabolite roflumilast N-oxide. METHODS: In an open-label, non-randomised, one-sequence, two-period, two-treatment crossover study, 14 healthy subjects received a single oral dose of roflumilast 500 microg on study day 1. After a 6-day washout period, repeated doses of fluvoxamine 50 mg once daily were given from days 8 to 21. On day 15, roflumilast 500 microg and fluvoxamine 50 mg were taken concomitantly. Percentage ratios of test/reference (reference: roflumilast alone; test: roflumilast plus steady-state fluvoxamine) of geometric means and their 90% confidence intervals for area under the plasma concentration-time curve, maximum plasma concentration (roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide) and plasma clearance of roflumilast were calculated. RESULTS: Upon co-administration with steady-state fluvoxamine, the exposure to roflumilast as well as roflumilast N-oxide increased by a factor of 2.6 and 1.5, respectively. Roflumilast plasma clearance decreased by a factor of 2.6, from 9.06 L/h (reference) to 3.53 L/h (test). The combined effect of fluvoxamine co-administration on roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide exposures resulted in a moderate (i.e. 59%) increase in total PDE4 inhibitory activity. CONCLUSION: Co-administration of roflumilast and fluvoxamine affects the disposition of roflumilast and its active metabolite roflumilast N-oxide most likely via a potent dual pathway inhibition of CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 by fluvoxamine. The exposure increases observed for roflumilast N-oxide are suggested to be attributable to CYP2C19 co-inhibition by fluvoxamine and thus, are not to be expected to occur when roflumilast is co-administered with more selective CYP1A2 inhibitors.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.
Abstract: Effects of single and multiple doses of oral ketoconazole on roflumilast and its active metabolite, roflumilast N-oxide, were investigated in healthy subjects. In study 1, subjects (n = 26) received oral roflumilast 500 microg once daily for 11 days and a concomitant 200-mg single dose of ketoconazole on day 11. In study 2, subjects (n = 16) received oral roflumilast 500 microg on days 1 and 11 and a repeated dose of ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily from days 8 to 20. Coadministration of single-dose ketoconazole with steady-state roflumilast increased the AUC of roflumilast by 34%; C(max) was unchanged. For roflumilast N-oxide, AUC and C(max) decreased by 12% and 20%, respectively. Repeated doses of ketoconazole increased the AUC and C(max) of roflumilast by 99% and 23%, respectively; for roflumilast N-oxide, AUC was unchanged, and C(max) decreased by 38%. No clinically relevant adverse events were observed. Coadministration of ketoconazole and roflumilast does not require dose adjustment of roflumilast.
Abstract: This nonrandomized, fixed-sequence, 2-period crossover study investigated potential pharmacokinetic interactions between the phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor roflumilast, currently in clinical development for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the histamine 2 agonist cimetidine. Participants received roflumilast, 500 µg once daily, on days 1 and 13. Cimetidine, 400 mg twice daily, was administered from days 6 to 16. Pharmacokinetic analysis of roflumilast and its active metabolite roflumilast N-oxide was performed, and the ratio of geometric means for roflumilast alone and concomitantly with steady-state cimetidine was calculated. The effect of cimetidine on the total PDE4 inhibitory activity (tPDE4i; total exposure to roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide) was also calculated. Coadministration of steady-state cimetidine increased mean tPDE4i of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide by about 47%. The maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) of roflumilast increased by about 46%, with no effect on C(max) of roflumilast N-oxide. The increase in tPDE4i of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide following coadministration with cimetidine was mainly due to the inhibitory effect of cimetidine on cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes CYP1A2, CYP3A, and CYP2C19. These moderate changes indicate that dose adjustment of roflumilast is not required when coadministered with a weak inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP3A, and CYP2C19, such as cimetidine.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To establish basic intravenous (IV) pharmacokinetics of roflumilast (ROF) and its pharmacologically active metabolite roflumilast N-oxide (R-NO) and to determine the absolute bioavailability of ROF in humans. MATERIALS: In a randomized, open-label, 2-period, 2-sequence crossover study 12 healthy male subjects were randomized to receive ROF either orally (PO) 500 µg (immediate release tablets) or single IV (150 µg over 15 min). Plasma concentrations were determined. Dose-adjusted point estimates and 90% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the ratio of the AUC time curves using a multiplicative model and parametric analysis. RESULTS: After IV administration, clearance of ROF was 0.14 l/h/kg, volume of distribution (Vd area) 2.92 l/kg, and the terminal t1/2 was 14.8 h. After PO administration, ROF was rapidly absorbed; the absolute bioavailability was 79%. The AUC of the R-NO metabolite generally exceeded that of ROF. After IV and PO administration, the metabolic ratios were 7.4 and 12.4, respectively. Dose-adjusted analysis of the R-NO AUC values indicate a 21% higher R-NO formation seen with PO vs. IV, suggesting entire first-pass conversion of ROF is to the active R-NO. Formation/clearance processes of the R-NO appear to be slow with an observed tmax of 6.9 - 8.8 h, and corresponding to apparent t1/2 values of 22.7 h and 20.6 h, after IV and PO administration, respectively. CONCLUSION: ROF is rapidly absorbed after PO administration and exhibits high absolute bioavailability and low clearance pharmacokinetics. The total exposure of R-NO exceeds that of ROF by a factor of 12 after oral administration.
Abstract: According to published in vitro studies, cytochrome P450 3A4 catalyzes montelukast 21-hydroxylation (M5 formation), whereas CYP2C9 catalyzes 36-hydroxylation (M6), the primary step in the main metabolic pathway of montelukast. However, montelukast is a selective competitive CYP2C8 inhibitor, and our recent in vivo studies suggest that CYP2C8 is involved in its metabolism. We therefore reevaluated the contributions of different cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes, particularly that of CYP2C8, to the hepatic microsomal metabolism of montelukast using clinically relevant substrate concentrations in vitro. The effects of P450 isoform inhibitors on montelukast metabolism were examined using pooled human liver microsomes, and montelukast oxidations by human recombinant CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 were investigated. The results verified the central role of CYP3A4 in M5 formation. The CYP2C8 inhibitors gemfibrozil 1-O-β glucuronide and trimethoprim inhibited the depletion of 0.02 μM montelukast and formation of M6 from 0.05 μM montelukast more potently than did the CYP2C9 inhibitor sulfaphenazole. Likewise, recombinant CYP2C8 catalyzed montelukast depletion and M6 formation at a 6 times higher intrinsic clearance than did CYP2C9, whereas other P450 isoforms produced no M6. On the basis of depletion of 0.02 μM montelukast, CYP2C8 was estimated to account for 72% of the oxidative metabolism of montelukast in vivo, with a 16% contribution for CYP3A4 and 12% for CYP2C9. Moreover, CYP2C8 catalyzed the further metabolism of M6 more actively than did any other P450. In conclusion, CYP2C8 plays a major role in the main metabolic pathway of montelukast at clinically relevant montelukast concentrations in vitro.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Roflumilast is a novel, orally active, selective phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor recently approved in the European Union for the treatment of severe COPD. Roflumilast and its metabolites are mainly (70% of total radioactivity) eliminated via the kidneys as glucuronides. The potential impact of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of roflumilast and its active main metabolite roflumilast N-oxide were characterized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients (n = 12) with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance CL(CR) < 30 ml/ min/1.73 m²; otherwise healthy) and matched (sex, age, weight, and height) healthy control subjects (n = 12; CL(CR) > 80 ml/min/1.73 m²) were enrolled into an open-label, parallelgroup study. Single dose (500 μg, p.o.) pharmacokinetics and safety/tolerability of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide were compared between both groups. RESULTS: A minor decrease of exposure (area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(0-∞)), maximum plasma concentration (C(max))) and a small increase in elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of roflumilast (-1%; -6%; +19%, respectively) and roflumilast N-oxide (-%; ND; +30%, respectively) were observed in renally impaired patients compared with healthy subjects. No relevant differences in safety and tolerability were observed between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The pharmacokinetic changes observed in patients with renal impairment are of small magnitude without clinical importance. A dose adjustment or a change in the administration interval of roflumilast is not necessary in patients with renal impairment.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Roflumilast is a selective, oral phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor approved for the treatment of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide in healthy Chinese subjects, and the effects of gender and food on their respective pharmacokinetic profiles. METHODS: 36 healthy Chinese subjects were recruited in a randomized, single-center, open-label, parallel group study and assigned to 0.25-, 0.375-, and 0.5-mg dose groups. The single-dose pharmacokinetic studies in fasting condition were carried out in all groups. Moreover, the food effect study and multiple-dose study were conducted in 0.375-mg dose group. Serial blood samples were collected over 168 h after dosing, and plasma concentrations of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide were determined using a validated LC-MS/MS method. RESULTS: After oral administration of single doses of 0.25, 0.375 and 0.5 mg of roflumilast under fasting condition, the mean AUC,for roflumilast was 21.7 ± 8.3, 29.8 ± 8.3 and 54.2 ± 21.3 ng·h/mL, respectively. Meanwhile the mean AUC,for roflumilast N-oxide was 290 ± 103, 385 ± 107 and 673 ± 245 ng·h/mL, respectively. In the steady state after the multi-dose administration, the exposure to roflumilast in the subjects increased 20-40 %, and the exposure to roflumilast N-oxide increased about 169 %, compared to the single-dose administration. No statistically significant effect of gender on the disposition of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide was observed. Food had no effect on systemic exposure to roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide in the subjects, but delayed the T,of roflumilast by 0.9 h and reduced the C,of roflumilast by approximately 20 %. CONCLUSION: Based upon between-study comparison, peak and systemic exposure of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide were higher in Chinese than that in Caucasian subjects after oral administration of the same dose (i.e., 0.25 and 0.5 mg). It implies that the therapeutic dose for Chinese patients may be different from that for Caucasians, warranting further investigation.
Abstract: Montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist commonly prescribed for treatment of asthma, is primarily metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C8, and has been suggested as a probe substrate for investigating CYP2C8 activity in vivo. We evaluated the quantitative role of hepatic uptake transport in its pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Montelukast was characterized with significant active uptake in human hepatocytes, and showed affinity towards organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) in transfected cell systems. Single-dose rifampicin, an OATP inhibitor, decreased montelukast clearance in rats and monkeys. Clinical DDIs of montelukast were evaluated using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling; and simulation of the interactions with gemfibrozil-CYP2C8 and OATP1B1/1B3 inhibitor, clarithromycin-CYP3A and OATP1B1/1B3 inhibitor, and itraconazole-CYP3A inhibitor, implicated OATPs-CYP2C8-CYP2C8 interplay as the primary determinant of montelukast pharmacokinetics. In conclusion, hepatic uptake plays a key role in the pharmacokinetics of montelukast, which should be taken into account when interpreting clinical interactions.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: Purpose: To determine the pharmacokinetic properties of the common tablet of roflumilast administered in single and multiple oral doses in Chinese subjects. Subjects and methods: Both the single- and multiple-dose studies included 12 adults (6 males and 6 females). In this single-center, open-label study, single doses of 0.25, 0.375, and 0.5 mg were administered using a randomized, three-way crossover design, and then, the 0.375 mg dose was continued for 11 days once daily. The pharmacokinetic parameters for roflumilast and roflumilast,-oxide were determined and the safety evaluation included adverse events assessed by monitoring, physical examination, vital sign tests, and clinical laboratory tests. Results: After every single dose, the time to the maximum concentration (,) of roflumilast (,) was 0.25-2.0 hours; thereafter, the concentration declined, with a mean half-life (,) of 19.7-20.9 hours over the range of 0.25-0.50 mg. As for roflumilast,-oxide, the mean,was 23.2-26.2 hours. The area under curve from the beginning to 24 hours (AUC,), the AUC until infinity (AUC,), and the,of roflumilast and roflumilast,-oxide increased in a dose-proportional manner. After multiple doses, the accumulation index (R,) on the 11th day of the steady state was ~1.63 for roflumilast and 3.20 for roflumilast,-oxide. No significant sex differences were observed in the pharmacokinetic parameters of roflumilast and roflumilast,-oxide. In addition, there were no serious adverse events across the trial. Conclusion: Roflumilast was safe and well-tolerated in healthy volunteers, and a linear increase in its,and AUC values was observed at doses ranging from 0.25 to 0.50 mg.