Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
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Eklärungen für Patienten zu den Wirkstoffen
Monitorisierung von Ciprofloxacin und Zolpidem empfohlen.
Erhöhte ZoplidemkonzentrationenMechanismus: Zolpidem wird wesentlich über die CYP-Isoenzyme CYP3A4 und CYP1A2 metabolisiert. Ciprofloxacin ist ein starker Inhibitor von CYP1A2 und hemmt zusätzlich auch CYP3A4. Durch Hemmung dieser Abbauwege kann es zu erhöhten Konzentrationen von Zolpidem kommen.
Effekt: Unter Ciprofloxacin kann es zu einer Erhöhung der Zoplidemkonzentration kommen. In einer pharmakokinetischen Studie wurde unter Ciprofloxacin eine Erhöhung der Bioverfügbarkeit von Zolpidem um 46% beobachtet. Eine Erhöhung der Cmax, eine Verlängerung der Tmax und t1/2 sowie eine signifikante Erhöhung der AUC um das 1,46fache wurden gezeigt.
Massnahmen: In der Fachinformation (Zolpidem) wird von einer Kombination mit Ciprofloxacin abgeraten. Falls die Kombination erforderlich ist, möglichst niedrige Zolpidem-Dosis einsetzen bzw. bei Hinzufügen von Ciprofloxacin zu einer bestehenden Zolpidem-Therapie Dosis von Zolpidem reduzieren und auf verstärkte UAW achten (verstärkte Sedation, Halluzinationen, Amnesie).
Die genannten Expositionsveränderungen beziehen sich jeweils auf Veränderungen der Plasmakonzentrations-Zeit-Kurve [ AUC ]. Eine Veränderung der Exposition von Ciprofloxacin haben wir nicht erkannt, wenn eine Kombination mit Zolpidem (100%) erfolgt. Den Einfluss von Clarithromycin können wir aktuell nicht abschätzen. Die Exposition von Zolpidem erhöht sich auf 218%, wenn eine Kombination mit Ciprofloxacin (173%) und Clarithromycin (130%) erfolgt. Dadurch können vermehrt Nebenwirkungen auftreten. Die Exposition von Clarithromycin erhöht sich auf 121%, wenn eine Kombination mit Ciprofloxacin (121%) und Zolpidem (100%) erfolgt.
Für die Berechnung der individuellen Expositionsveränderungen durch die Wechselwirkungen werden als Ausgangsbasis die pharmakokinetischen Parameter der durchschnittlichen Population verwendet.
Ciprofloxacin hat eine mittlere orale Bioverfügbarkeit [ F ] von 70%, weshalb die maximalen Plasmaspiegel [ Cmax ] sich bei einer Interaktion tendentiell verändern. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] ist mit 3.5 Stunden eher kurz und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden schnell erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 30% sehr schwach. Ungefähr 55.0% einer verabreichten Dosis werden unverändert über die Niere ausgeschieden und dieser Anteil wird selten durch Interaktionen verändert. Die Metabolisierung findet vor allem über CYP1A2 statt und der aktive Transport erfolgt zum Teil über BCRP, OATP1A2 und PGP. Unter anderem ist Ciprofloxacin ein Hemmer von CYP3A4 und CYP1A2.
Clarithromycin hat eine mittlere orale Bioverfügbarkeit [ F ] von 53%, weshalb die maximalen Plasmaspiegel [ Cmax ] sich bei einer Interaktion tendentiell verändern. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] ist mit 4.6 Stunden eher kurz und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden schnell erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 70% eher schwach und das Verteilungsvolumen [ Vd ] ist mit 176 Liter sehr gross. da die Substanz eine tiefe hepatische Extraktionsrate von 0.13 besitzt, kann eine Verdrängung aus der Proteinbindung [Pb] im Rahmen einer Interaktion die Exposition erhöhen. Ungefähr 27.5% einer verabreichten Dosis werden unverändert über die Niere ausgeschieden und dieser Anteil wird selten durch Interaktionen verändert. Die Metabolisierung findet vor allem über CYP3A4 statt und der aktive Transport erfolgt insbesondere über PGP. Unter anderem ist Clarithromycin ein Hemmer von PGP und CYP3A4.
Zolpidem hat eine mittlere orale Bioverfügbarkeit [ F ] von 70%, weshalb die maximalen Plasmaspiegel [ Cmax ] sich bei einer Interaktion tendentiell verändern. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] ist mit 2 Stunden eher kurz und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden schnell erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 92% mässig stark und das Verteilungsvolumen [ Vd ] liegt mit 43 Liter im mittleren Bereich, da die Substanz eine tiefe hepatische Extraktionsrate von 0.23 besitzt, kann eine Verdrängung aus der Proteinbindung [Pb] im Rahmen einer Interaktion die Exposition erhöhen. Die Metabolisierung findet unter anderem über CYP1A2, CYP2C9 und CYP3A4 statt.
|Serotonerge Effekte a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Bewertung: Gemäss unseren Erkenntnissen erhöhen weder Ciprofloxacin, Clarithromycin noch Zolpidem die serotonerge Aktivität.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Bewertung: Gemäss unseren Erkenntnissen erhöhen weder Ciprofloxacin, Clarithromycin noch Zolpidem die anticholinerge Aktivität.
Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
Bewertung: In Kombination können Ciprofloxacin und Clarithromycin potentiell ventrikuläre Arrhythmien vom Typ Torsades de pointes auslösen. Für Zolpidem ist uns kein QT-Zeit verlängerndes Potential bekannt.
Dyspepsie (4%): Clarithromycin
Clostridium difficile Durchfall: Clarithromycin, Ciprofloxacin
Nasenausfluss (3%): Ciprofloxacin
Verschwommenes Sehen (3%): Zolpidem
Hautausschlag (1.8%): Ciprofloxacin
Toxische epidermale Nekrolyse: Clarithromycin, Ciprofloxacin
Stevens Johnson-Syndrom: Clarithromycin, Ciprofloxacin
Müdigkeit (1.6%): Zolpidem
Hepatotoxizität: Clarithromycin, Ciprofloxacin, Zolpidem
Pankreatitis: Clarithromycin, Ciprofloxacin
Cholestatische Hepatitis: Clarithromycin, Zolpidem
Krampfanfall: Ciprofloxacin, Zolpidem
Periphere Neuropathie: Ciprofloxacin
Pseudotumor cerebri: Ciprofloxacin
Erhöhter Hirndruck: Ciprofloxacin
Beeinträchtigte Kognition: Zolpidem
Anaphylaktische Reaktion: Clarithromycin
Halluzinationen: Ciprofloxacin, Zolpidem
Suizidalität: Ciprofloxacin, Zolpidem
Hämorrhagische Blasenentzündung: Ciprofloxacin
Tubulointerstitielle Nephritis: Ciprofloxacin
Leukopenie: Clarithromycin, Ciprofloxacin
Aplastische Anämie: Ciprofloxacin
Hämolytische Anämie: Ciprofloxacin
Myasthenia gravis: Ciprofloxacin
Basierend auf Ihren
Abstract: Zolpidem is an imidazopyridine which differs in structure from the benzodiazepines and zopiclone. It is a strong sedative with only minor anxiolytic, myorelaxant and anticonvulsant properties, and has been shown to be effective in inducing and maintaining sleep in adults. The available evidence suggests that zolpidem produces no rebound or withdrawal effects, and patients have experienced good daytime alertness. Zolpidem 10mg in non-elderly and a reduced dose of 5mg in elderly individuals are clinically effective. In humans, the major metabolic routes include oxidation and hydroxylation; none of the metabolites appears to be pharmacologically active. The pharmacological activity of zolpidem results from selective binding to the central benzodiazepine receptors of the omega 1 subtype. Zolpidem is approximately 92% bound to plasma proteins; absolute bio-availability of zolpidem is about 70%. After single 20mg oral doses, typical values of pharmacokinetic variables for zolpidem in humans are: a peak plasma concentration of 192 to 324 micrograms/L occurring 0.75 to 2.6 hours postdose; a terminal elimination half-line of 1.5 to 3.2 hours; and total clearance of 0.24 to 0.27 ml/min/kg. Zolpidem pharmacokinetics are unchanged during multiple-dose treatment. Zolpidem pharmacokinetics are not significantly influenced by gender. Clearance of zolpidem in children is 3 times higher than in young adults, and is lower in very elderly people. There are no significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters between various racial groups. Dosage reduction appears to be prudent in patients with renal disease, and caution should be exercised when prescribing zolpidem to elderly patients with hepatic impairment. Coadministration of haloperidol, cimetidine, ranitidine, chlorpromazine, warfarin, digoxin or flumazenil do not alter the pharmacokinetics of zolpidem; flumazenil predictably antagonises the hypnotic effects of zolpidem. Alertness tends to be reduced when cimetidine is combined with zolpidem. Volunteers treated with imipramine plus zolpidem developed anterograde amnesia.
Abstract: Erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin are clinically effective for the treatment of common respiratory and skin/skin-structure infections. Erythromycin and azithromycin are also effective for treatment of nongonococcal urethritis and cervicitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis. Compared with erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin offer improved tolerability. Clarithromycin, however, is more similar to erythromycin in pharmacokinetic measures such as half-life, tissue distribution, and drug interactions. Misunderstandings about differences among the macrolides (erythromycin and clarithromycin) and the azalide (azithromycin) in terms of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, spectrum of activity, safety, and cost are common. The uptake and release of these compounds by white blood cells and fibroblasts account for differences in tissue half-life, volume of distribution, intracellular:extracellular ratio, and in vivo potency. Although microbiologic studies reveal that gram-positive pathogens are equally susceptible to these agents, significantly more isolates of Haemophilus influenzae are susceptible to azithromycin than to erythromycin or clarithromycin. Concentrations achieved at the infection site and duration above the minimum inhibitory concentration are as important as in vitro activity in determining in vivo activity against bacterial pathogens. Analysis of safety data indicates differences among these agents in drug interactions and use in pregnancy. Analysis of safety data reveals pharmacokinetic drug interactions for erythromycin and clarithromycin with theophylline, terfenadine, and carbamazepine that are not found with azithromycin. Both erythromycin and azithromycin are pregnancy category B drugs; clarithromycin is a category C drug. The numerous differences in pharmacokinetics, microbiology, safety, and costs among erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin can be used in the judicious selection of treatment for indicated infections.
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of intravenous ciprofloxacin and its metabolites were characterized in 42 subjects with various degrees of renal function (group 1, Clcr (mL/min/1.73 m2) > 90, n = 10; group 2, Clcr 61-90, n = 11; group 3, Clcr 31-60, n = 11; group 4, Clcr < or = 30, n = 10). The dosage regimens were-groups 1 and 2: 400 mg i.v. at 8 hourly intervals; group 3: 400 mg i.v. at 12 hourly intervals and group 4: 300 mg i.v. at 12 hourly intervals. Subjects received a single dose on days 1 and 5 and multiple doses on days 2-4. Multiple plasma and urine samples were collected on days 1 and 5 for the analysis of ciprofloxacin and its metabolites (M1, M2 and M3). Plasma concentrations (Cmax and AUC) of ciprofloxacin and its M1 and M2 metabolites were significantly increased in subjects with reduced Clcr values (Clcr < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) compared with normal subjects (Clcr > 90 mL/min/1.73 m2). A positive correlation was observed between ciprofloxacin clearance (Cl) and Clcr with a slope of 0.29 (r2 = 0.78) and between renal clearance (Clr) and Clcr with a slope of 0.19 (r2 = 0.84). For patients with severe infections a dosage regimen of 400 mg iv 8 hourly is appropriate in patients with Clcr > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. In patients with Clcr values of 31-60 mL/min/1.73 m2 a dosage regimen of 400 mg 12 hourly provides similar plasma concentrations to those observed for subjects with Clcr 61-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 receiving 400 mg 8 hourly. Based on modeling of the plasma concentrations in subjects with Clcr < or = 30 ml/min/1.73 m2, a dosage regimen of 400 mg every 24 h will provide plasma concentrations similar to those observed in subjects with Clcr between 61-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 given 400 mg every 8 h.
Abstract: To investigate whether grapefruit juice inhibits the metabolism of clarithromycin, 12 healthy subjects were given water or grapefruit juice before and after a clarithromycin dose of 500 mg in a randomized crossover study. Administration of grapefruit juice increased the time to peak concentration of both clarithromycin (82 +/- 35 versus 148 +/- 83 min; P = 0.02) and 14-hydroxyclarithromycin (84 +/- 38 min versus 173 +/- 85; P = 0.01) but did not affect other pharmacokinetic parameters.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Azole antifungal agents may impair hepatic clearance of drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450-3A isoforms. The imidazopyridine hypnotic agent zolpidem is metabolized in humans in part by P450-3A, as well as by a number of other cytochromes. Potential interactions of zolpidem with 3 commonly prescribed azole derivatives were evaluated in a controlled clinical study. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, 5-way, crossover, clinical pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic study, 12 volunteers received (A) zolpidem placebo plus azole placebo, (B) 5 mg zolpidem plus azole placebo (C) zolpidem plus ketoconazole, (D) zolpidem plus itraconazole, and (E) zolpidem plus fluconazole. RESULTS: Mean apparent oral clearance of zolpidem when given with placebo was 422 mL/min, and elimination half-life was 1.9 hours. Clearance was significantly reduced to 250 mL/min when zolpidem was given with ketoconazole, and half-life was prolonged to 2.4 hours. Coadministration of zolpidem with itraconazole or fluconazole also reduced clearance (320 and 338 mL/min), but differences compared to the zolpidem plus placebo treatment did not reach significance. Zolpidem-induced benzodiazepine agonist effects (increased electrocardiographic beta activity, digit-symbol substitution test impairment, and delayed recall) during the first 4 hours after dosage were enhanced by ketoconazole but not by itraconazole or fluconazole. CONCLUSION: Coadministration of zolpidem with ketoconazole impairs zolpidem clearance and enhances its benzodiazepine-like agonist pharmacodynamic effects. Itraconazole and fluconazole had a small influence on zolpidem kinetics and dynamics. The findings are consistent with in vitro studies of differentially impaired zolpidem metabolism by azole derivatives.
Abstract: Twenty-nine drugs of disparate structures and physicochemical properties were used in an examination of the capability of human liver microsomal lability data ("in vitro T(1/2)" approach) to be useful in the prediction of human clearance. Additionally, the potential importance of nonspecific binding to microsomes in the in vitro incubation milieu for the accurate prediction of human clearance was investigated. The compounds examined demonstrated a wide range of microsomal metabolic labilities with scaled intrinsic clearance values ranging from less than 0.5 ml/min/kg to 189 ml/min/kg. Microsomal binding was determined at microsomal protein concentrations used in the lability incubations. For the 29 compounds studied, unbound fractions in microsomes ranged from 0.11 to 1.0. Generally, basic compounds demonstrated the greatest extent of binding and neutral and acidic compounds the least extent of binding. In the projection of human clearance values, basic and neutral compounds were well predicted when all binding considerations (blood and microsome) were disregarded, however, including both binding considerations also yielded reasonable predictions. Including only blood binding yielded very poor projections of human clearance for these two types of compounds. However, for acidic compounds, disregarding all binding considerations yielded poor predictions of human clearance. It was generally most difficult to accurately predict clearance for this class of compounds; however the accuracy was best when all binding considerations were included. Overall, inclusion of both blood and microsome binding values gave the best agreement between in vivo clearance values and clearance values projected from in vitro intrinsic clearance data.
Abstract: Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibacterial that differs in chemical structure from erythromycin by the methylation of the hydroxyl group at position 6 on the lactone ring. The pharmacokinetic advantages that clarithromycin has over erythromycin include increased oral bioavailability (52 to 55%), increased plasma concentrations (mean maximum concentrations ranged from 1.01 to 1.52 mg/L and 2.41 to 2.85 mg/L after multiple 250 and 500 mg doses, respectively), and a longer elimination half-life (3.3 to 4.9 hours) to allow twice daily administration. In addition, clarithromycin has extensive diffusion into saliva, sputum, lung tissue, epithelial lining fluid, alveolar macrophages, neutrophils, tonsils, nasal mucosa and middle ear fluid. Clarithromycin is primarily metabolised by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A isozymes and has an active metabolite, 14-hydroxyclarithromycin. The reported mean values of total body clearance and renal clearance in adults have ranged from 29.2 to 58.1 L/h and 6.7 to 12.8 L/h, respectively. In patients with severe renal impairment, increased plasma concentrations and a prolonged elimination half-life for clarithromycin and its metabolite have been reported. A dosage adjustment for clarithromycin should be considered in patients with a creatinine clearance < 1.8 L/h. The recommended goal for dosage regimens of clarithromycin is to ensure that the time that unbound drug concentrations in the blood remains above the minimum inhibitory concentration is at least 40 to 60% of the dosage interval. However, the concentrations and in vitro activity of 14-hydroxyclarithromycin must be considered for pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae. In addition, clarithromycin achieves significantly higher drug concentrations in the epithelial lining fluid and alveolar macrophages, the potential sites of extracellular and intracellular respiratory tract pathogens, respectively. Further studies are needed to determine the importance of these concentrations of clarithromycin at the site of infection. Clarithromycin can increase the steady-state concentrations of drugs that are primarily depend upon CYP3A metabolism (e.g., astemidole, cisapride, pimozide, midazolam and triazolam). This can be clinically important for drugs that have a narrow therapeutic index, such as carbamazepine, cyclosporin, digoxin, theophylline and warfarin. Potent inhibitors of CYP3A (e.g., omeprazole and ritonavir) may also alter the metabolism of clarithromycin and its metabolites. Rifampicin (rifampin) and rifabutin are potent enzyme inducers and several small studies have suggested that these agents may significantly decrease serum clarithromycin concentrations. Overall, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies suggest that fewer serious drug interactions occur with clarithromycin compared with older macrolides such as erythromycin and troleandomycin.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The viral protease inhibitor ritonavir has the capacity to inhibit and induce the activity of cytochrome P450-3A (CYP3A) isoforms, leading to drug interactions that may influence the efficacy and toxicity of other antiretroviral therapies, as well as pharmacologic treatments of coincident or complicating diseases. METHODS: The inhibitory effect of ritonavir on the biotransformation of the hypnotic agents triazolam and zolpidem was tested in vitro using human liver microsomes. In a double-blind clinical study, volunteer study subjects received 0.125 mg triazolam or 5.0 mg zolpidem concurrent with low-dose ritonavir (four doses of 200 mg), or with placebo. RESULTS: Ritonavir was a potent in vitro inhibitor of triazolam hydroxylation but was less potent as an inhibitor of zolpidem hydroxylation. In the clinical study, ritonavir reduced triazolam clearance to < 4% of control values (p < .005), prolonged elimination half-life (41 versus 3 hours; p < .005), and magnified benzodiazepine agonist effects such as sedation and performance impairment. In contrast, ritonavir reduced zolpidem clearance to 78% of control values (p < .08), and slightly prolonged elimination half-life (2.4 versus 2.0 hours; NS). Benzodiazepine agonist effects of zolpidem were not altered by ritonavir. CONCLUSION: Short-term low-dose administration of ritonavir produces a large and significant impairment of triazolam clearance and enhancement of clinical effects. In contrast, ritonavir produced small and clinically unimportant reductions in zolpidem clearance. The findings are consistent with the complete dependence of triazolam clearance on CYP3A activity, compared with the partial dependence of zolpidem clearance on CYP3A.
Abstract: Two cases of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) are presented. The patients had been taking clarithromycin (400 mg/day) for respiratory disease. Although erythromycin is reportedly associated with TdP, this is the first report of clarithromycin associated with TdP in the absence of other drugs already known to produce QT prolongation.
Abstract: STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the rates of torsades de pointes associated with ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin administration. DESIGN: Retrospective database analysis. INTERVENTION: Evaluation of reported rates of torsades de pointes in patients who received these quinolones between January 1, 1996, and May 2, 2001. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In the United States, 25 cases of torsades de pointes associated with these quinolones (ciprofloxacin 2, ofloxacin 2, levofloxacin 13, gatifloxacin 8, moxifloxacin 0) were identified. Ciprofloxacin was associated with a significantly lower rate of torsades de pointes (0.3 cases/10 million prescriptions, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0-1.1) than levofloxacin (5.4/10 million, 95% CI 2.9-9.3, p<0.001) or gatifloxacin (27/10 million, 95% CI 12-53, p<0.001 for comparison with ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin). When the analysis was limited to the first 16 months after initial U.S. approval of the agent, the rates for levofloxacin (16/10 million) and gatifloxacin (27/10 million) were similar (p>0.5). CONCLUSION: Levofloxacin should be administered with caution in patients with risk factors for QT prolongation. Gatifloxacin should be avoided in the same patient population, and the recommended dosage of 400 mg/day should not be exceeded.
Abstract: Ciprofloxacin has been widely used for treating infections and has been found to have very low cardiovascular side effects. QTc prolongation with the use of ciprofloxacin is yet to be reported in literature. A case report highlighting QTc prolongation by use of ciprofloxacin is being presented.
Abstract: AIMS: To assess the effect of voriconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of zolpidem. METHODS: In a randomized cross-over study with two phases, 10 healthy subjects ingested 10 mg of zolpidem with or without oral voriconazole pretreatment. The concentrations of zolpidem were measured in plasma up to 24 h and pharmacodynamic variables were monitored for 12 h. RESULTS: Voriconazole increased the peak plasma concentration of zolpidem by 1.23-fold [P < 0.05; 90% confidence interval (CI) 1.05, 1.45] and the area under the plasma zolpidem concentration-time curve by 1.48-fold (P < 0.001; 90% CI 1.29, 1.74). The time to peak plasma zolpidem concentration was unchanged by voriconazole but the half-life was prolonged from 3.2 to 4.1 h (P < 0.01; 95% CI on the difference 0.27, 1.45). The pharmacodynamics of zolpidem were unaffected by voriconazole. CONCLUSION: Voriconazole caused a moderate increase in exposure to zolpidem in healthy young subjects but no clear pharmacodynamic changes were observed between the groups.
Abstract: The new respiratory fluoroquinolones (gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and on the horizon, garenoxacin) offer many improved qualities over older agents such as ciprofloxacin. These include retaining excellent activity against Gram-negative bacilli, with improved Gram-positive activity (including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus). In addition, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and garenoxacin all demonstrate increased anaerobic activity (including activity against Bacteroides fragilis). The new fluoroquinolones possess greater bioavailability and longer serum half-lives compared with ciprofloxacin. The new fluoroquinolones allow for once-daily administration, which may improve patient adherence. The high bioavailability allows for rapid step down from intravenous administration to oral therapy, minimizing unnecessary hospitalization, which may decrease costs and improve quality of life of patients. Clinical trials involving the treatment of community-acquired respiratory infections (acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, acute sinusitis, and community-acquired pneumonia) demonstrate high bacterial eradication rates and clinical cure rates. In the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, the various new fluoroquinolones appear to be comparable to each other, but may be more effective than macrolide or cephalosporin-based regimens. However, additional data are required before it can be emphatically stated that the new fluoroquinolones as a class are responsible for better outcomes than comparators in community-acquired respiratory infections. Gemifloxacin (except for higher rates of hypersensitivity), levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin have relatively mild adverse effects that are more or less comparable to ciprofloxacin. In our opinion, gatifloxacin should not be used, due to glucose alterations which may be serious. Although all new fluoroquinolones react with metal ion-containing drugs (antacids), other drug interactions are relatively mild compared with ciprofloxacin. The new fluoroquinolones gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin have much to offer in terms of bacterial eradication, including activity against resistant respiratory pathogens such as penicillin-resistant, macrolide-resistant, and multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae. However, ciprofloxacin-resistant organisms, including ciprofloxacin-resistant S. pneumoniae, are becoming more prevalent, thus prudent use must be exercised when prescribing these valuable agents.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and carbamazepine in healthy volunteers. The study consisted of 2 periods: period 1 (reference), when each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg zolpidem, and period 2 (test), when each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg zolpidem and 400 mg carbamazepine. Between the 2 periods, the participants were treated for 15 days with a single daily dose of 400 mg carbamazepine. Pharmacokinetic parameters of zolpidem administered in each treatment period were calculated using noncompartmental analysis. In the 2 periods of treatments, the mean peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) were 59 ng/mL (zolpidem alone) and 35 ng/mL (zolpidem after pretreatment with carbamazepine). The t(max), times taken to reach C(max), were 0.9 hours and 1.0 hour, respectively, and the total areas under the curve (AUC(0-∞)) were 234.9 ng·h/mL and 101.5 ng·h/mL, respectively. The half-life of zolpidem was 2.3 and 1.6 hours, respectively. Carbamazepine interacts with zolpidem in healthy volunteers and lowers its bioavailability by about 57%. The experimental data demonstrate the pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and carbamazepine and suggest that the observed interaction may be clinically significant, but its relevance has to be confirmed.
Abstract: Our objective was to evaluate a possible pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and ciprofloxacin in healthy volunteers. The study consisted of two periods: Period 1 (reference), when each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg zolpidem and Period 2 (test), when each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg zolpidem and 500 mg ciprofloxacin. Between the two periods, the subjects were treated for 5 days with a single daily dose of 500 mg ciprofloxacin. Plasma concentrations of zolpidem were determined during a 12-hour period following drug administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters of zolpidem administered in each treatment period were calculated using non-compartmental analysis and the data from two periods were compared to determine statistically significant differences. In the two periods of treatments, the mean peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) were 75.73±28.34 ng/ml (zolpidem alone) and 80.58±22.40 ng/ml (zolpidem after pre-treatment with ciprofloxacin). The tmax, times taken to reach Cmax, were 0.91±0.42 and 1.44±0.61 h, respectively, and the total areas under the curve (AUC0-∞) were 300.2±115.5 and 438.1±142.6 ng h/ml, respectively. The half-life of zolpidem was 2.39±0.53 h when administered alone and 3.34±0.87 h after pre-treatment with ciprofloxacin. These differences were statistically significant for Cmax, tmax, AUC0-∞, half-life and mean residence time. Ciprofloxacin interacts with zolpidem in healthy volunteers, raising its bioavailability by about 46%. This magnitude of effect is likely to be clinically significant.
Abstract: 1. Our objective was to evaluate a possible pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and fluvoxamine in healthy volunteers. 2. The study consisted of two periods: Period 1 (reference), when each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg zolpidem; and Period 2 (test), when each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg zolpidem and 100 mg fluvoxamine. Between the two periods, the subjects were treated for 6 days with a single daily dose of 100 mg fluvoxamine. 3. Pharmacokinetic parameters of zolpidem given in each treatment period were calculated using non-compartmental analysis and the data from two periods were compared to determine statistically significant differences. 4. In the two periods of treatments, the mean peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) were 56.4 ± 25.6 ng/mL (zolpidem alone) and 67.3 ± 25.8 ng/mL (zolpidem after pretreatment with fluvoxamine). The t(max), times taken to reach C(max), were 0.83 ± 0.44 and 1.26 ± 0.74 h, respectively, and the total areas under the curve (AUC(0-∞)) were 200.9 ± 116.8 and 512.0 ± 354.6 ng h/mL, respectively. The half-life of zolpidem was 2.24 ± 0.81 h when given alone and 4.99 ± 2.92 h after pretreatment with fluvoxamine. 5. Fluvoxamine interacts with zolpidem in healthy volunteers and increases its exposure by approximately 150%. The experimental data showed the pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and fluvoxamine, and suggest that the observed interaction might be clinically significant, but its relevance has to be confirmed.
Abstract: Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drugs are absorbed efficiently after oral administration despite of their hydrophilic nature, implying an involvement of carrier-mediated transport in their membrane transport process. It has been that several fluoroquinolones are substrates of organic anion transporter polypeptides OATP1A2 expressed in human intestine derived Caco-2 cells. In the present study, to clarify the involvement of OATP in intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin, the contribution of Oatp1a5, which is expressed at the apical membranes of rat enterocytes, to intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin was investigated in rats. The intestinal membrane permeability of ciprofloxacin was measured by in situ and the vascular perfused closed loop methods. The disappeared and absorbed amount of ciprofloxacin from the intestinal lumen were increased markedly in the presence of 7,8-benzoflavone, a breast cancer resistance protein inhibitor, and ivermectin, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, while it was decreased significantly in the presence of these inhibitors in combination with naringin, an Oatp1a5 inhibitor. Furthermore, the Oatp1a5-mediated uptake of ciprofloxacin was saturable with a K(m) value of 140 µm, and naringin inhibited the uptake with an IC(50) value of 18 µm by Xenopus oocytes expressing Oatp1a5. Naringin reduced the permeation of ciprofloxacin from the mucosal-to-serosal side, with an IC(50) value of 7.5 µm by the Ussing-type chamber method. The estimated IC(50) values were comparable to that of Oatp1a5. These data suggest that Oatp1a5 is partially responsible for the intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin. In conclusion, the intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin could be affected by influx transporters such as Oatp1a5 as well as the efflux transporters such as P-gp and Bcrp.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs are often involved in explicit criteria for inappropriate prescribing in older adults. Several scales were developed for screening of anticholinergic drugs and estimation of the anticholinergic burden. However, variation exists in scale development, in the selection of anticholinergic drugs, and the evaluation of their anticholinergic load. This study aims to systematically review existing anticholinergic risk scales, and to develop a uniform list of anticholinergic drugs differentiating for anticholinergic potency. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE. Studies were included if provided (1) a finite list of anticholinergic drugs; (2) a grading score of anticholinergic potency and, (3) a validation in a clinical or experimental setting. We listed anticholinergic drugs for which there was agreement in the different scales. In case of discrepancies between scores we used a reputed reference source (Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference®) to take a final decision about the anticholinergic activity of the drug. RESULTS: We included seven risk scales, and evaluated 225 different drugs. Hundred drugs were listed as having clinically relevant anticholinergic properties (47 high potency and 53 low potency), to be included in screening software for anticholinergic burden. CONCLUSION: Considerable variation exists among anticholinergic risk scales, in terms of selection of specific drugs, as well as of grading of anticholinergic potency. Our selection of 100 drugs with clinically relevant anticholinergic properties needs to be supplemented with validated information on dosing and route of administration for a full estimation of the anticholinergic burden in poly-medicated older adults.
Abstract: The involvement of intestinal permeability in the oral absorption of clarithromycin (CAM), a macrolide antibiotic, and telithromycin (TEL), a ketolide antibiotic, in the presence of efflux transporters was examined. In order independently to examine the intestinal and hepatic availability, CAM and TEL (10 mg/kg) were administered orally, intraportally and intravenously to rats. The intestinal and hepatic availability was calculated from the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) after administration of CAM and TEL via different routes. The intestinal availabilities of CAM and TEL were lower than their hepatic availabilities. The intestinal availability after oral administration of CAM and TEL increased by 1.3- and 1.6-fold, respectively, after concomitant oral administration of verapamil as a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor. Further, an in vitro transport experiment was performed using Caco-2 cell monolayers as a model of intestinal epithelial cells. The apical-to-basolateral transport of CAM and TEL through the Caco-2 cell monolayers was lower than their basolateral-to-apical transport. Verapamil and bromosulfophthalein as a multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) inhibitor significantly increased the apical-to-basolateral transport of CAM and TEL. Thus, the results suggest that oral absorption of CAM and TEL is dependent on intestinal permeability that may be limited by P-gp and MRPs on the intestinal epithelial cells.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: Zolpidem is extensively metabolized by CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP1A2. Previous studies demonstrated that pharmacokinetics of zolpidem was affected by CYP inhibitors, but not by short-term treatment of clarithromycin. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of steady-state clarithromycin on the pharmacokinetics of zolpidem in healthy subjects. In the control phase, 33 subjects received a single dose of zolpidem (5 mg). One week later, in the clarithromycin phase, the subjects received clarithromycin (500 mg) twice daily for 5 days to reach steady state concentrations, followed by zolpidem (5 mg) and clarithromycin (500 mg). In each phase, plasma concentrations of zolpidem were evaluated up to 12 h after drug administration by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. In the clarithromycin phase, mean total area under the curve of zolpidem (AUC) was 1.62-fold higher and the time to reach peak plasma concentration of zolpidem (t) was prolonged by 1.95-fold compared to the control phase. In addition, elimination half-life (t) of zolpidem was 1.40-fold longer during co-administration with clarithromycin and its apparent oral clearance (CL/F) was 36.2% lower with clarithromycin administration. The experimental data demonstrate the significant pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and clarithromycin at steady-state.