Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
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Eklärungen für Patienten zu den Wirkstoffen
Für die Kombination von Lopinavir und Venlafaxin liegen uns keine zusätzlichen Warnhinweise vor. Bitte konsultieren Sie zusätzlich die jeweiligen Fachinformationen.
Die genannten Expositionsveränderungen beziehen sich jeweils auf Veränderungen der Plasmakonzentrations-Zeit-Kurve [ AUC ]. Für Lopinavir erwarten wir keine Veränderung der Exposition, wenn eine Kombination mit Venlafaxin (100%) erfolgt. Eine Veränderung der Exposition von Venlafaxin haben wir nicht erkannt. Den Einfluss von Lopinavir können wir aktuell nicht abschätzen.
Für die Berechnung der individuellen Expositionsveränderungen durch die Wechselwirkungen werden als Ausgangsbasis die pharmakokinetischen Parameter der durchschnittlichen Population verwendet.
Für Lopinavir ist die Bioverfügbarkeit nicht bekannt. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist nicht bekannt. Die Metabolisierung findet vor allem über CYP3A4 statt und der aktive Transport erfolgt insbesondere über PGP. Unter anderem ist Lopinavir ein Hemmer von CYP3A4 und PGP.
Venlafaxin hat eine mittlere orale Bioverfügbarkeit [ F ] von 45%, weshalb die maximalen Plasmaspiegel [ Cmax ] sich bei einer Interaktion tendentiell verändern. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] ist mit 5.2 Stunden eher kurz und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden schnell erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 27% sehr schwach und das Verteilungsvolumen [ Vd ] ist mit 236 Liter sehr gross, weshalb bei einer mittleren hepatische Extraktionsrate von 0.42 sowohl der Leberblutfluss [ Q ] als auch eine Veränderung der Proteinbindung [ Pb ] relevant sind. Die Metabolisierung findet unter anderem über CYP2C19, CYP2D6 und CYP3A4 statt und der aktive Transport erfolgt insbesondere über PGP.
|Serotonerge Effekte a||2||Ø||++|
Empfehlung: Insbesondere nach einer Dosiserhöhung und bei Dosierungen im oberen therapeutischen Bereich sollte vorsichtshalber auf Symptome einer serotonergen Überstimulation geachtet werden.
Bewertung: Venlafaxin moduliert das serotonerge System in moderatem Ausmass. Das Risiko für ein serotonerges Syndrom ist bei dieser Medikation eher als gering einzustufen, wenn die Dosierung sich im üblichen Bereich befindet. Gemäss unseren Erkenntnissen erhöht Lopinavir nicht die serotonerge Aktivität.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Bewertung: Gemäss unseren Erkenntnissen erhöhen weder Lopinavir noch Venlafaxin die anticholinerge Aktivität.
Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
Bewertung: In Kombination können Lopinavir und Venlafaxin potentiell ventrikuläre Arrhythmien vom Typ Torsades de pointes auslösen.
|Abnorme Ejakulation||10.6 %||n.a.||10.6|
Tremor (5.6%): Venlafaxin
Malignes neuroleptisches Syndrom: Venlafaxin
Verschwommenes Sehen (5%): Venlafaxin
Erektile Dysfunktion (4%): Venlafaxin
Orgasmusstörung (3.5%): Venlafaxin
Orthostatische Hypotonie: Venlafaxin
Verlust von Appetit: Venlafaxin
Allergische Hautreaktionen wie Juckreiz und Hautausschlag: Venlafaxin
Verlängerte Blutungszeit: Venlafaxin
Basierend auf Ihren
Abstract: Serotonin syndrome is a potentially fatal complication of serotonergic drug therapy. Usually, serotonin syndrome occurs with the concomitant use of two serotonergic drugs; this case report describes a patient with a classic presentation of serotonin syndrome induced solely by a venlafaxine overdose. Emergency physicians need to be aware that the serotonin syndrome may occur not only with serotonergic drug combinations but also with overdoses of a single potent serotonergic agent such as venlafaxine.
Abstract: The influence of cimetidine on the disposition pharmacokinetics of the antidepressant drug, venlafaxine, and its active metabolite, O-desmethylvenlafaxine, was examined in 18 healthy young men and women. The steady-state pharmacokinetic profiles of venlafaxine and O-desmethylvenlafaxine were evaluated during a 24-hour period after 5 days of treatment with venlafaxine (50 mg three times a day) and during a second 24-hour period after 5 days of combination treatment with venlafaxine (50 mg three times a day) and cimetidine (800 mg once a day). The apparent oral clearance of venlafaxine decreased significantly in the presence of cimetidine and the average steady-state plasma concentration of venlafaxine increased significantly in the presence of cimetidine, but there were no changes in the corresponding concentrations of the active metabolite. However, O-desmethylvenlafaxine exhibits pharmacologic activity that is approximately equimolar to that of venlafaxine, and the sum of venlafaxine plus O-desmethylvenlafaxine plasma concentrations was increased by an average of only 13%. Therefore, the effect of cimetidine coadministration is not expected to result in clinically important alterations in the response to venlafaxine in patients with depression. This may not be true, however, for patients with compromised hepatic metabolic function.
Abstract: CYP2D6 is involved in the O-demethylation metabolic pathway of venlafaxine in humans. In this study, we investigated whether this isozyme is stereoselective. Plasma samples from seven CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers (EMs) and five CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PMs), collected during a period without and with coadministration of quinidine, were analysed. Subjects were administered venlafaxine hydrochloride 18.75 mg orally every 12 h for 48 h on two occasions (1 week apart); once alone and once during the concomitant administration of quinidine sulphate every 12 h. Blood and urine samples were collected under steady-state conditions over one dosing interval (12 h). The present results show that, although CYP2D6 catalyses the O-demethylation of both enantiomers of venlafaxine, it displays a marked stereoselectivity towards the (R)-enantiomer. The oral clearance of (R)-venlafaxine was found to be nine-fold higher in EMs compared to PMs [median (range) 173 (29-611) l/h versus 20 (16-24) l/h, P < 0.005], while it was two-fold higher for (S)-venlafaxine [73 (32-130) l/h versus 37 (21-44) l/h, P < 0.05]. In EMs, quinidine decreased (R)- and (S)-venlafaxine oral clearance by 12-fold ( 0.05) and four-fold ( 0.05), respectively. In contrast, quinidine did not have any effects on renal clearance of (R)-venlafaxine [4 (2-10) l/h for venlafaxine alone versus 5 (0.6-7) l/h for venlafaxine + quinidine] and of (S)-venlafaxine [4 (1-7) l/h for venlafaxine alone versus 3 (0.4-6) l/h for venlafaxine + quinidine]. The coadministration of quinidine to EMs resulted in an almost complete inhibition of the partial metabolic clearance of (R)-venlafaxine to O-demethylated metabolites [127 (10-493) l/h down to 1 (0.1-3) l/h, 0.05], while a seven-fold reduction was measured for (S)-venlafaxine [47 (14-94) l/h versus 7 (1-19) l/h, 0.05]. In PMs, coadministration of quinidine did not significantly change oral clearance and partial metabolic clearance of (R)- and (S)-venlafaxine to its various metabolites. In contrast, data obtained on the partial metabolic clearance of (R)- and (S)-venlafaxine to N-demethylated metabolites, a reaction which is mediated by CYP3A4, suggest a lack of stereoselectivity of this enzyme.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a patient with serotonin syndrome induced by low-dose venlafaxine. CASE SUMMARY: A 29-year-old Taiwanese woman with major depressive disorder abruptly developed serotonin syndrome during low-dose (37.5 mg/d) venlafaxine monotherapy, with symptoms of restlessness, tremor, shivering, diarrhea, vomiting, ataxia, tachycardia, and myoclonus. The patient recovered in 2 hours after receiving prochlorperazine and lorazepam in the emergency department. Venlafaxine was discontinued, and she was discharged home. Two weeks later, the patient started to receive fluoxetine 20 mg/d and reported no adverse adverse effects during follow-up clinic visits. DISCUSSION: The clinical manifestations of this case meet Sternbach's criteria of serotonin syndrome. Its possible etiologic factors include panic attack, adverse drug reaction, pharmacodynamic interaction, and congenital absence of CYP2D6 enzyme activity. The Naranjo probability scale suggested a probable causality of venlafaxine treatment and serotonin syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should be aware of the risk of serotonin syndrome when the patient receives not only a combination of 2 antidepressants, but also the single potent serotonergic agent venlafaxine.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To study the influence of CYP3A4 inhibition by ketoconazole on the disposition of venlafaxine in individuals with different CYP2D6 pheno- and genotypes. METHODS: In an open two-phase study, 21 healthy volunteers with known CYP2D6 pheno- and genotype [14 extensive metabolisers (EMs), 7 poor metabolisers (PMs)] were given a single oral dose of venlafaxine (50 mg to EMs and 25 mg to PMs). Plasma and urine levels of venlafaxine and its three metabolites were measured and the pharmacokinetics of venlafaxine were determined. After a 2-week washout period, subjects were treated for 2 days with ketoconazole (100 mg twice daily) starting 1 day before the administration of venlafaxine; and the same parameters as for the administration of venlafaxine only were measured. RESULTS: Data were evaluated from 20 subjects (14 EMs and 6 PMs) who completed the study. The dose-corrected AUC of venlafaxine was on average 2.3 times higher ( P<0.01) and that of its active metabolite O-desmethylvenlafaxine 3.4 times lower ( P<0.0001) in PMs than EMs. There was a good correlation between the debrisoquine metabolic ratio and the ratio between the AUC of venlafaxine and that of O-desmethylvenlafaxine ( Rs=0.93, P<0.002). The majority of subjects showed higher plasma levels of venlafaxine and O-desmethylvenlafaxine upon co-administration of ketoconazole. AUC of venlafaxine significantly increased by 36% and that of O-desmethylvenlafaxine by 26% ( P<0.01). C(max) values increased by 32% and 18%, respectively. The elimination half-life of venlafaxine was unaltered. Three of the PMs displayed marked increases in AUC (81, 126 and 206%) and C(max) (60, 72, 119%) of venlafaxine while the other three showed small or no changes. CONCLUSIONS: Ketoconazole consistently affected the disposition of venlafaxine in EMs of debrisoquine while the response in PMs was erratic. The precise mechanisms underlying this interaction remain to be elucidated.
Abstract: This study investigated the effect of terbinafine and voriconazole on the pharmacokinetics of venlafaxine in healthy volunteers. Plasma concentrations of venlafaxine and O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV) were measured after ingestion of 75 mg venlafaxine without pretreatment (control), after terbinafine pretreatment, or after voriconazole pretreatment. During the terbinafine phase, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-infinity)) of venlafaxine was on average 490% (P<0.001) and that of ODV 57% (P<0.001) of the corresponding control value. Terbinafine decreased the AUC(0-infinity) ratio of ODV over venlafaxine by 82% (P<0.001). Voriconazole slightly increased the sum of AUC(0-infinity) of venlafaxine plus AUC(0-infinity) of ODV (active moiety) by 31% (P<0.001). The most likely mechanism for the interaction between terbinafine and venlafaxine is the inhibition of CYP2D6-mediated O-demethylation of venlafaxine, whereas the minor effects of voriconazole are probably due to the inhibition of CYP3A4-, CYP2C9-, or CYP2C19-mediated metabolism of venlafaxine.
Abstract: On the basis of a single clinical trial in first-line treatment, the atazanavir and ritonavir combination appears to be no more effective than the fixed-dose combination of lopinavir and ritonavir. The adverse effect profiles were slightly different, but atazanavir carries a troubling risk of torsades de pointes.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Drug-induced torsades de pointes (TdP) is a complex regulatory and clinical problem due to the rarity of this sometimes fatal adverse event. In this context, the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is an important source of information, which can be applied to the analysis of TdP liability of marketed drugs. OBJECTIVE: To critically evaluate the risk of antimicrobial-induced TdP by detecting alert signals in the AERS, on the basis of both quantitative and qualitative analyses. METHODS: Reports of TdP from January 2004 through December 2008 were retrieved from the public version of the AERS. The absolute number of cases and reporting odds ratio as a measure of disproportionality were evaluated for each antimicrobial drug (quantitative approach). A list of drugs with suspected TdP liability (provided by the Arizona Centre of Education and Research on Therapeutics [CERT]) was used as a reference to define signals. In a further analysis, to refine signal detection, we identified TdP cases without co-medications listed by Arizona CERT (qualitative approach). RESULTS: Over the 5-year period, 374 reports of TdP were retrieved: 28 antibacterials, 8 antifungals, 1 antileprosy and 26 antivirals were involved. Antimicrobials more frequently reported were levofloxacin (55) and moxifloxacin (37) among the antibacterials, fluconazole (47) and voriconazole (17) among the antifungals, and lamivudine (8) and nelfinavir (6) among the antivirals. A significant disproportionality was observed for 17 compounds, including several macrolides, fluoroquinolones, linezolid, triazole antifungals, caspofungin, indinavir and nelfinavir. With the qualitative approach, we identified the following additional drugs or fixed dose combinations, characterized by at least two TdP cases without co-medications listed by Arizona CERT: ceftriaxone, piperacillin/tazobactam, cotrimoxazole, metronidazole, ribavirin, lamivudine and lopinavir/ritonavir. DISCUSSION: Disproportionality for macrolides, fluoroquinolones and most of the azole antifungals should be viewed as 'expected' according to Arizona CERT list. By contrast, signals were generated by linezolid, caspofungin, posaconazole, indinavir and nelfinavir. Drugs detected only by the qualitative approach should be further investigated by increasing the sensitivity of the method, e.g. by searching also for the TdP surrogate marker, prolongation of the QT interval. CONCLUSIONS: The freely available version of the FDA AERS database represents an important source to detect signals of TdP. In particular, our analysis generated five signals among antimicrobials for which further investigations and active surveillance are warranted. These signals should be considered in evaluating the benefit-risk profile of these drugs.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Many psychotropic drugs can delay cardiac repolarization and thereby prolong the rate-corrected QT interval (QTc). A prolonged QTc often arouses concern in clinical practice, as it can be followed, in rare cases, by the life-threatening polymorphic ventricular tachyarrhythmia called torsade de pointes (TdP). METHOD: We searched PubMed for pertinent literature on the risk of QTc prolongation and/or TdP associated with commonly used psychotropic drugs. RESULTS: Thioridazine and ziprasidone confer the highest risk of QTc prolongation and/or TdP. There is also a clinically significant risk associated with haloperidol given intravenously in high doses. TdP has been reported in a few cases in association with the use of newer antipsychotic drugs (mainly quetiapine and amisulpride), most of the tri- and tetracyclic antidepressants, and the selective monoamine reuptake inhibitors citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and venlafaxine. As a rule, however, QTc prolongation and/or TdP occur only in the presence of multiple additional risk factors, such as age over 65 years, pre-existing cardiovascular disease, bradycardia, female sex, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, a supratherapeutic or toxic serum concentration, or the simultaneous administration of other drugs that delay repolarization or interfere with drug metabolism. CONCLUSION: Before prescribing a psychotropic drug, the physician should carefully assess its risks and benefits to avoid this type of adverse reaction, particularly when additional risk factors are present. The ECG and electrolytes should be regularly monitored in patients taking psychotropic drugs.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs are often involved in explicit criteria for inappropriate prescribing in older adults. Several scales were developed for screening of anticholinergic drugs and estimation of the anticholinergic burden. However, variation exists in scale development, in the selection of anticholinergic drugs, and the evaluation of their anticholinergic load. This study aims to systematically review existing anticholinergic risk scales, and to develop a uniform list of anticholinergic drugs differentiating for anticholinergic potency. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE. Studies were included if provided (1) a finite list of anticholinergic drugs; (2) a grading score of anticholinergic potency and, (3) a validation in a clinical or experimental setting. We listed anticholinergic drugs for which there was agreement in the different scales. In case of discrepancies between scores we used a reputed reference source (Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference®) to take a final decision about the anticholinergic activity of the drug. RESULTS: We included seven risk scales, and evaluated 225 different drugs. Hundred drugs were listed as having clinically relevant anticholinergic properties (47 high potency and 53 low potency), to be included in screening software for anticholinergic burden. CONCLUSION: Considerable variation exists among anticholinergic risk scales, in terms of selection of specific drugs, as well as of grading of anticholinergic potency. Our selection of 100 drugs with clinically relevant anticholinergic properties needs to be supplemented with validated information on dosing and route of administration for a full estimation of the anticholinergic burden in poly-medicated older adults.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: This is the second report of a patient developing severe prolongation of QTc interval with a dose of 300mg/day of venlafaxine; on stopping it, QTc reverted to normalcy. Venlafaxine was restarted and maintained at 150mg/day, with QTc interval remaining normal, indicating, that it has a dose-dependent effect on QTc interval. Venlafaxine was not changed as she had responded best to this drug compared to any other antidepressant. Over 20 years, the only time she had a period of 5 years of remission, was when she was on 75mg of venlafaxine/day.
Abstract: The potential of inhibitory metabolites of perpetrator drugs to contribute to drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is uncommon and underestimated. However, the occurrence of unexpected DDI suggests the potential contribution of metabolites to the observed DDI. The aim of this study was to develop a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for bupropion and its three primary metabolites-hydroxybupropion, threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion-based on a mixed "bottom-up" and "top-down" approach and to contribute to the understanding of the involvement and impact of inhibitory metabolites for DDIs observed in the clinic. PK profiles from clinical researches of different dosages were used to verify the bupropion model. Reasonable PK profiles of bupropion and its metabolites were captured in the PBPK model. Confidence in the DDI prediction involving bupropion and co-administered CYP2D6 substrates could be maximized. The predicted maximum concentration (C) area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values and Cand AUC ratios were consistent with clinically observed data. The addition of the inhibitory metabolites into the PBPK model resulted in a more accurate prediction of DDIs (AUC and Cratio) than that which only considered parent drug (bupropion) P450 inhibition. The simulation suggests that bupropion and its metabolites contribute to the DDI between bupropion and CYP2D6 substrates. The inhibitory potency from strong to weak is hydroxybupropion, threohydrobupropion, erythrohydrobupropion, and bupropion, respectively. The present bupropion PBPK model can be useful for predicting inhibition from bupropion in other clinical studies. This study highlights the need for caution and dosage adjustment when combining bupropion with medications metabolized by CYP2D6. It also demonstrates the feasibility of applying the PBPK approach to predict the DDI potential of drugs undergoing complex metabolism, especially in the DDI involving inhibitory metabolites.