Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
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Sildenafil wird zur Behandlung der erektilen Dysfunktion und bei einer speziellen Form des Bluthochdrucks (pulmonale arterielle Hypertonie) eingesetzt. Es wird oral als Tablette oder Schmelztablette eingenommen oder in die Vene injiziert. Sildenafil ist ein Phosphodiesterase-5(PDE5)- Hemmer. PDE5 ist ein Enzym, das u.a. den Blutfluss im Penis reguliert. Durch seine Blockade wird die glatte Muskulatur im Corpus cavernosum gelockert und mehr Blut kann in den Schwellkörper fliessen und so eine anhaltende Erektion ermöglichen. Es erfordert jedoch sexuelle Erregung, um zu wirken. Sildenafil muss ca. 1h vor dem geplanten Geschlechtsverkehr eingenommen werden und wirkt ca. 5h. Die PDE5- Hemmung wirkt auch erweiternd in den Blutgefässen der Lunge, somit sinkt der Blutdruck.
Die Warnhinweise werden für die Kombination mehrerer Wirkstoffe überprüft. Für die einzelnen Substanzen konsultieren Sie bitte die entsprechende Fachinfo.
Da nur Sildenafil ohne weitere Substanzen eingeben wurde, können keine pharmakokinetischen Interaktionen detektiert werden.
Für die Berechnung der individuellen Expositionsveränderungen durch die Wechselwirkungen werden als Ausgangsbasis die pharmakokinetischen Parameter der durchschnittlichen Population verwendet.
Sildenafil hat eine tiefe orale Bioverfügbarkeit [ F ] von 36%, weshalb die maximalen Plasmaspiegel [ Cmax ] sich bei einer Interaktion tendentiell stark verändern. Die terminale Halbwertszeit [ t12 ] ist mit 3.9 Stunden eher kurz und konstante Plasmaspiegel [ Css ] werden schnell erreicht. Die Proteinbindung [ Pb ] ist mit 96% stark und das Verteilungsvolumen [ Vd ] ist mit 105 Liter sehr gross, Die Metabolisierung findet unter anderem über CYP2C9 und CYP3A4 statt und der aktive Transport erfolgt zum Teil über BCRP und PGP.
|Serotonerge Effekte a||0||Ø|
Bewertung: Gemäss unseren Erkenntnissen erhöht Sildenafil nicht die serotonerge Aktivität.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø|
Bewertung: Gemäss unseren Erkenntnisse erhöht Sildenafil nicht die anticholinerge Aktivität.
Verlängerung der QT-Zeit
Für Sildenafil ist uns kein QT-Zeit verlängerndes Potential bekannt.
|Ventrikuläre Arrhythmie||1.0 %||+|
|Verschwommenes Sehen||1.0 %||+|
|Verstopfte Nase||1.0 %||+|
Basierend auf Ihren
Abstract: AIMS: To investigate the effect of the antiretroviral protease inhibitors saquinavir (soft gelatin capsule) and ritonavir on the pharmacokinetic properties and tolerability of sildenafil and to investigate the effect of sildenafil on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of saquinavir and ritonavir. METHODS: Two independent, 8 day, open, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies (containing a double-blind crossover phase) were conducted at Pfizer Clinical research units (Canterbury, UK. and Brussels, Belgium). Twenty-eight healthy male volunteers entered each study. In each study, volunteers were randomized (n = 14 per group) to receive sildenafil on day 1 followed by a 7-day treatment period (days 2-8) with saquinavir or placebo (Study I) or ritonavir or placebo (Study II). Sildenafil or placebo (Study I and Study II) was administered alternately on day 7 or day 8, depending on initial randomization. The effect of saquinavir and ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil and its primary circulating metabolite (UK-103, 320) and the effect of single-dose sildenafil on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of saquinavir (1200 mg three times daily) and ritonavir (500 mg twice daily) were determined. The safety and tolerability of sildenafil coadministered with saquinavir or ritonavir were also assessed. RESULTS: Both protease inhibitors significantly increased Cmax, AUC, tmax and t(1/2) values for both sildenafil and UK-103, 320. Ritonavir showed a significantly greater effect than saquinavir with increases in sildenafil AUC and Cmax of 11-fold (95% CI: 9.0, 12.0) and 3.9-fold (95% CI: 3.2, 4.9), respectively. This compared with increases of 3.1-fold (95% CI: 2.5, 4.0) and 2.4-fold (95% CI: 1.8, 3.3) for coadministration with saquinavir. In contrast, the steady-state pharmacokinetics of saquinavir and ritonavir were unaffected by sildenafil. The increases in systemic exposure to sildenafil and UK-103, 320 were not associated with an increased incidence of adverse events or clinically significant changes in blood pressure, heart rate or ECG parameters. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that both saquinavir and ritonavir modify the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil presumably through inhibition of CYP3A4. The more pronounced effect of ritonavir may be attributed to its additional potent inhibition of CYP2C9. No change in safety or tolerability was observed when sildenafil was coadministered with either protease inhibitor. However, given the extent of the interactions, a lower sildenafil starting dose (25 mg) should be considered for patients receiving saquinavir and it is recommended not to exceed a maximum single dose of 25 mg in a 48 h period for patients receiving ritonavir.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Because of extensive first-pass metabolism, oral bioavailability of sildenafil reaches only 40%. Formation of the primary metabolite, N -desmethylsildenafil, is mainly mediated by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP3A4. In this study we investigated the influence of grapefruit juice, containing inhibitors of intestinal CYP3A4, on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil and N -desmethylsildenafil. METHODS: In a randomized crossover study, 24 healthy white male volunteers received single 50-mg doses of sildenafil. Two doses each of 250 ml grapefruit juice or water, respectively, were administered 1 hour before and together with the drug. Plasma concentrations of sildenafil and N -desmethylsildenafil were determined up to 24 hours post dose by use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (limit of quantification, 1 ng/ml). RESULTS: Grapefruit juice changed the area under the sildenafil plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity [AUC(0-infinity) from 620 [1.53] ng/ml x h to 761 [1.58] ng/ml x h (geometric mean with geometric standard deviation), corresponding to a 23% increase (90% confidence interval, 13%-33%). N-Desmethyl sildenafil AUC(0-infinity) increased by 24% (90% confidence interval, 17%-32%). Maximum plasma concentrations (C(max)) of sildenafil and N -desmethylsildenafil were essentially unchanged. There was a trend toward a prolonged time to reach C(max) during the grapefruit juice period (from a median of 0.75 hour to a median of 1.13 hours), corresponding to an increase by 0.25 hour (90% confidence interval, 0-0.63 hour). Interindividual variability was pronounced in both periods. CONCLUSIONS: Grapefruit juice increases sildenafil bioavailability and tends to delay sildenafil absorption. Sildenafil pharmacokinetics may become less predictable with grapefruit juice. Although patients usually will not be endangered by concomitant use of grapefruit juice, it seems advisable to avoid this combination.
Abstract: AIMS: To determine the absolute bioavailability, dose proportionality and the effects of food on the pharmacokinetics of single oral doses of sildenafil citrate. METHODS: Three open-label, randomized crossover studies were conducted in healthy male subjects. Absolute bioavailability was determined by comparing pharmacokinetic data after administration of single oral and intravenous 50-mg doses of sildenafil (n=12 subjects). Food effects were examined by comparing pharmacokinetic data for sildenafil and its primary circulating metabolite, UK-103,320, after administration of a single oral 100-mg dose in the fasted and fed states (n=34 subjects). Dose proportionality was assessed from pharmacokinetic data obtained after administration of four single oral doses of sildenafil (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg) to 32 subjects. The safety and tolerability of sildenafil were also assessed in all of these studies. RESULTS: The calculated absolute oral bioavailability of sildenafil was 41% (90% CI: 36--47). Food slowed the rate of absorption, delaying mean tmax by approximately 1 h and reducing Cmax by 29% (90% CI: 19--38). Systemic exposure, as assessed by the mean area under the plasma concentration--time curve (AUC), was reduced by 11% (90% CI: 6--16). These food effects were not considered to be of clinical significance. There was statistical evidence of nonproportionality in Cmax and AUC over the dose range 25--200 mg. However the degree of nonproportionality was small, with predicted increases in Cmax and AUC of 2.2- and 2.1-fold, respectively, for a doubling in dose, and was thought to be clinically nonsignificant. Sildenafil was well tolerated in the three studies; the majority of adverse events were mild and transient. CONCLUSIONS: Sildenafil had a mean absolute bioavailability of 41%. Food caused small reductions in the rate and extent of systemic exposure; these reductions are unlikely to be of clinical significance. Across the dose range of 25--200 mg, systemic exposure increased in a slightly greater than dose-proportional manner.
Abstract: AIMS: To examine the effect of concomitant cimetidine or antacid administration on the pharmacokinetic profile of sildenafil citrate in healthy male volunteers in two open-label, randomized studies. METHODS: The first study was a parallel-group design in which 22 healthy male volunteers received sildenafil (50 mg) on days 1 and 5 and cimetidine (800 mg) or placebo on days 3, 4, 5, and 6. Blood samples were collected predose and at specified times up to 48 h postdose on days 1 and 5 to determine plasma levels of sildenafil and its metabolite, UK-103,320. The second study was a two-way crossover design in which 12 volunteers received sildenafil with or without a 30-ml dose of a magnesium hydroxide/aluminium hydroxide antacid. Blood samples were collected and analysed as in the first study. The two study periods were separated by at least 14 days. RESULTS: Coadministration of cimetidine had no statistically significant effect on the tmax or kel of sildenafil but caused a statistically significant increase in sildenafil AUCt and Cmax of 56% and 54%, respectively (P<0.01). Differences between the two treatment groups were smaller for the metabolite than for sildenafil, although cimetidine treatment did significantly (P<0.05) increase the AUCt for UK-103,320 by 30%. Antacid coadministration had no statistically significant effect on any pharmacokinetic parameter of sildenafil or UK-103,320. Whether taken alone, with cimetidine, or with an antacid, sildenafil was well tolerated. Most adverse events were mild in nature, and no subject withdrew from either study for any reason related to the drug. CONCLUSIONS: Cimetidine co-administration produced an increase in sildenafil plasma levels; however, this increase is not sufficient to warrant dosage adjustment of either drug. Antacid coadministration had no effect on the pharmacokinetic profile of sildenafil.
Abstract: AIMS: Sildenafil, an effective oral treatment for erectile dysfunction, is predominantly metabolized by the cytochrome P450 isozyme 3A4, which is inhibited by a number of the macrolide antibiotics. Therefore, two placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of multiple doses of erythromycin and azithromycin on the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of a single oral 100-mg dose of sildenafil. METHODS: In the erythromycin interaction study, 26 male volunteers (18--45 years of age) received open-label sildenafil 100 mg on day 1. Half received blinded erythromycin (500 mg) twice daily on days 2--6, and the other half received placebo. On day 6, all subjects received a second 100-mg dose of sildenafil. In the azithromycin interaction study, 24 male volunteers (19--33 years of age) received open-label 100 mg sildenafil on day 1. Half then received blinded azithromycin (500 mg) once daily on days 2--4, and the other half received placebo. On day 4, all subjects received another 100-mg dose of sildenafil. In both studies, blood samples were collected on the first and last study day for the analysis of plasma concentrations of sildenafil and its primary metabolite, UK-103,320. RESULTS: Repeated dosing with erythromycin caused statistically significant increases in the AUC and Cmax of sildenafil (2.8-fold and 2.6-fold, respectively) but had no effect on Tmax, kel or t1/2. A statistically significant 1.4-fold increase in the AUC of UK-103,320 was also observed, as well as a significant decrease in kel, resulting in an increase of about 1 h in t1/2. In contrast, repeated dosing with azithromycin caused no significant change in any pharmacokinetic parameter of either sildenafil or UK-103,320. Erythromycin, azithromycin and sildenafil were well tolerated; adverse events were mild and transient. No subject withdrew from either trial for any reason related to study drug. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that erythromycin modifies the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil by inhibiting its CYP3A4-mediated first-pass metabolism. Given these data, a lower starting dose of sildenafil (25 mg) may be considered for patients receiving erythromycin or other potent CYP3A4 inhibitors. Azithromycin did not affect the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil; therefore, no adjustment in dosage is necessary for patients receiving these drugs concomitantly.
Abstract: AIMS: To determine whether bosentan decreases the plasma concentration of sildenafil in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. METHODS: Ten patients (aged 39-77 years) with pulmonary arterial hypertension in WHO functional class III received bosentan 62.5 mg twice daily for 1 month, then 125 mg twice daily for a second month. Sildenafil 100 mg was given as a single dose before starting bosentan (visit 1) and at the end of each month of bosentan treatment (visits 2 and 3). Sildenafil and its primary metabolite, desmethylsildenafil, were measured in plasma at 0 h and 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 18 and 24 h using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis was by repeated measures anova, using log transformed data where appropriate. RESULTS: Treatment with bosentan 62.5 mg twice daily for 4 weeks was associated with a two-fold increase in sildenafil clearance/F and a 50% decrease in the AUC (P < 0.001). Increasing the dose of bosentan to 125 mg twice daily led to a further increase in sildenafil oral clearance and decrease in the AUC (P < 0.001 vs. 62.5 mg bosentan). The ratio of AUC on bosentan treatment relative to that of visit 1 was 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36, 0.61] for visit 2 and 0.31 (95% CI 0.23, 0.41) for visit 3 (P < 0.001). Sildenafil C(max) fell from 759 ng ml(-1) on visit 1 to 333 ng ml(-1) on visit 3 (P < 0.01) and there was a significant decrease in the plasma half-life of sildenafil on the higher bosentan dose (P < 0.05). The AUC and plasma half-life of desmethylsildenafil was also decreased by bosentan in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Bosentan significantly decreases the plasma concentration of sildenafil when coadministered to patients with pulmonary hypertension.
Abstract: Sildenafil used as oral drug treatment for erectile dysfunction is predominantly metabolized by the cytochrome P450 isozyme 3A4. The antidepressant fluvoxamine is an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A4. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, we evaluated the effects of fluvoxamine dosed to steady state on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sildenafil. Twelve healthy men received oral fluvoxamine or placebo for 10 days (50 mg every day on days 1-3; 100 mg every day on days 4-10). On day 11, all participants received a single, oral, open-label dose of 50 mg sildenafil, and blood samples were collected for analysis of sildenafil plasma concentrations by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Concurrently, the effect of sildenafil on venodilation induced by a constant dose of sodium nitroprusside was assessed using the dorsal hand vein compliance technique. Sildenafil was well tolerated in the presence of fluvoxamine. During fluvoxamine, sildenafil exposure (area under the curve) significantly increased by 40% (P < 0.001), and its half-life increased by 19% (P = 0.034). Concurrently, sodium nitroprusside-induced venodilation was significantly augmented by 59% during fluvoxamine compared to placebo (P = 0.012). In conclusion, sildenafil kinetics are mildly affected by fluvoxamine which translates into an increase in vascular sildenafil effects. Whereas the pharmacokinetic changes do not suggest a large clinically relevant interaction, it may be prudent to consider a starting dose of 25 mg in patients concurrently treated with fluvoxamine.
Abstract: Sildenafil is the first oral therapeutic agent for the management of male erectile dysfunction. Its oral bioavailability is only 40% due to extensive presystemic elimination, mainly by CYP3A4. This study examined the effect of coadministration of ciprofloxacin or clarithromycin, which inhibit CYP3A4, on the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of sildenafil. Twelve healthy male volunteers received sildenafil alone or after pretreatment with the inhibitors in a balanced three-way crossover design. The pharmacokinetic analysis showed that ciprofloxacin coadministration with sildenafil significantly increased the AUC from 1407 +/- 380 to 2986 +/- 917 microg h/l (90% confidence interval 119%-159%) and the Cmax from 287 +/- 67 to 623 +/- 192 microg/l (90% confidence interval 127%-152%). Similarly, clarithromycin coadministration increased sildenafil AUC from 1407 +/- 380 to 3209 +/- 762 microg h/l (90% confidence interval 127%-161%) and Cmax from 287 +/- 67 to 694 +/- 259 microg/l (90% confidence interval 132%-157%). Ciprofloxacin coadministration and clarithromycin coadministration with sildenafil did not affect the rate of sildenafil absorption significantly. These results indicate that coadministration of ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin significantly increased sildenafil bioavailability which can be attributed to the inhibitory effect of ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin on CYP3A4. Dose adjustment of sildenafil is thus necessary when administered with such drugs.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to compare the effect of CYP3A5*3 genotype on the disposition of three phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is), vardenafil, sildenafil, and udenafil, because our previous in-vitro microsomal incubation study showed that the relative contribution of CYP3A5 enzyme to their metabolism was different among these PDE5Is. METHODS: An open-label three-way crossover study was performed with a single oral dose of PDE5Is (20 mg vardenafil, 100 mg sildenafil, or 200 mg udenafil) in 21 healthy men carrying CYP3A5*1/*1, *1/*3, or *3/*3. After each dose, plasma concentrations of the parents and their major metabolites were measured up to 24 or 48 h. RESULTS: The AUC(∞) and C(max) of vardenafil were 2.9-fold and 3.1-fold higher in CYP3A5*3/*3 carriers than in individuals with CYP3A5*1/*1 (P=0.003 and 0.002, respectively). The AUC(∞) and C(max) of sildenafil were 1.5-fold and 1.7-fold higher in CYP3A5*3/*3 carriers compared with individuals with CYP3A5*1/*1, but the statistical difference of both parameters among genotype groups was not observed. The disposition of udenafil differed little among groups in relation to the CYP3A5*3 allelic variant. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the disposition of these PDE5Is are differently influenced by the CYP3A5*3 genotype of individual participants. The CYP3A5*3 genotype affects the oral disposition of vardenafil significantly. The pharmacokinetic diversity of PDE5Is in relation to CYP3A5 genotype may lead to the clinical response variation and remains to be evaluated.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterize the efflux transport properties of vardenafil and sildenafil, and to compare the kinetics of these compounds via efflux transporters such as P-gp, BCRP and MRP2. METHODS: We measured the basal-to-apical and apical-to-basal transport of vardenafil and sildenafil within the concentration range of 1-100 µm using MDCKII cells overexpressing P-gp, BCRP and MRP2, and Caco-2 cells. KEY FINDINGS: Vardenafil had a much greater basal-to-apical than apical-to-basal transport rate in MDCKII cells overexpressing P-gp, BCRP and MRP2. Sildenafil showed P-gp- and BCRP-mediated efflux transport, but did not seem to be pumped out via MRP2 transporters. Consequently, the absorptive transport of vardenafil and sildenafil in Caco-2 cells increased linearly over the concentration range of 1-100 µm, whereas the secretory transport of these drugs was saturable and inhibited by the presence of specific inhibitors of P-gp and BCRP. MK571, a representative MRP2 inhibitor, inhibited the basal-to-apical transport of vardenafil, but not of sildenafil. CONCLUSION: The involvement of P-gp, BCRP and MRP2 for vardenafil and the involvement of P-gp and BCRP for sildenafil in the secretory transport with linear absorptive transport may contribute to the limited intestinal absorption of these drugs.