QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of abarelix and amitriptyline. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
|Amitriptyline||1 [0.82,1.63] 1||1|
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. We do not expect any change in exposure for abarelix, when combined with amitriptyline (100%). We do not expect any change in exposure for amitriptyline, when combined with abarelix (100%). The AUC is between 82% and 163% depending on the CYP2C19
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
The bioavailability of abarelix is unknown. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 316.8 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 1267.2 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is 97.5% strong. The metabolism via cytochromes is currently still being worked on.
Amitriptyline has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 48%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is 16 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached after approximately 64 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is 96% strong and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 586 liters. which is why, with a mean hepatic extraction rate of 0.48, both liver blood flow [Q] and a change in protein binding [Pb] are relevant. The metabolism takes place via CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, among others and the active transport takes place in particular via PGP.
|Serotonergic Effects a||2||Ø||++|
Recommendation: As a precautionary measure, symptoms of serotonergic overstimulation should be taken into account, especially after increasing the dose and at doses in the upper therapeutic range.
Rating: Amitriptyline modulates the serotonergic system to a moderate extent. The risk of a serotonergic syndrome can be classified as low with this medication if the dosage is in the usual range. According to our knowledge, abarelix does not increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||3||Ø||+++|
Recommendation: As a precaution, attention should be paid to anticholinergic symptoms, especially after increasing the dose and at doses in the upper therapeutic range.
Rating: The amitriptyline greatly increases anticholinergic activity. According to our knowledge, abarelix does not increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: In combination, abarelix and amitriptyline can potentially trigger ventricular arrhythmias of the torsades de pointes type.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||aba||ami|
|Weight gain||10.0 %||n.a.||10.0|
|Blurred vision||10.0 %||n.a.||10.0|
|Aggressive behavior||10.0 %||n.a.||10.0|
|Atrioventricular block||1.0 %||n.a.||+|
|Orthostatic hypotension||1.0 %||n.a.||+|
Erectile dysfunction: amitriptyline
Reduced libido: amitriptyline
Cholestatic hepatitis: amitriptyline
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: In a cross-over design, six healthy volunteers received 50 mg amitriptylinoxide (AT-NO) IV and orally and 50 mg amitriptyline (AT) IV. Urine was collected completely for 8 h and occasionally up to 48 h. In addition, five patients each under treatment with AT-NO or AT for tension headache collected 24-h urine samples. The following compounds were analysed by HPLC: AT-NO, E- and Z-10-hydroxy-AT-NO (E- and Z-10-OH-AT-NO), free and conjugated AT, E- and Z-10-OH-AT and their mono- and didemethylated analogues, and 2-OH-nortriptyline (2-OH-NT). Unchanged AT-NO in urine accounted for an average of 34% and 22% of the single IV and oral doses, respectively, and for 28% in continuous therapy, with a further 8-9% being excreted as E- and Z-10-OH-AT-NO. The remaining part was converted to the same metabolites as was AT. In the steady state the measured compounds accounted for 74% and 77% of the daily AT-NO and AT doses, respectively. The renal plasma clearance of AT-NO varied between 75 and 265 ml/min in the six volunteers. Tubular secretion must play an important part in the renal excretion of AT-NO.
Abstract: This report describes a case of encephalopathy developed in the course of amitriptyline therapy, during a remission of unipolar depression. This patient could have been diagnosed as having either neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) or serotonin syndrome (SS). The major determinant of the symptoms may have been dopamine/serotonin imbalance in the central nervous system. The NMS-like encephalopathy that develops in association with the use of antidepressants indicates that NMS and SS are spectrum disorders induced by drugs with both antidopaminergic and serotonergic effects.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Twenty-nine drugs of disparate structures and physicochemical properties were used in an examination of the capability of human liver microsomal lability data ("in vitro T(1/2)" approach) to be useful in the prediction of human clearance. Additionally, the potential importance of nonspecific binding to microsomes in the in vitro incubation milieu for the accurate prediction of human clearance was investigated. The compounds examined demonstrated a wide range of microsomal metabolic labilities with scaled intrinsic clearance values ranging from less than 0.5 ml/min/kg to 189 ml/min/kg. Microsomal binding was determined at microsomal protein concentrations used in the lability incubations. For the 29 compounds studied, unbound fractions in microsomes ranged from 0.11 to 1.0. Generally, basic compounds demonstrated the greatest extent of binding and neutral and acidic compounds the least extent of binding. In the projection of human clearance values, basic and neutral compounds were well predicted when all binding considerations (blood and microsome) were disregarded, however, including both binding considerations also yielded reasonable predictions. Including only blood binding yielded very poor projections of human clearance for these two types of compounds. However, for acidic compounds, disregarding all binding considerations yielded poor predictions of human clearance. It was generally most difficult to accurately predict clearance for this class of compounds; however the accuracy was best when all binding considerations were included. Overall, inclusion of both blood and microsome binding values gave the best agreement between in vivo clearance values and clearance values projected from in vitro intrinsic clearance data.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The distribution of different antidepressants between plasma and red blood cells (RBCs) or between water and erythrocyte membranes (ghosts) has not been sufficiently compared so far. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Distribution of seven antidepressants (amitriptyline, nortriptyline, imipramine, desipramine, didesmethylimipramine, dothiepin, and citalopram) was measured in vitro in small volumes of blood or erythrocyte membrane suspension using radiolabeled drugs. Blood samples were taken from healthy subjects. RESULTS: The distribution of antidepressants between plasma and RBCs is strongly affected by temperature; however, it does not depend on the antidepressant concentration in the range of their therapeutic concentrations. The data analysis proved that the ratio of RBCs to plasma volume concentrations is the suitable parameter characterizing antidepressant distribution in whole blood. Significantly higher ratios of RBCs to plasma concentrations were found for demethylated metabolites of tricyclic antidepressants and in the case of citalopram. Citalopram showed the highest accumulation in intact RBCs and at the same time the lowest binding to isolated membranes. The binding of drugs to isolated erythrocyte membranes was much higher than in whole blood. CONCLUSION: The concentration ratio of antidepressant in RBCs and in plasma is sensitive not only to the binding properties of plasma proteins and cell membranes, but also to changes in drug molecule, both in aminopropyl chain and in aromatic rings. This ratio is to a large extent characteristic of a particular antidepressant.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to measure the anticholinergic activity (AA) of medications commonly used by older adults. A radioreceptor assay was used to investigate the AA of 107 medications. Six clinically relevant concentrations were assessed for each medication. Rodent forebrain and striatum homogenate was used with tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate. Drug-free serum was added to medication and atropine standard-curve samples. For medications that showed detectable AA, average steady-state peak plasma and serum concentrations (C(max)) in older adults were used to estimate relationships between in vitro dose and AA. All results are reported in pmol/mL of atropine equivalents. At typical doses administered to older adults, amitriptyline, atropine, clozapine, dicyclomine, doxepin, L-hyoscyamine, thioridazine, and tolterodine demonstrated AA exceeding 15 pmol/mL. Chlorpromazine, diphenhydramine, nortriptyline, olanzapine, oxybutynin, and paroxetine had AA values of 5 to 15 pmol/mL. Citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, lithium, mirtazapine, quetiapine, ranitidine, and temazepam had values less than 5 pmol/mL. Amoxicillin, celecoxib, cephalexin, diazepam, digoxin, diphenoxylate, donepezil, duloxetine, fentanyl, furosemide, hydrocodone, lansoprazole, levofloxacin, metformin, phenytoin, propoxyphene, and topiramate demonstrated AA only at the highest concentrations tested (patients with above-average C(max) values, who receive higher doses, or are frail may show AA). The remainder of the medications investigated did not demonstrate any AA at the concentrations examined. Psychotropic medications were particularly likely to demonstrate AA. Each of the drug classifications investigated (e.g., antipsychotic, cardiovascular) had at least one medication that demonstrated AA at therapeutic doses. Clinicians can use this information when choosing between equally efficacious medications, as well as in assessing overall anticholinergic burden.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal relationship between cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications and memory and executive function in older men. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred forty-four community-dwelling men aged 65 and older with diagnosed hypertension. MEASUREMENTS: The outcomes were measured using the Hopkins Verbal Recall Test (HVRT) for short-term memory and the instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) scale for executive function at baseline and during follow-up. Anticholinergic medication use was ascertained using participants' primary care visit records and quantified as total anticholinergic burden using a clinician-rated anticholinergic score. RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications over the preceding 12 months was associated with poorer performance on the HVRT and IADLs. On average, a 1-unit increase in the total anticholinergic burden per 3 months was associated with a 0.32-point (95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.05-0.58) and 0.10-point (95% CI=0.04-0.17) decrease in the HVRT and IADLs, respectively, independent of other potential risk factors for cognitive impairment, including age, education, cognitive and physical function, comorbidities, and severity of hypertension. The association was attenuated but remained statistically significant with memory (0.29, 95% CI=0.01-0.56) and executive function (0.08, 95% CI=0.02-0.15) after further adjustment for concomitant non-anticholinergic medications. CONCLUSION: Cumulative anticholinergic exposure across multiple medications over 1 year may negatively affect verbal memory and executive function in older men. Prescription of drugs with anticholinergic effects in older persons deserves continued attention to avoid deleterious adverse effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although some of the aetiological factors are known, it is not yet known whether drugs with anticholinergic activity (AA) contribute to this cognitive decline. Such knowledge would provide opportunities to prevent acceleration of cognitive decline in PD. OBJECTIVE: To study whether the use of agents with anticholinergic properties is an independent risk factor for cognitive decline in patients with PD. METHODS: A community-based cohort of patients with PD (n=235) were included and assessed at baseline. They were reassessed 4 and 8 years later. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A detailed assessment of the AA of all drugs prescribed was made, and AA was classified according to a standardised scale. Relationships between cognitive decline and AA load and duration of treatment were assessed using bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses. RESULTS: More than 40% used drugs with AA at baseline. During the 8-year follow-up, the cognitive decline was higher in those who had been taking AA drugs (median decline on MMSE 6.5 points) compared with those who had not taken such drugs (median decline 1 point; p=0.025). In linear regression analyses adjusting for age, baseline cognition and depression, significant associations with decline on MMSE were found for total AA load (standardised beta=0.229, p=0.04) as well as the duration of using AA drugs (standardised beta 0.231, p=0.032). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an association between anticholinergic drug use and cognitive decline in PD. This may provide an important opportunity for clinicians to avoid increasing progression of cognitive decline by avoiding drugs with AA. Increased awareness by clinicians is required about the classes of drugs that have anticholinergic properties.
Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIMS: The nature and extent of adverse cognitive effects due to the prescription of anticholinergic drugs in older people with and without dementia is unclear. METHODS: We calculated the anticholinergic load (ACL) of medications taken by participants of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of ageing, a cohort of 211 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 133 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients and 768 healthy controls (HC) all aged over 60 years. The association between ACL and cognitive function was examined for each diagnostic group (HC, MCI, AD). RESULTS: A high ACL within the HC group was associated with significantly slower response speeds for the Stroop color and incongruent trials. No other significant relationships between ACL and cognition were noted. CONCLUSION: In this large cohort, prescribed anticholinergic drugs appeared to have modest effects upon psychomotor speed and executive function, but not on other areas of cognition in healthy older adults.
Abstract: Electrocardiographic pathologies are a common problem during antidepressant treatment. The authors investigated the association of serum concentrations of antidepressants and heart rate, QT, and QTc. Polymorphisms of NOS1AP (nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein) rs10494366 and rs12143842 as potential influence factors also were considered. In the amitriptyline sample (n = 59), significant Spearman ρ correlations were found between serum concentration and QTc (r = 0.333, P = 0.010), as well as heart rate (r = 0.407, P = 0.001). Patients with a serum concentration greater than the therapeutic range (>200 ng/mL) exhibit significantly higher heart rates (87.0 ± 13.3 vs 80.0 ± 13.9, U test P = 0.011) and higher QTc values (443.8 ± 28.8 vs 427.9 ± 20.6, U test P = 0.022). Excluding the 26 patients with a serum concentration greater than the therapeutic range, patients with rs12143842 risk alleles exhibit higher heart rates and as a trend lower QT intervals with no difference in QTc. In the venlafaxine sample (n = 81), no significant association between serum concentration and heart rate, QT, or QTc was revealed. In summary, the risk for relevant electrocardiographic alterations induced by tricyclic antidepressants, such as amitriptyline, is dependent on serum concentrations. NOS1AP polymorphisms may be a genetic vulnerability factor.
Abstract: AIM: The aim of the study was to examine mortality risk associated with use of antidepressants and antipsychotics classified with torsades de pointes (TdP) risk in elderly. METHODS: A matched case-control register study was conducted in people 65 years and older dying outside hospital from 2008-2013 (n = 286,092) and matched controls (n = 1,430,460). The association between prescription of antidepressants and antipsychotics with various TdP risk according to CredibleMeds (www.crediblemeds.org) and all-cause mortality was studied by multivariate conditional logistic regression adjusted for comorbidity and several other confounders. RESULTS: Use of antidepressants classified with known or possible TdP risk, was associated with higher adjusted risk for mortality (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.51, 1.56 and OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.61, 1.67, respectively) compared with antidepressants classified with conditional TdP risk (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.22, 1.28) or without TdP classification (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.94, 1.05). Antipsychotics classified with known TdP risk were associated with higher risk (OR 4.57, 95% CI 4.37, 4.78) than antipsychotics with possible risk (OR 2.58, 95% CI 2.52, 2.64) or without TdP classification (OR 2.14, 95% CI 2.03, 2.65). The following risk ranking was observed for commonly used antidepressants: mirtazapine > citalopram > sertraline > amitriptyline and for antipsychotics: haloperidol > risperidone >olanzapine > quetiapine. CONCLUSION: The CredibleMeds system predicted drug-associated risk for mortality in the elderly at the risk class level. Among antipsychotics, haloperidol, and among antidepressants, mirtazapine and citalopram, were associated with the highest risks. The results suggest that the TdP risk with antidepressants and antipsychotics should be taken into consideration when prescribing to the elderly.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.