QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of aripiprazole and abarelix. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
|Aripiprazole||1 [0.48,2.58] 1||1|
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. We do not expect any change in exposure for aripiprazole, when combined with abarelix (100%). The AUC is between 48% and 258% depending on the CYP2D6
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Aripiprazole has a high oral bioavailability [ F ] of 85%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change little during an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 99 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 396 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is very strong at 99% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 404 liters, Since the substance has a low hepatic extraction rate of 0.04, displacement from protein binding [Pb] in the context of an interaction can lead to increased exposure. The metabolism takes place via CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, among others and the active transport takes place in particular via PGP.
The bioavailability of abarelix is unknown. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 316.8 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 1267.2 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is 97.5% strong. The metabolism via cytochromes is currently still being worked on.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither aripiprazole nor abarelix increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||+||Ø|
Recommendation: As a precaution, attention should be paid to anticholinergic symptoms, especially after increasing the dose and at doses in the upper therapeutic range.
Rating: Aripiprazole only has a mild effect on the anticholinergic system. The risk of anticholinergic syndrome with this medication is rather low if the dosage is in the usual range. According to our knowledge, abarelix does not increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: In combination, aripiprazole and abarelix can potentially trigger ventricular arrhythmias of the torsades de pointes type.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||ari||aba|
|Weight gain||12.0 %||12.0||n.a.|
Vomiting (7%): aripiprazole
Dizziness (7%): aripiprazole
Tremor (6.9%): aripiprazole
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: aripiprazole
Cerebrovascular accident: aripiprazole
Tardive dyskinesia: aripiprazole
Transient ischemic attack: aripiprazole
Restlessness (7%): aripiprazole
Blurred vision (5.5%): aripiprazole
Diabetes mellitus: aripiprazole
Orthostatic hypotension: aripiprazole
Diabetic ketoacidosis: aripiprazole
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder who are experiencing acute behavioural emergencies often require intramuscular injection of antipsychotics for rapid symptom resolution. The efficacy and tolerability of intramuscular aripiprazole injection has been established in agitated inpatients with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder. The main objective of the two clinical pharmacology studies reported here was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole after intramuscular dosing in healthy subjects and in patients with schizophrenia, and after intravenous and oral dosing in healthy subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Study 1 was an open-label, randomized, three-treatment crossover study in healthy subjects (n = 18) to assess the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of intramuscular aripiprazole 5 mg and oral aripiprazole 5 mg relative to intravenous aripiprazole 2 mg. Study 2 was an open-label, nonrandomized, escalating-dose study in patients with schizophrenia (n = 32) to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of intramuscular aripiprazole across a range of doses (from 1 mg to 45 mg). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters for plasma concentrations of aripiprazole and its active metabolite dehydro-aripiprazole were determined. Safety and tolerability data are also summarized. RESULTS: In study 1, the geometric mean values for the absolute bioavailability of aripiprazole following oral and intramuscular administration were 0.85 and 0.98, respectively. Intramuscular aripiprazole demonstrated more rapid attainment of plasma aripiprazole concentrations than oral aripiprazole (78% and 5% of peak plasma concentration [C(max)] values at 0.5 hours postdose, respectively). The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) in the first 2 hours was 90% higher after intramuscular administration than after oral administration. For dehydro-aripiprazole, the AUC over the collection interval values were higher, the times to reach the C(max) values were later and the C(max) values were similar for the intramuscular and oral formulations. In study 2, the proportionality of the C(max) and AUC to doses ranging from 1 mg to 45 mg suggests a linear pharmacokinetic profile for intramuscular aripiprazole. CONCLUSION: More rapid absorption was observed following intramuscular aripiprazole injection than following oral dosing. These results support the recently reported efficacy of intramuscular aripiprazole for managing agitation in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Two studies were conducted to investigate whether the pharmacokinetics of the atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole were altered in individuals with hepatic or renal impairment compared with those with normal hepatic or renal function. STUDY DESIGN: Two open-label, single-dose studies. STUDY SETTING: Clinical research unit. PATIENTS: Study 1: Subjects with normal hepatic function (n = 6) and subjects with hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class A [mild, n = 8], B [moderate, n = 8] or C [severe, n = 3]). Study 2: Subjects with normal renal function (creatinine clearance >80 mL/min; n = 7) and subjects with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min; n = 6). TREATMENT: Single oral dose of aripiprazole 15 mg. PHARMACOKINETIC ANALYSES: Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using plasma aripiprazole and dehydro-aripiprazole concentration-time data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Study 1 (hepatic impairment study): apparent oral clearance of unbound drug (CL/Fu) and the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of aripiprazole; Study 2 (renal impairment study): CL/Fu, Cmax and renal clearance (CL(R)). Safety assessments included 12-lead ECGs, vital sign monitoring, clinical laboratory measurements and assessment of adverse events.f RESULTS: In the hepatic impairment study, the mean total Cmax of aripiprazole was significantly lower in subjects with severe hepatic impairment compared with those with normal hepatic function (p = 0.04). The fraction of aripiprazole unbound (fu) was significantly greater for subjects with mild (p = 0.02) or severe hepatic impairment (p < 0.01) but not for those with moderate hepatic impairment (p = 0.09) compared with healthy controls. There were no meaningful differences in either the Cmax of unbound aripiprazole or CL/Fu between groups. The mean CL(R) of aripiprazole was negligible (0.04 mL/h/kg in controls and 0.19 mL/h/kg in patients with severe hepatic impairment). In the renal impairment study, the mean total Cmax values were numerically higher (approximately 40%) and the area under the plasma aripiprazole concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity was lower (approximately 19%) in renally impaired subjects versus those with normal renal function; the fu was comparable between groups. Aripiprazole CL(R) was approximately 3-fold higher in renally impaired subjects, but this difference was not statistically significant. No deaths or serious adverse events were reported during either study. CONCLUSION: A single aripiprazole 15-mg dose was well tolerated. There were no meaningful differences in aripiprazole pharmacokinetics between groups of subjects with normal hepatic or renal function and those with either hepatic or renal impairment. Adjustment of the aripiprazole dose does not appear to be required in populations with hepatic or renal impairment.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of torsades de pointes (TdP) in a patient treated with aripiprazole. CASE SUMMARY: A 42-year-old white male with schizophrenia, diabetes, hypertension, and a history of stroke was admitted to the intensive care unit following 2 days of fever, diarrhea, and altered mental status. Following the resolution of his acute illness, previous therapy with quetiapine 400 mg orally at bedtime was resumed for schizophrenia and presumed delirium. Quetiapine was discontinued after 1 dose because of QTc interval prolongation. Twenty-three days later, with a baseline QTc interval of 414 milliseconds, aripiprazole 2.5 mg orally once daily was initiated. Following 5 days of aripiprazole therapy, the patient had a cardiac arrest due to TdP. Normal sinus rhythm was restored after 30 seconds of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 1 shock of 200 Joules, and 4 g of intravenous magnesium sulfate. Serial electrocardiographs obtained after aripiprazole discontinuation revealed resolution of QTc interval prolongation. DISCUSSION: Aripiprazole is a second-generation antipsychotic that may be selected for patients with prolonged QTc intervals and at risk for TdP. Data from trials indicate that aripiprazole has minimal effects on the QTc interval. However, in this case, aripiprazole was associated with TdP in a patient with minimal risk factors. The Naranjo probability scale was used to determine a probable association between aripiprazole and the development of TdP. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of TdP associated with the use of aripiprazole. CONCLUSIONS: Five days of low-dose aripiprazole therapy was associated with the development of TdP in a man with minimal risk factors. Clinicians should be aware of this potential adverse drug event with aripiprazole.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: We examined sex differences in the effect of olanzapine (OLZ), risperidone (RIS), aripiprazole (ARP), or quetiapine (QTP) on mean corrected QT (QTc) intervals among 222 patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Subjects were patients with schizophrenia who were treated with either OLZ (n = 69), RIS (n = 60), ARP (n = 62), or QTP (n = 31). Electrocardiographic measurements were conducted, and the QT interval was corrected using Bazett's correction formula. RESULTS: The mean QTc interval of the QTP group was significantly longer than that of the RIS group (p = 0.002) or ARP group (p = 0.029). The mean QTc interval of the OLZ group was also significantly longer than that of the RIS group (p = 0.006). In female participants, the difference in the mean QTc interval among the four second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) groups was statistically significant (p = 0.002), whereas in male patients, there was no significant difference in the mean QTc interval among the four SGA groups. Post hoc analyses showed that sex differences in QTc interval were observed only in OLZ treatment group (p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate sex differences in the effect of four SGAs on the QTc interval.
Abstract: Dopamine partial agonism and functional selectivity have been innovative strategies in the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia and mood disorders and have shifted the concept of dopamine modulation beyond the established approach of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) antagonism. Despite the fact that aripiprazole was introduced in therapy more than 12 years ago, many questions are still unresolved regarding the complexity of the effects of this agent on signal transduction and intracellular pathways, in part linked to its pleiotropic receptor profile. The complexity of the mechanism of action has progressively shifted the conceptualization of this agent from partial agonism to functional selectivity. From the induction of early genes to modulation of scaffolding proteins and activation of transcription factors, aripiprazole has been shown to affect multiple cellular pathways and several cortical and subcortical neurotransmitter circuitries. Growing evidence shows that, beyond the consequences of D2R occupancy, aripiprazole has a unique neurobiology among available antipsychotics. The effect of chronic administration of aripiprazole on D2R affinity state and number has been especially highlighted, with relevant translational implications for long-term treatment of psychosis. The hypothesized effects of aripiprazole on cell-protective mechanisms and neurite growth, as well as the differential effects on intracellular pathways [i.e. extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)] compared with full D2R antagonists, suggest further exploration of these targets by novel and future biased ligand compounds. This review aims to recapitulate the main neurobiological effects of aripiprazole and discuss the potential implications for upcoming improvements in schizophrenia therapy based on dopamine modulation beyond D2R antagonism.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.