QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
Variants ✨For the computationally intensive evaluation of the variants, please choose the paid standard subscription.
Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of azithromycin and abarelix. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. We do not expect any change in exposure for azithromycin, when combined with abarelix (100%). We do not expect any change in exposure for abarelix, when combined with azithromycin (100%).
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Azithromycin has a low oral bioavailability [ F ] of 37%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change strongly with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 72 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 288 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is very weak at 7% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 2177 liters. which is why, with a mean hepatic extraction rate of 0.39, both liver blood flow [Q] and a change in protein binding [Pb] are relevant. The metabolism does not take place via the common cytochromes and the active transport takes place partly via MRP2 and PGP.
The bioavailability of abarelix is unknown. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 316.8 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 1267.2 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is 97.5% strong. The metabolism via cytochromes is currently still being worked on.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither azithromycin nor abarelix increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither azithromycin nor abarelix increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: In combination, azithromycin and abarelix can potentially trigger ventricular arrhythmias of the torsades de pointes type.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||azi||aba|
|Abdominal pain||10.0 %||10.0||n.a.|
|Blurred vision||5.0 %||5.0||n.a.|
|Hearing loss||1.0 %||+||n.a.|
|Disorder of taste||1.0 %||+||n.a.|
|Generalized exanthematous pustulosis||0.0 %||0.01||n.a.|
Stevens johnson syndrome: azithromycin
Toxic epidermal necrolysis: azithromycin
Cholestatic hepatitis: azithromycin
DRESS syndrome: azithromycin
Myasthenia gravis: azithromycin
Tubulointerstitial nephritis: azithromycin
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: Azalide antibiotics, of which azithromycin is the first demonstrated, have different pharmacokinetics from other antibiotics currently used. The bioavailability of the drug is approximately 37%. Extensive and rapid distribution from serum into the intracellular compartments is followed by rapid distribution to the tissues. Tissue concentrations exceed serum concentrations by up to 100-fold following a single azithromycin 500mg dose. Concentration of the drug within phagocytes aids in its ability to combat infections. High concentrations of azithromycin are found in the tonsil, lung, prostate, lymph nodes and liver, with only small concentrations found in fat and muscle. A 500mg dose on day 1, followed by 250mg daily on days 2 to 5, has been demonstrated to maintain azithromycin concentrations at sites of infection and continues to be effective for several days after administration has ceased. The pharmacokinetics of azithromycin make it a drug with diverse therapeutic applications.
Abstract: Plasma and urine levels of 12 healthy subjects and 30 patients with renal insufficiency of different degrees were examined after oral administration of four 250 mg capsules azithromycin (total daily dose 1,000 mg). The concentrations were determined by cup plate method. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined model-dependent and noncompartmentally. Neither the area under the plasma concentration curve nor the distribution volume in steady state (16 l/kg body weight) nor the maximal plasma concentration were significantly affected by renal insufficiency. Thus the dosage regimen of azithromycin in renal impairment may (and should) be the same as in patients with normal renal function. The nonrenal clearance is not affected by renal insufficiency, but the concentration of the substance in the tubular lumen (the "tubular load") may be increased.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, microbiology, chemistry, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, tolerability, dosage, administration, and economic issues of intravenous azithromycin. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search from 1978 to May 1998 of the English-language literature and an extensive review of journals and meeting abstracts was conducted. Due to the lack of published literature concerning the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of the intravenous formulation of azithromycin, the manufacturer was also contacted and requested to supply information concerning intravenous azithromycin. DATA EXTRACTION: In vitro and preclinical studies were included, as well as data from Phase II and III clinical trials. Efficacy, pharmacokinetic, safety, and tolerability data were also supplemented with information from the manufacturer, due to the lack of published reports. DATA SYNTHESIS: Azithromycin, an azalide subclass of the macrolide antibiotics, is now available as an intravenous formulation. The intravenous form is approved for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae. Legionella pneumophila, Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-sensitive), and Streptococcus pneumoniae, and for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Mycoplasma hominis in situations in which intravenous therapy is required. Its spectrum of activity, unique pharmacokinetics, and high and sustained tissue penetration allow for once-daily dosing with monotherapy in many cases. Clinical and bacteriologic response rates as well as the adverse event profile have been similar to or better than comparative agents. CONCLUSIONS: Azithromycin offers advantages over other agents due to its unique pharmacokinetics, high and sustained tissue penetration, and spectrum of activity. This allows for monotherapy and once-daily intravenous dosing for mild-to-moderate community-acquired pneumonia or pelvic inflammatory disease in many instances. Future research should focus on total duration of antibiotic therapy and the need, or lack thereof, for extensive oral antibiotic follow-up.
Abstract: Administration of oral azithromycin, in addition to previously well-tolerated long-term amiodarone therapy, was associated with a marked prolongation of QT interval and increased QT dispersion, both substrates for life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmia and torsades de pointes. This is a report of QT prolongation and increased QT dispersion associated with the use of azithromycin. The report assumes an added significance, in view of widespread empirical use of this antibiotic for the treatment of lower respiratory infections and belief of its safety in patients with cardiac diseases. Based on the authors' experience, they would like to emphasize that the combination of azithromycin with other drugs known to prolong QT or causing torsades de pointes be used with caution until the question of the proarrhythmic effect of azithromycin is resolved by further studies.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: During treatment with azithromycin, a 55 year-old woman developed a newly prolonged QT interval and torsade de pointes in the absence of known risk factors. Female gender and acute renal failure may be considerations in patients treated with azithromycin.
Abstract: Predicting the magnitude of time-dependent metabolic drug-drug (mDDIs) interactions involving cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4) from in vitro data requires accurate knowledge of the inactivation parameters of the inhibitor (K(I), k(inact)) and of the turnover of the enzyme (k(deg)) in both the gut and the liver. We have predicted the magnitude of mDDIs observed in 29 in vivo studies involving six CYP3A4 probe substrates and five mechanism based inhibitors of CYP3A4 of variable potency (azithromycin, clarithromycin, diltiazem, erythromycin and verapamil). Inactivation parameters determined anew in a single laboratory under standardised conditions together with data from substrate and inhibitor files within the Simcyp Simulator (Version 9.3) were used to determine a value of the hepatic k(deg) (0.0193 or 0.0077h(-1)) most appropriate for the prediction of mDDIs involving time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4. The higher value resulted in decreased bias (geometric mean fold error - 1.05 versus 1.30) and increased precision (root mean squared error - 1.29 versus 2.30) of predictions of mean ratios of AUC in the absence and presence of inhibitor. Depending on the k(deg) value used (0.0193 versus 0.0077h(-1)), predicted mean ratios of AUC were within 2-fold of the observed values for all (100%) and 27 (93%) of the 29 studies, respectively and within 1.5-fold for 24 (83%) and 17 (59%) of the 29 studies, respectively. Comprehensive PBPK models were applied for accurate assessment of the potential for mDDIs involving time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4 using a hepatic k(deg) value of 0.0193h(-1) in conjunction with inactivation parameters determined by the conventional experimental approach.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.