QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of abarelix and bendamustine. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. We do not expect any change in exposure for abarelix, when combined with bendamustine (100%). We do not expect any change in exposure for bendamustine, when combined with abarelix (100%).
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
The bioavailability of abarelix is unknown. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 316.8 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 1267.2 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is 97.5% strong. The metabolism via cytochromes is currently still being worked on.
The bioavailability of bendamustine is unknown. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather short at 0.47 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached quickly. The protein binding [ Pb ] is moderately strong at 95% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is small at 18 liters. The metabolism mainly takes place via CYP1A2.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither abarelix nor bendamustine increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither abarelix nor bendamustine increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: In combination, abarelix and bendamustine can potentially trigger ventricular arrhythmias of the torsades de pointes type.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||aba||ben|
|Hypersensitivity reaction||5.0 %||n.a.||5.0|
|Hypertensive crisis||2.0 %||n.a.||2.0|
|Loss of appetite||1.0 %||n.a.||+|
Weight loss: bendamustine
Pulmonary fibrosis: bendamustine
Stevens johnson syndrome: bendamustine
Toxic epidermal necrolysis: bendamustine
Myelodysplastic syndrome: bendamustine
Elevated ALT: bendamustine
Elevated AST: bendamustine
Renal failure: bendamustine
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Bendamustine is an alkylating agent with clinical activity against a variety of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. To assess the roles of renal and hepatic drug elimination pathways in the excretion and metabolism of bendamustine, a mass balance study was performed in patients with relapsed or refractory malignancies. METHODS: A single 60-minute intravenous dose of 120 mg/m(2), 80-95 μCi (14)C-bendamustine hydrochloride was administered to six patients, followed by collection of blood, urine, and fecal samples at specified time points up to day 8 or until the radioactivity of the 24-hour urine and fecal collections was below 1% of the administered dose (whichever was longer). Total radioactivity (TRA) was measured in all samples, and concentrations of unchanged bendamustine and its metabolites γ-hydroxy-bendamustine (M3), N-desmethyl-bendamustine (M4), and dihydroxy bendamustine (HP2) were determined in plasma and urine, using validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods. RESULTS: The mean recovery of TRA in excreta was 76% of the radiochemical dose. Approximately half of the administered dose was recovered in urine and a quarter in feces. Less than 5% of the administered dose was recovered in urine as unchanged bendamustine. Bendamustine clearance from plasma was rapid, with a half-life of ~40 minutes. Plasma concentrations of M3, M4, and HP2 were very low relative to bendamustine concentrations. Plasma levels of TRA were higher and more sustained as compared with plasma concentrations of bendamustine, M3, M4, and HP2, suggesting the presence of one or more longer-lived (14)C-bendamustine-derived compounds. Fatigue (50%) and vomiting (50%) were the most frequent treatment-related adverse events. A grade 3/4 absolute lymphocyte count decrease occurred in all patients at some point during the study. CONCLUSION: Bendamustine is extensively metabolized, with subsequent excretion in both urine and feces. Accumulation of bendamustine is not anticipated in cancer patients with renal or hepatic impairment, because of the dose administration schedule and short half-life.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Bendamustine is used in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (first-line) and indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that progressed during/within 6 months of treatment with rituximab or a rituximab-containing regimen. This study was a postapproval commitment to investigate bendamustine's effect on cardiac repolarization in treatment-naïve adults with advanced indolent NHL/mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). METHODS: In this multicenter, open-label, phase 3 study, patients received 6-8 28-day cycles of bendamustine (90 mg/m(2), days 1 and 2) and rituximab (375 mg/m(2), day 1). Exclusions included a history of cardiac conditions with potential for QT prolongation. The primary endpoint was change in Fridericia-corrected QT (QTcF; 3 electrocardiograms per time point) on day 2 of cycle 1, from just before infusion to end of infusion (immediately postinfusion, coinciding with maximum plasma concentration of bendamustine). Change 1 h postinfusion was also measured. Exploratory assessments included specific QTcF outlier analyses (new QTcF >500 ms, change >60 ms) and morphological changes. RESULTS: Of the 54 enrolled patients (mean age, 62.9 years), 53 received ≥1 dose; 49 completed ≥6 cycles. Mean QTcF change from baseline was 6.7 ms at end of infusion; no mean changes >20 ms were detected ≤1 h postinfusion. No patients met specific outlier criteria at end of infusion or 1 h postinfusion. No morphological changes were detected. CONCLUSIONS: In this small treatment-naïve population with advanced NHL/MCL, bendamustine did not produce a clinically relevant increase in mean QTcF on the second infusion day. The potential for delayed effects on QT interval after 1 h was not evaluated.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.