QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of abarelix and ceritinib. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. We do not expect any change in exposure for abarelix, when combined with ceritinib (100%). We do not expect any change in exposure for ceritinib, when combined with abarelix (100%).
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
The bioavailability of abarelix is unknown. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 316.8 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 1267.2 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is 97.5% strong. The metabolism via cytochromes is currently still being worked on.
Ceritinib has a low oral bioavailability [ F ] of 40%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change strongly with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 41 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 164 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is 97% strong. Since the substance has a low hepatic extraction rate of 0.24, displacement from protein binding [Pb] in the context of an interaction can lead to increased exposure. The metabolism mainly takes place via CYP3A4 and the active transport takes place in particular via PGP.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither abarelix nor ceritinib increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither abarelix nor ceritinib increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: In combination, abarelix and ceritinib can potentially trigger ventricular arrhythmias of the torsades de pointes type.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||aba||cer|
|Abdominal pain||47.0 %||n.a.||47.0|
|Loss of appetite||34.0 %||n.a.||34.0|
|Weight loss||24.0 %||n.a.||24.0|
Renal failure (2%): ceritinib
Dyspnea (2%): ceritinib
Pneumonia (2%): ceritinib
Interstitial lung disease: ceritinib
Pleural effusion: ceritinib
Pericardial effusion: ceritinib
Elevated ALT: ceritinib
Elevated AST: ceritinib
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: We previously reviewed the cardiovascular safety of 16 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), approved for use in oncology as of 30 September 2012. Since then, the indications for some of them have been widened and an additional nine TKIs have also been approved as of 30 April 2015. Eight of these nine are indicated for use in oncology and one (nintedanib) for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. This report is an update on the cardiovascular safety of those 16 TKIs, including the post-marketing data concerning their pro-arrhythmic effects, and reviews the cardiovascular safety of the nine new TKIs approved since (afatinib, cabozantinib, ceritinib, dabrafenib, ibrutinib, lenvatinib, nintedanib, ponatinib, and trametinib). As before, we focus on specific aspects of cardiovascular safety, namely their potential to induce QT interval prolongation, left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and hypertension but now also summarise the risks of arterial thromboembolic events (ATEs) associated with these agents. Of the newer TKIs, cabozantinib and ceritinib have been shown to induce a mild to moderate degree of QTc interval prolongation while cardiac dysfunction has been reported with the use of afatinib, dabrafenib, lenvatinib, ponatinib and trametinib. The label for axitinib was revised to include a new association with cardiac dysfunction. Hypertension is associated with cabozantinib, lenvatinib, nintedanib, ponatinib and trametinib. Ponatinib, within 10 months of its approval in December 2012, required voluntary (temporary) suspension of its marketing until significant safety revisions (restricted indication, additional warnings and precautions about the risk of arterial occlusion and thromboembolic events and amended dose) were made to its label. Compared with the previous 16 TKIs, more of the recently introduced TKIs are associated with the risk of LV dysfunction, and fewer with QT prolongation. Available data on morbidity and mortality associated with TKIs, together with post-marketing experience with lapatinib and ponatinib, emphasise the need for effective pharmacovigilance and ongoing re-assessment of their risk/benefit after approval of these novel agents. If not adequately managed, these cardiovascular effects significantly decrease the quality of life and increase the morbidity and mortality in a population already at high risk. Evidence accumulated over the last decade suggests that their clinical benefit, although worthwhile, is modest and extends only to progression-free survival and complete response without any effect on overall survival. During uncontrolled use in routine clinical practice, their risk/benefit is likely to be inferior to that perceived from highly controlled clinical trials.
Abstract: Ceritinib is a potent inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), which has shown acceptable safety and substantial antitumor activity in ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Two food-effect studies were conducted in healthy adults to investigate the influence of food on the oral bioavailability of ceritinib: a study with low- or high-fat meals at 500 mg and a study with a light snack at 750 mg. Compared with the fasted state, AUC0-∞ (90%CI) of ceritinib was increased by 58% (34%, 86%) after the intake of a low-fat meal, by 73% (46%, 105%) after the intake of a high-fat meal, and by 54% (19%, 99%) after the intake of a light snack. Safety assessments also suggested that food may improve gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability after a single ceritinib dose. Based on the pharmacokinetic results, it is essential to avoid any type of meal during dosing of ceritinib because the intake of food may increase the occurrence of exposure-dependent, non-GI toxicities at the labeled dose of 750 mg daily during fasting. A randomized trial is ongoing to determine an alternative way to give ceritinib (450 mg or 600 mg with food) that may enhance GI tolerability in ALK-positive NSCLC patients.
Abstract: An increasing number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are available for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). QT prolongation is one of the known, but relatively rare, adverse events of several TKIs (e.g. osimertinib, crizotinib, ceritinib). Screening for QT prolongation in (high risk) patients is advised for these TKIs. When a QT prolongation develops, the physician is challenged with the question whether to (permanently) discontinue the TKI. In this perspective, we report on a patient who developed a grade III QT prolongation during osimertinib (a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]-TKI) treatment. On discontinuation of osimertinib, she developed a symptomatic disease flare, not responding to subsequent systemic treatment. The main aim of this perspective is to describe the management of QT prolongation in stage IV EGFR driver mutation NSCLC patients. We also discuss the ethical question of how to weigh the risk of a disease flare due to therapy cessation against the risk of sudden cardiac death. A family history of sudden death and a prolonged QT interval might indicate a familiar long QT syndrome. We have summarised the current monitoring advice for TKIs used in the treatment of lung cancer and the most common drug-TKI interactions to consider and to optimise TKI treatment in lung cancer patients.