QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of abarelix and clozapine. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
|Clozapine||1 [0.72,2.92] 1||1|
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. We do not expect any change in exposure for abarelix, when combined with clozapine (100%). We do not expect any change in exposure for clozapine, when combined with abarelix (100%). The AUC is between 72% and 292% depending on the CYP2C19
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
The bioavailability of abarelix is unknown. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 316.8 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 1267.2 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is 97.5% strong. The metabolism via cytochromes is currently still being worked on.
Clozapine has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 55%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is 14.2 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached after approximately 56.8 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is moderately strong at 95% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 112 liters, which is why, with a mean hepatic extraction rate of 0.33, both liver blood flow [Q] and a change in protein binding [Pb] are relevant. The metabolism takes place via CYP1A2 and CYP2C19, among others and the active transport takes place in particular via PGP.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither abarelix nor clozapine increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||3||Ø||+++|
Recommendation: As a precaution, attention should be paid to anticholinergic symptoms, especially after increasing the dose and at doses in the upper therapeutic range.
Rating: The clozapine greatly increases anticholinergic activity. According to our knowledge, abarelix does not increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: In combination, abarelix and clozapine can potentially trigger ventricular arrhythmias of the torsades de pointes type.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||aba||clo|
|Weight gain||35.0 %||n.a.||35.0|
Syncope (6%): clozapine
Hypertension (4%): clozapine
Cardiac arrest: clozapine
Ventricular arrhythmia: clozapine
Hyperhidrosis (6%): clozapine
Erythema multiforme: clozapine
Stevens johnson syndrome: clozapine
Xerostomia (6%): clozapine
Nausea (5%): clozapine
Tremor (6%): clozapine
Abnormal dreams (4%): clozapine
Agitation (4%): clozapine
Restlessness (4%): clozapine
Akathisia (3%): clozapine
Seizure (3%): clozapine
Insomnia (2%): clozapine
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: clozapine
Hypercholesterolemia (5%): clozapine
Diabetic ketoacidosis: clozapine
Blurred vision (5%): clozapine
Fever (5%): clozapine
Fatigue (2%): clozapine
Diabetes mellitus (4%): clozapine
Pneumonia (3.5%): clozapine
Respiratory arrest: clozapine
Leukopenia (3%): clozapine
Neutropenia (3%): clozapine
Agranulocytosis (1.3%): clozapine
Pulmonary embolism: clozapine
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: The clinical pharmacokinetics of clozapine, an atypical neuroleptic, was evaluated in 10 chronic schizophrenic male patients after intravenous and oral administration. The mean equilibrium-state concentration ratio between blood and plasma was experimentally determined to be 0.87. The average values for blood clearance, hepatic extraction ratio and oral bioavailability were 250 ml/min, 0.2 and 0.27, respectively. Plasma concentration peaked on average at 3 h. The mean volume of distribution at steady-state and the terminal half-life was 1.6 l/kg and 10.3 h, respectively. A large fraction of the dose is most probably metabolized by some extrahepatic presystemic routes. The large inter-individual variability in the bioavailability and clearance is probably the main reason for large variation in the steady-state plasma level in patients receiving the same oral dosage regimen.
Abstract: An isocratic high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with UV absorbance detection is described for the quantification of clozapine (8-chloro-11-(4'-methyl)piperazino-5H-dibenzo[b,e]-1,4-diazepine) and its two major metabolites in plasma and red blood cells (RBCs). The method involves sample clean-up by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The organic phase was back-extracted with 0.1 M hydrochloric acid. Loxapine served as the internal standard. The analytes were separated by HPLC on a Kromasil Ultrabase C18 analytical column (5 microns particle size; 250 x 4.6 mm I.D.) using acetonitrile-phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (48:52, v/v) as eluent and were measured by UV absorbance detection at 254 nm. The limits of quantiation were 20 ng/ml for clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine and 30 ng/ml for clozapine N-oxide. Recovery from plasma or RBCs proved to be higher than 62%. Precision, expressed as % C.V., was in the range 0.6-15%. Accuracy ranged from 96 to 105%. The method's ability to quantify clozapine and two major metabolites simultaneously with precision, accuracy and sensitivity makes it useful in therapeutic drug monitoring.
Abstract: AIMS: N-Desmethylclozapine and clozapine N-oxide are major metabolites of the atypical neuroleptic clozapine in humans and undergo renal excretion. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent the elimination of these metabolites in urine contributes to the total fate of clozapine in patients and how they are handled by the kidney. METHODS: From 15 psychiatric patients on continuous clozapine monotherapy, blood and urine samples were obtained during four 2 h intervals, and clozapine and its metabolites were assayed in serum and urine by solid-phase extraction and h.p.l.c. Unbound fractions of the compounds were measured by equilibrium dialysis. RESULTS: The following unbound fractions in serum were found (geometric means): clozapine 5.5%, N-desmethylclozapine 9.7%, and clozapine N-oxide 24.6%. Renal clearance values calculated from unbound concentrations in serum and quantities excreted in urine were for clozapine on average 11% of the creatinine clearance, whereas those of N-desmethylclozapine and clozapine N-oxide amounted to 300 and 640%, respectively. The clearances of unbound clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine increased with increasing urine volume and decreasing pH. All renal clearance values exhibited large interindividual variations. The sum of clozapine and its metabolites in urine represented on average 14% of the dose. CONCLUSIONS: Clozapine, N-desmethylclozapine and clozapine N-oxide are highly protein-bound in serum. Clozapine is, after glomerular filtration, largely reabsorbed in the tubule, whereas the metabolites undergo net tubular secretion. Metabolic pathways alternative or subsequent to N-demethylation and N-oxidation must make major contributions to the total fate of clozapine in patients.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: To examine the genetic factors influencing clozapine kinetics in vivo, 75 patients treated with clozapine were genotyped for CYPs and ABCB1 polymorphisms and phenotyped for CYP1A2 and CYP3A activity. CYP1A2 activity and dose-corrected trough steady-state plasma concentrations of clozapine correlated significantly (r = -0.61; P = 1 x 10), with no influence of the CYP1A2*1F genotype (P = 0.38). CYP2C19 poor metabolizers (*2/*2 genotype) had 2.3-fold higher (P = 0.036) clozapine concentrations than the extensive metabolizers (non-*2/*2). In patients comedicated with fluvoxamine, a strong CYP1A2 inhibitor, clozapine and norclozapine concentrations correlate with CYP3A activity (r = 0.44, P = 0.075; r = 0.63, P = 0.007, respectively). Carriers of the ABCB1 3435TT genotype had a 1.6-fold higher clozapine plasma concentrations than noncarriers (P = 0.046). In conclusion, this study has shown for the first time a significant in vivo role of CYP2C19 and the P-gp transporter in the pharmacokinetics of clozapine. CYP1A2 is the main CYP isoform involved in clozapine metabolism, with CYP2C19 contributing moderately, and CYP3A4 contributing only in patients with reduced CYP1A2 activity. In addition, ABCB1, but not CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A5, nor CYP3A7 polymorphisms, influence clozapine pharmacokinetics.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although some of the aetiological factors are known, it is not yet known whether drugs with anticholinergic activity (AA) contribute to this cognitive decline. Such knowledge would provide opportunities to prevent acceleration of cognitive decline in PD. OBJECTIVE: To study whether the use of agents with anticholinergic properties is an independent risk factor for cognitive decline in patients with PD. METHODS: A community-based cohort of patients with PD (n=235) were included and assessed at baseline. They were reassessed 4 and 8 years later. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A detailed assessment of the AA of all drugs prescribed was made, and AA was classified according to a standardised scale. Relationships between cognitive decline and AA load and duration of treatment were assessed using bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses. RESULTS: More than 40% used drugs with AA at baseline. During the 8-year follow-up, the cognitive decline was higher in those who had been taking AA drugs (median decline on MMSE 6.5 points) compared with those who had not taken such drugs (median decline 1 point; p=0.025). In linear regression analyses adjusting for age, baseline cognition and depression, significant associations with decline on MMSE were found for total AA load (standardised beta=0.229, p=0.04) as well as the duration of using AA drugs (standardised beta 0.231, p=0.032). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an association between anticholinergic drug use and cognitive decline in PD. This may provide an important opportunity for clinicians to avoid increasing progression of cognitive decline by avoiding drugs with AA. Increased awareness by clinicians is required about the classes of drugs that have anticholinergic properties.
Abstract: A 73-year-old woman with dementia was given clozapine for treatment-resistant psychotic symptoms. Subsequently, she developed cardiac failure. Caution should be exercised when using clozapine, especially in the elderly.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Using national Danish registers, we estimated rates of clozapine-associated cardiac adverse events. Rates of undiagnosed myocarditis were estimated by exploring causes of death after clozapine initiation. METHOD: Through nationwide health registers, we identified all out-patients initiating antipsychotic treatment (January 1, 1996-January 1, 2015). Rates of clozapine-associated myocarditis and pericarditis within 2 months from clozapine initiation and rates of cardiomyopathy within 1-2 years from clozapine initiation were compared to rates for other antipsychotics. Mortality within 2 months from clozapine initiation was extracted. RESULTS: Three thousand two hundred and sixty-two patients of a total 7932 patients initiated clozapine as out-patients (41.12%). One patient (0.03%) developed myocarditis, and no patients developed pericarditis within 2 months from clozapine initiation. Two (0.06%) and four patients (0.12%) developed cardiomyopathy within 1 and 2 years respectively. Rates were similar for other antipsychotics. Twenty-six patients died within 2 months from clozapine initiation. Pneumonia (23.08%) and stroke (11.54%) were the main causes of death. We estimated the maximum rate of clozapine-associated fatal myocarditis to 0.28%. CONCLUSION: Cardiac adverse effects in Danish out-patients initiating clozapine treatment are extremely rare and these rates appear to be comparable to those observed for other antipsychotic drugs.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Background and Objective: Clozapine is a second-generation antipsychotic drug that is considered the most effective treatment for refractory schizophrenia. Several clozapine population pharmacokinetic models have been introduced in the last decades. Thus, a systematic review was performed (i) to compare published pharmacokinetics models and (ii) to summarize and explore identified covariates influencing the clozapine pharmacokinetics models. Methods: A search of publications for population pharmacokinetic analyses of clozapine either in healthy volunteers or patients from inception to April 2019 was conducted in PubMed and SCOPUS databases. Reviews, methodology articles, in vitro and animal studies, and noncompartmental analysis were excluded. Results: Twelve studies were included in this review. Clozapine pharmacokinetics was described as one-compartment with first-order absorption and elimination in most of the studies. Significant interindividual variations of clozapine pharmacokinetic parameters were found in most of the included studies. Age, sex, smoking status, and cytochrome P450 1A2 were found to be the most common identified covariates affecting these parameters. External validation was only performed in one study to determine the predictive performance of the models. Conclusions: Large pharmacokinetic variability remains despite the inclusion of several covariates. This can be improved by including other potential factors such as genetic polymorphisms, metabolic factors, and significant drug-drug interactions in a well-designed population pharmacokinetic model in the future, taking into account the incorporation of larger sample size and more stringent sampling strategy. External validation should also be performed to the previously published models to compare their predictive performances.