QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
Variants ✨For the computationally intensive evaluation of the variants, please choose the paid standard subscription.
Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of abarelix and galantamine. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
|Galantamine||1 [0.68,1.35] 1||1|
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. We do not expect any change in exposure for abarelix, when combined with galantamine (100%). We do not expect any change in exposure for galantamine, when combined with abarelix (100%). The AUC is between 68% and 135% depending on the CYP2D6
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
The bioavailability of abarelix is unknown. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 316.8 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 1267.2 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is 97.5% strong. The metabolism via cytochromes is currently still being worked on.
Galantamine has a high oral bioavailability [ F ] of 85%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change little during an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is 7 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached after approximately 28 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is very weak at 18%. Since the substance has a low hepatic extraction rate of 0.13, displacement from protein binding [Pb] in the context of an interaction can lead to increased exposure. The metabolism takes place via CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, among others.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither abarelix nor galantamine increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither abarelix nor galantamine increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: In combination, abarelix and galantamine can potentially trigger ventricular arrhythmias of the torsades de pointes type.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||aba||gal|
|Loss of appetite||7.4 %||n.a.||7.4|
|Atrioventricular block||0.9 %||n.a.||0.9|
|Generalized exanthematous pustulosis||0.0 %||n.a.||0.01|
Stevens johnson syndrome: galantamine
Gastrointestinal hemorrhage: galantamine
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: Galantamine is the most recently approved cholinergic drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, the most common type of dementia. Vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease with cerebrovascular disease are also common in older patients. Dementia affects cognition, causes losses in ability to perform activities of daily living and often results in the emergence of psychiatric and abnormal behavioural symptoms. Dementia also results in an ever-increasing burden and a decreased quality of life for caregivers. Treatments for dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease, have focused on improving function in the cholinergic system. Vascular dementia and diffuse Lewy body dementia are also associated with significant defects in cholinergic function. Galantamine works by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase and by allosterically modulating nicotinic receptors. In clinical trials, galantamine has shown benefits in the domains of cognition, function in activities of daily living, and behaviour. Galantamine is about 90% bioavailable and displays linear pharmacokinetics. It has a relatively large volume of distribution and low protein binding. Metabolism is primarily through the cytochrome P450 system, specifically the CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 isoenzymes. Population pharmacokinetic modelling with galantamine has shown that the variables affecting clearance are age, sex, and bodyweight. Model simulations demonstrate the importance of a slower dose-escalation schedule in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. In several large trials, galantamine has been shown to be well tolerated, with most adverse events being mild-to-moderate and gastrointestinal in nature. Based on the literature and clinical trial experience, galantamine appears to be an excellent treatment option for patients with Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia or Alzheimer's disease with cerebrovascular disease.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of QT interval prolongation, syncope, and delirium associated with galantamine use and to analyze similar cases related to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChIs) reported to the Australian Adverse Drug Reaction Advisory Committee (ADRAC). CASE SUMMARY: An 85-year-old man with dementia was treated with prolonged release galantamine 8 mg daily for 1.5 years. Three months prior to the current admission, he had a syncopal episode with low blood pressure and bradycardia. Two months later, galantamine was withdrawn, but within 2 weeks, the man developed marked cognitive, behavioral, and functional deterioration and galantamine was restarted. Three weeks later, he developed syncope, delirium, hypotension, and prolonged QT interval with serious cardiac arrhythmias, in addition to vomiting and diarrhea. A complete blood cell count and biochemistry panel performed on admission were normal. No infection was detected. Galantamine and irbesartan were ceased. The delirium fully resolved in 6 days, and the QT interval shortened from 503 to 443 msec (corrected by Bazett's formula) 4 days after discontinuation of galantamine and remained normal. DISCUSSION: In the ADRAC reports, galantamine was associated with 18 cases of delirium/confusion, 8 of syncope, 13 of bradycardia, 6 of other arrhythmias or conduction abnormalities, and 6 of hypotension. Donepezil was associated with 56, 15, 26, 15, and 5, and rivastigmine with 21, 8, 6, 2, and 2, respectively, of these reactions. Five fatal outcomes were reported in association with galantamine, 11 with donepezil, and 3 with rivastigmine, including 3, 6, and 0 sudden deaths, respectively. This case, along with previously published reports and cases identified from the ADRAC database, illustrates that AChIs may lead to delirium, syncope, hypotension, and life-threatening arrhythmias. The Naranjo probability scale indicated that galantamine was the probable cause of QT interval prolongation, syncope, and delirium in this patient. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of galantamine and other AChIs requires vigilance and assessment of risk factors that may precipitate QT interval prolongation, syncope, and delirium.
Abstract: Galantamine is a reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and an allosteric-potentiating ligand of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is used for treating mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. Interestingly, QT interval prolongation on the electrocardiogram (ECG), malignant ventricular arrhythmias and syncope have been reported with galantamine. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of galantamine on cardiac ventricular repolarization. Three sets of experiments were undertaken: 1) Whole cell patch-clamp experiments: HERG- or KCNQ1+KCNE1-transfected cells were exposed to galantamine 0.1-1000 μmol/l (n=25 cells, total) to assess drug effect on HERG and KCNQ1+KCNE1 currents. 2) Langendorff perfusion experiments: Isolated hearts from male Hartley guinea pigs (n=9) were exposed to galantamine 1 μmol/l to assess drug-induced prolongation of monophasic action potential duration measured at 90% repolarization (MAPD(90)). 3) Cardiac telemetry experiments: Guinea pigs (n=7) implanted with wireless transmitters were injected a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of galantamine 3mg/kg and 24h ECG recordings were made. 1) The estimated IC(50) for galantamine on HERG current was 760.2 μmol/l. Moreover, galantamine 10 μmol/l had a small inhibiting effect on KCNQ1+KCNE1 current (12.17 ± 2.19% inhibition, n=10 cells). 2) While pacing at cycle lengths of 150, 200 or 250 ms, galantamine 1 μmol/l prolonged MAPD(90) by respectively 5.1 ± 1.6 ms, 9.4 ± 1.9 ms and 12.1 ± 2.1 ms. 3) Galantamine 3 mg/kgi.p. caused a maximal 11.9 ± 2.7 ms prolongation of the corrected QT (QTc). Galantamine is a weak HERG blocker. This contributes to its mild QT-prolonging effect. Patients could be at risk of cardiac proarrhythmia during drug overdosage or interactions involving cytochrome 2D6 drug-metabolizing enzyme.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs are often involved in explicit criteria for inappropriate prescribing in older adults. Several scales were developed for screening of anticholinergic drugs and estimation of the anticholinergic burden. However, variation exists in scale development, in the selection of anticholinergic drugs, and the evaluation of their anticholinergic load. This study aims to systematically review existing anticholinergic risk scales, and to develop a uniform list of anticholinergic drugs differentiating for anticholinergic potency. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE. Studies were included if provided (1) a finite list of anticholinergic drugs; (2) a grading score of anticholinergic potency and, (3) a validation in a clinical or experimental setting. We listed anticholinergic drugs for which there was agreement in the different scales. In case of discrepancies between scores we used a reputed reference source (Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference®) to take a final decision about the anticholinergic activity of the drug. RESULTS: We included seven risk scales, and evaluated 225 different drugs. Hundred drugs were listed as having clinically relevant anticholinergic properties (47 high potency and 53 low potency), to be included in screening software for anticholinergic burden. CONCLUSION: Considerable variation exists among anticholinergic risk scales, in terms of selection of specific drugs, as well as of grading of anticholinergic potency. Our selection of 100 drugs with clinically relevant anticholinergic properties needs to be supplemented with validated information on dosing and route of administration for a full estimation of the anticholinergic burden in poly-medicated older adults.