QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
|Sudden cardiac death|
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Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of nortriptyline and abarelix. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
|Nortriptyline||1 [0.48,2.56] 1||1|
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. We do not expect any change in exposure for nortriptyline, when combined with abarelix (100%). The AUC is between 48% and 256% depending on the CYP2D6
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Nortriptyline has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 51%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 26 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 104 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is moderately strong at 93%. which is why, with a mean hepatic extraction rate of 0.34, both liver blood flow [Q] and a change in protein binding [Pb] are relevant. The metabolism takes place via CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, among others.
The bioavailability of abarelix is unknown. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 316.8 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 1267.2 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is 97.5% strong. The metabolism via cytochromes is currently still being worked on.
|Serotonergic Effects a||2||++||Ø|
Recommendation: As a precautionary measure, symptoms of serotonergic overstimulation should be taken into account, especially after increasing the dose and at doses in the upper therapeutic range.
Rating: Nortriptyline modulates the serotonergic system to a moderate extent. The risk of a serotonergic syndrome can be classified as low with this medication if the dosage is in the usual range. According to our knowledge, abarelix does not increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||3||+++||Ø|
Recommendation: As a precaution, attention should be paid to anticholinergic symptoms, especially after increasing the dose and at doses in the upper therapeutic range.
Rating: The nortriptyline greatly increases anticholinergic activity. According to our knowledge, abarelix does not increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: In combination, nortriptyline and abarelix can potentially trigger ventricular arrhythmias of the torsades de pointes type.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||nor||aba|
|Myocardial infarction||0.0 %||0.01||n.a.|
|Sudden cardiac death||0.0 %||0.01||n.a.|
|Paralytic ileus||0.0 %||0.01||n.a.|
|Liver failure||0.0 %||0.01||n.a.|
|Cerebrovascular accident||0.0 %||0.01||n.a.|
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the disposition and effects of nortriptyline and its major metabolite 10-hydroxy-nortriptyline line in panels of white subjects with different CYP2D6 genotypes, including those with duplicated and multiduplicated CYP2D6*2 genes and to evaluate the contribution of the number of functional C gamma P2D6 alleles to the metabolism of nortriptyline, used here as a model drug for CYP2D6 substrates. METHODS: Oral single doses of 25 to 50 mg nortriptyline were given to five poor metabolizers of debrisoquin (INN; debrisoquine) with no functional CYP2D6 gene, five extensive metabolizers with one functional CY2D6 gene, five extensive metabolizers with two functional CYP2D6 genes, five ultrarapid metabolizers with duplicated CYP2D6*2 genes, and one ultrarapid metabolizer with 13 copies of the CYP2D6*2 gene. Plasma kinetics of nortriptyline and 10-hydroxynortriptyline were analyzed. Anticholinergic effects (inhibition of salivation and accommodation disturbances), sedation, blood pressure, and effect on supine and erect pulse rate were measured. RESULTS: There was a clear relation between the C gamma P2D6 genotype and the plasma kinetics of nortriptyline and 10-hydroxynortriptyline. The proportion between the apparent oral clearances of nortriptyline in the groups with 0, 1, 2, 3, and 13 functional genes was 1:1:4:5:17. The proportions between AUC(nortriptyline) to AUC(10-hydroxynortriptyline) ratios in the groups with 0, 1, 2, 3, and 13 functional genes were 36:25:10:4:1. Oral plasma clearance of nortriptyline and AUC(nortriptyline) to AUC(10-hydroxynortriptyline) ratio both correlated significantly with the debrisoquin metabolic ratio (rS = -0.89, p = 0.0001; rS = 0.92, p = 0.0001). Although ultrarapid metabolizer subjects were given double the nortriptyline dose (50 mg), inhibition of salivation was not more pronounced compared with the other genotype groups given 25 mg nortriptyline. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show the quantitative importance of the CYP2D6 genotype, especially the presence of multiple functional CYP2D6 genes for the pharmacokinetics of nortriptyline and 10-hydroxynortriptyline. Genotyping of subjects with multiple copies of functional genes may be of great value for differentiating ultrarapid metabolizers from patients who do not comply with the prescription and for assuring adequate drug choice and dosage for these patients.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal relationship between cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications and memory and executive function in older men. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred forty-four community-dwelling men aged 65 and older with diagnosed hypertension. MEASUREMENTS: The outcomes were measured using the Hopkins Verbal Recall Test (HVRT) for short-term memory and the instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) scale for executive function at baseline and during follow-up. Anticholinergic medication use was ascertained using participants' primary care visit records and quantified as total anticholinergic burden using a clinician-rated anticholinergic score. RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications over the preceding 12 months was associated with poorer performance on the HVRT and IADLs. On average, a 1-unit increase in the total anticholinergic burden per 3 months was associated with a 0.32-point (95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.05-0.58) and 0.10-point (95% CI=0.04-0.17) decrease in the HVRT and IADLs, respectively, independent of other potential risk factors for cognitive impairment, including age, education, cognitive and physical function, comorbidities, and severity of hypertension. The association was attenuated but remained statistically significant with memory (0.29, 95% CI=0.01-0.56) and executive function (0.08, 95% CI=0.02-0.15) after further adjustment for concomitant non-anticholinergic medications. CONCLUSION: Cumulative anticholinergic exposure across multiple medications over 1 year may negatively affect verbal memory and executive function in older men. Prescription of drugs with anticholinergic effects in older persons deserves continued attention to avoid deleterious adverse effects.
Abstract: Nortriptyline, a second-generation tricyclic antidepressant, is an active metabolite of amitriptyline. Amitriptyline induces QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP), which causes sudden death. We studied the cardiovascular safety of nortriptyline, including QT prolongation risk. We examined the effects of nortriptyline on the cardiovascular system in vivo and in vitro in accordance with the ICH-S7B guideline. We tested its effect on QT interval in conscious telemetered dogs. We also performed in vitro electrophysiological studies on hERG tail currents using stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Action potential parameters were studied in isolated rabbit purkinje fibers. Nortriptyline dose-dependently blocked hERG current, with a tail IC(50) value of 2.20 ± 0.09 μM (n = 4). In the APD assay, total amplitude, Vmax, and resting membrane potential were not significantly changed by 1 μM nortriptyline, but nortriptyline at 0.3 and 1 μM shortened APD(50) and APD(90). Nortriptyline did not affect QTcV at 2 or 6 mg/kg, but slightly increased QTcV at 20 mg/kg. In conclusion, it is unlikely that nortriptyline affects the ventricular repolarization process at therapeutic dosages.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.