QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of abarelix and pretomanid. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. We do not expect any change in exposure for abarelix, when combined with pretomanid (100%). We do not expect any change in exposure for pretomanid, when combined with abarelix (100%).
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
The bioavailability of abarelix is unknown. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 316.8 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 1267.2 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is 97.5% strong. The metabolism via cytochromes is currently still being worked on.
The bioavailability of pretomanid is unknown. Protein binding [ Pb ] is not known. The metabolism mainly takes place via CYP3A4.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither abarelix nor pretomanid increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither abarelix nor pretomanid increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: In combination, abarelix and pretomanid can potentially trigger ventricular arrhythmias of the torsades de pointes type.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||aba||pre|
|Musculoskeletal pain||29.0 %||n.a.||29.0|
|Loss of appetite||22.0 %||n.a.||22.0|
Abdominal pain (19%): pretomanid
Elevated amylase (14%): pretomanid
Diarrhea (10%): pretomanid
Elevated GGT (17%): pretomanid
Bronchitis (15%): pretomanid
Hemoptysis (13%): pretomanid
Cough (12%): pretomanid
Hypoglycemia (11%): pretomanid
Weight loss (10%): pretomanid
Lactic acidosis: pretomanid
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: There is an urgent need for new antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs, including agents that are safe and effective with concomitant antiretrovirals (ARV) and first-line TB drugs. PA-824 is a novel antituberculosis nitroimidazole in late-phase clinical development. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A, which can be induced or inhibited by ARV and antituberculosis drugs, is a minor (∼20%) metabolic pathway for PA-824. In a phase I clinical trial, we characterized interactions between PA-824 and efavirenz (arm 1), lopinavir/ritonavir (arm 2), and rifampin (arm 3) in healthy, HIV-uninfected volunteers without TB disease. Participants in arms 1 and 2 were randomized to receive drugs via sequence 1 (PA-824 alone, washout, ARV, and ARV plus PA-824) or sequence 2 (ARV, ARV with PA-824, washout, and PA-824 alone). In arm 3, participants received PA-824 and then rifampin and then both. Pharmacokinetic sampling occurred at the end of each dosing period. Fifty-two individuals participated. Compared to PA-824 alone, plasma PA-824 values (based on geometric mean ratios) for maximum concentration (Cmax), area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24), and trough concentration (Cmin) were reduced 28%, 35%, and 46% with efavirenz, 13%, 17%, and 21% with lopinavir-ritonavir (lopinavir/r) and 53%, 66%, and 85% with rifampin, respectively. Medications were well tolerated. In conclusion, lopinavir/r had minimal effect on PA-824 exposures, supporting PA-824 use with lopinavir/r without dose adjustment. PA-824 exposures, though, were reduced more than expected when given with efavirenz or rifampin. The clinical implications of these reductions will depend upon data from current clinical trials defining PA-824 concentration-effect relationships. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01571414.).
Abstract: Concentration-QTc modeling was applied to pretomanid, a new nitroimidazooxazine antituberculosis drug. Data came from eight phase 2 and phase 3 studies. Besides pretomanid alone, various combinations with bedaquiline, linezolid, moxifloxacin, and pyrazinamide were considered; special attention was given to the bedaquiline-pretomanid-linezolid (BPaL) regimen that has demonstrated efficacy in the Nix-TB study in subjects with extensively drug-resistant or treatment-intolerant or nonresponsive multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Three heart rate corrections to QT were considered: Fridericia's QTcF, Bazett's QTcB, and a population-specific correction, QTcN. QTc increased with the plasma concentrations of pretomanid, bedaquiline's M2 metabolite, and moxifloxacin in a manner described by a linear model in which the three slope coefficients were constant across studies, visits within study, and times postdose within visit but where the intercept varied across those dimensions. The intercepts tended to increase on treatment to a plateau after several weeks, a pattern termed the secular trend. The slope terms were similar for the three QTc corrections, but the secular trends differed, suggesting that at least some of the secular trend was due to the elevated heart rates of tuberculosis patients decreasing to normal levels on treatment. For pretomanid 200 mg once a day (QD) alone, a typical steady-state maximum concentration of drug in plasma () resulted in a mean change from baseline of QTcN of 9.1 ms, with an upper 90% confidence interval (CI) limit of 10.2 ms. For the BPaL regimen, due to the additional impact of the bedaquiline M2 metabolite, the corresponding values were 13.6 ms and 15.0 ms. The contribution to these values from the secular trend was 4.0 ms.