QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of abarelix and ritonavir. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. We do not expect any change in exposure for abarelix, when combined with ritonavir (100%). We do not expect any change in exposure for ritonavir, when combined with abarelix (100%).
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
The bioavailability of abarelix is unknown. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 316.8 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 1267.2 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is 97.5% strong. The metabolism via cytochromes is currently still being worked on.
The bioavailability of ritonavir is unknown. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather short at 4 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached quickly. The protein binding [ Pb ] is very strong at 98.5%. The metabolism takes place via CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, among others and the active transport takes place partly via MRP2 and PGP.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither abarelix nor ritonavir increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither abarelix nor ritonavir increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: In combination, abarelix and ritonavir can potentially trigger ventricular arrhythmias of the torsades de pointes type.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||aba||rit|
|Taste sense altered||16.2 %||n.a.||16.2|
Peripheral neuropathy (10.1%): ritonavir
Hypersensitivity reaction (8.2%): ritonavir
Immune reconstitution syndrome: ritonavir
Syncope (3.3%): ritonavir
Peripheral edema: ritonavir
Atrioventricular block: ritonavir
Abdominal pain: ritonavir
Stevens johnson syndrome: ritonavir
Toxic epidermal necrolysis: ritonavir
Diabetes mellitus: ritonavir
Elevated ALT: ritonavir
Elevated AST: ritonavir
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: To assess the QTc prolongation by ritonavir (RTV) 100 mg and explore its potential use as CYP3A inhibitor in thorough QTc (TQT) studies. Randomized, crossover study of single-dose RTV 100 mg, placebo, and moxifloxacin (MFLX) 400 mg in 65 healthy subjects with serial triplicate electrocardiograms obtained for 12 h post-dose. Largest mean placebo-adjusted QTcF increase from baseline (90% confidence interval (CI)) for RTV 100 mg was noninferior to placebo (0.16 ms (-1.38, 1.69)). Study sensitivity was validated by detecting the largest mean placebo-adjusted QTcF increase from baseline (90% CI) for MFLX of 8.31 ms (6.44, 10.18). A single dose of RTV 100 mg does not cause QTc prolongation in healthy subjects. Based on the potent CYP3A4 inhibition, lack of QTc effect and better safety profile, RTV 100 mg could replace ketoconazole as the CYP3A4 inhibitor in TQT studies.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the literature on protease inhibitor (PI)-associated QT interval prolongation and risk for torsade de pointes in patients infected by HIV. DATA SOURCES: Primary literature was identified through MEDLINE (1950-August 2011) and EMBASE (1980-August 2011), using the following search terms: antiretroviral agents, HIV, protease inhibitors, QTc, QT prolongation, and torsade de pointes. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: English-language case reports of antiretroviral therapy-associated QT interval prolongation, studies of healthy volunteers, or studies that evaluated the impact of PIs on QT interval in patients infected with HIV were reviewed and selected. Article bibliographies and conference abstracts were also reviewed. DATA SYNTHESIS: Several case reports, as well as in vitro data, have implicated PIs as a potential cause of QT interval prolongation and/or torsade de pointes. Saquinavir, therapeutically boosted with the potent CYP3A4 inhibitor ritonavir, was the only PI shown to be associated with significant QT interval prolongation in studies with healthy volunteers. While 1 case control study in HIV-infected patients found that nelfinavir or efavirenz, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, increased the risk of QT interval prolongation, larger prospective studies have not demonstrated any significant increase in QT interval following exposure to PIs. Similar risk factors for QT interval prolongation seen in non-HIV-infected patients, such as older age, female sex, ethnicity, cardiac conditions, diabetes mellitus, and concomitant use of other QT interval-prolonging medications, especially methadone, were risk factors identified in studies of HIV-infected patients. CONCLUSIONS: PIs do not appear to independently predispose patients to QT interval prolongation. However, other risk factors (both HIV-related and non-HIV-related) may increase the risk of QT interval prolongation. Available data suggest that baseline and follow-up electrocardiogram monitoring are unnecessary precautions, but may be considered in patients who are initiating PI therapy and are on multiple medications with proarrhythmic potential and/or have multiple comorbidities, increasing the risk.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.