QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of saquinavir and abarelix. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. We do not expect any change in exposure for saquinavir, when combined with abarelix (100%). We do not expect any change in exposure for abarelix, when combined with saquinavir (100%).
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Saquinavir has a low oral bioavailability [ F ] of 4%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change strongly with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is 7 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached after approximately 28 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is 98% strong and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 700 liters, The metabolism mainly takes place via CYP3A4 and the active transport takes place partly via MRP2, OATP1A2 and PGP.
The bioavailability of abarelix is unknown. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 316.8 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 1267.2 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is 97.5% strong. The metabolism via cytochromes is currently still being worked on.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither saquinavir nor abarelix increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither saquinavir nor abarelix increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: In combination, saquinavir and abarelix can potentially trigger ventricular arrhythmias of the torsades de pointes type.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||saq||aba|
|Abdominal pain||6.0 %||6.0||n.a.|
|Atrioventricular block||0.0 %||0.01||n.a.|
|Stevens johnson syndrome||0.0 %||0.01||n.a.|
|Diabetes mellitus||0.0 %||0.01||n.a.|
|Hemolytic anemia||0.0 %||0.01||n.a.|
Immune reconstitution syndrome: saquinavir
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Saquinavir mesylate (SQV) is the first-in-class and prototypical HIV protease inhibitor (PI) used in the treatment of HIV infection. SQV undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism and intestinal and bile secretion, and has poor and variable oral bioavailability. In previous studies, our group and others have described the interactions between SQV and absorptive and secretory efflux transporters such as MRP1, MRP2, and P-gp. However, the potential role of absorptive influx transporters such as OATP-A (SLC21A3) has not yet been reported for SQV. In the study presented here, the role of OATP-A in the influx transport of SQV was studied using a hepatic cell model, Hep G2, and Xenopus laevis oocytes overexpressing human OATP-A. In Hep G2 cells, SQV transport was found to be (i) concentration-dependent and saturable, (ii) temperature-sensitive, and (iii) proton (pH)- and sodium-independent. While GF120918, a specific inhibitor of P-gp, and MK571, a MRP transporter family inhibitor, significantly enhanced SQV uptake, estrone 3-sulfate, a substrate of OATP-A, significantly inhibited SQV uptake by Hep G2 cells. The observation that inhibitors of P-gp, MRP, or OATP-A have opposite effects on SQV uptake in polarized Hep G2 cells is consistent with their functions as hepatic efflux or influx transporters. In X. laevis oocytes into which OATP-A cRNA had been injected, the level of uptake of SQV was significantly greater than the level of uptake by oocytes into which water had been injected and was concentration-dependent and saturable (Km = 36.4+/-21.8 microM). This is the first report showing that SQV influx transport is directly facilitated by OATP-A. Given the wide body distribution of OATP-A, the current results suggest a potentially important role for OATP-A in the absorption and disposition of SQV in vivo. The data also suggest that in human hepatocytes basolaterally located OATP-A (influx transporter) may act in concert with apically located P-gp and/or MRP2 (efflux transporters) for the vectorial transport and excretion of SQV into bile.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: The human organic anion and cation transporters are classified within two SLC superfamilies. Superfamily SLCO (formerly SLC21A) consists of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), while the organic anion transporters (OATs) and the organic cation transporters (OCTs) are classified in the SLC22A superfamily. Individual members of each superfamily are expressed in essentially every epithelium throughout the body, where they play a significant role in drug absorption, distribution and elimination. Substrates of OATPs are mainly large hydrophobic organic anions, while OATs transport smaller and more hydrophilic organic anions and OCTs transport organic cations. In addition to endogenous substrates, such as steroids, hormones and neurotransmitters, numerous drugs and other xenobiotics are transported by these proteins, including statins, antivirals, antibiotics and anticancer drugs. Expression of OATPs, OATs and OCTs can be regulated at the protein or transcriptional level and appears to vary within each family by both protein and tissue type. All three superfamilies consist of 12 transmembrane domain proteins that have intracellular termini. Although no crystal structures have yet been determined, combinations of homology modelling and mutation experiments have been used to explore the mechanism of substrate recognition and transport. Several polymorphisms identified in members of these superfamilies have been shown to affect pharmacokinetics of their drug substrates, confirming the importance of these drug transporters for efficient pharmacological therapy. This review, unlike other reviews that focus on a single transporter family, briefly summarizes the current knowledge of all the functionally characterized human organic anion and cation drug uptake transporters of the SLCO and the SLC22A superfamilies.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the literature on protease inhibitor (PI)-associated QT interval prolongation and risk for torsade de pointes in patients infected by HIV. DATA SOURCES: Primary literature was identified through MEDLINE (1950-August 2011) and EMBASE (1980-August 2011), using the following search terms: antiretroviral agents, HIV, protease inhibitors, QTc, QT prolongation, and torsade de pointes. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: English-language case reports of antiretroviral therapy-associated QT interval prolongation, studies of healthy volunteers, or studies that evaluated the impact of PIs on QT interval in patients infected with HIV were reviewed and selected. Article bibliographies and conference abstracts were also reviewed. DATA SYNTHESIS: Several case reports, as well as in vitro data, have implicated PIs as a potential cause of QT interval prolongation and/or torsade de pointes. Saquinavir, therapeutically boosted with the potent CYP3A4 inhibitor ritonavir, was the only PI shown to be associated with significant QT interval prolongation in studies with healthy volunteers. While 1 case control study in HIV-infected patients found that nelfinavir or efavirenz, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, increased the risk of QT interval prolongation, larger prospective studies have not demonstrated any significant increase in QT interval following exposure to PIs. Similar risk factors for QT interval prolongation seen in non-HIV-infected patients, such as older age, female sex, ethnicity, cardiac conditions, diabetes mellitus, and concomitant use of other QT interval-prolonging medications, especially methadone, were risk factors identified in studies of HIV-infected patients. CONCLUSIONS: PIs do not appear to independently predispose patients to QT interval prolongation. However, other risk factors (both HIV-related and non-HIV-related) may increase the risk of QT interval prolongation. Available data suggest that baseline and follow-up electrocardiogram monitoring are unnecessary precautions, but may be considered in patients who are initiating PI therapy and are on multiple medications with proarrhythmic potential and/or have multiple comorbidities, increasing the risk.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.