QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of sertraline and abarelix. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
|Sertraline||1 [0.79,5.74] 1,2||1|
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. We do not expect any change in exposure for sertraline, when combined with abarelix (100%). The AUC is between 79% and 574% depending on the CYP2B6, CYP2C19
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Sertraline has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 44%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 24.5 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 98 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is very strong at 98.5%. The metabolism takes place via CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, among others and the active transport takes place in particular via PGP.
The bioavailability of abarelix is unknown. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 316.8 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 1267.2 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is 97.5% strong. The metabolism via cytochromes is currently still being worked on.
|Serotonergic Effects a||2||++||Ø|
Recommendation: As a precautionary measure, symptoms of serotonergic overstimulation should be taken into account, especially after increasing the dose and at doses in the upper therapeutic range.
Rating: Sertraline modulates the serotonergic system to a moderate extent. The risk of a serotonergic syndrome can be classified as low with this medication if the dosage is in the usual range. According to our knowledge, abarelix does not increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither sertraline nor abarelix increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: In combination, sertraline and abarelix can potentially trigger ventricular arrhythmias of the torsades de pointes type.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||ser||aba|
|Abnormal ejaculation||13.0 %||13.0||n.a.|
|Reduced libido||11.0 %||11.0||n.a.|
Disorder of taste: sertraline
Gastrointestinal hemorrhage: sertraline
Weight gain: sertraline
Dream disorder: sertraline
Irregular menstruation: sertraline
Prolonged bleeding time: sertraline
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: Serotonin syndrome is an uncommon, serious adverse reaction that is usually associated with the interaction of two or more serotonergic agents. A 12-year-old boy receiving sertraline developed the syndrome after erythromycin was added to his regimen. The proposed mechanism involves erythromycin inactivation of cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition of sertraline metabolism, accumulation of the drug, and precipitation of the syndrome. It is important for clinicians to consider both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions to minimize the risk of the reaction.
Abstract: Sertraline is a naphthalenamine derivative with the predominant pharmacological action of inhibiting presynaptic reuptake of serotonin from the synaptic cleft. It was initially marketed for the treatment of major depressive disorder and is now approved for the management of panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. Sertraline is slowly absorbed following oral administration and undergoes extensive first-pass oxidation to form N-desmethyl-sertraline, a weakly active metabolite that accumulates to a greater concentration in plasma than the parent drug at steady state. Sertraline is eliminated from the body by other metabolic pathways to form a ketone and an alcohol, which are largely excreted renally as conjugates. The elimination half-life of sertraline ranges from 22-36 hours, and once-daily administration is therapeutically effective. Steady-state plasma concentrations vary widely, up to 15-fold, in patients receiving usual antidepressant dosages between 50 and 150 mg/day. However, only sparse data have been published that support useful correlations between sertraline plasma concentrations and therapeutic or adverse effects to justify therapeutic drug monitoring. Sertraline has minimal inhibitory effects on the major cytochrome P450 enzymes, and few drug-drug interactions of clinical significance have been documented. Like other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, sertraline is well tolerated in therapeutic dosages and relatively safe in overdosage.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: An antidepressant for use in the patient receiving concomitant drug treatment, over-the-counter medications, or herbal products should lack cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A4 inductive or inhibitory activity to provide the least likelihood of a drug-drug interaction. This study addresses the potential of 4 diverse antidepressants (venlafaxine, nefazodone, sertraline, and fluoxetine) to inhibit or induce CYP3A4. In a 4-way crossover design, 16 subjects received clinically relevant doses of venlafaxine, nefazodone, or sertraline for 8 days or fluoxetine for 11 days. Treatments were separated by a 7- to 14-day washout period and fluoxetine was always the last antidepressant taken. CYP3A4 activity was evaluated for each subject at baseline and following each antidepressant using the erythromycin breath test (EBT) and by the pharmacokinetics of alprazolam (ALPZ) after 2-mg dose of oral ALPZ. Compared to baseline, venlafaxine, sertraline, and fluoxetine caused no apparent inhibition or induction of erythromycin metabolism (P > 0.05). For nefazodone, a statistically significant inhibition was observed (P < 0.0005). Nefazodone was also the only antidepressant that caused a significant change in ALPZ disposition, decreasing its area under the concentration-versus-time curve (AUC; P < 0.01), and increasing its elimination half-life (16.4 vs. 12.3 hours; P < 0.05) compared with values at baseline. No significant differences were found in the pharmacokinetics of ALPZ with any of the other antidepressants tested. These results demonstrate in vivo that, unlike nefazodone, venlafaxine, sertraline, and fluoxetine do not possess significant metabolic inductive or inhibitory effects on CYP3A4.
Abstract: The accuracy of in vitro inhibition parameters in scaling to in vivo drug-drug interactions (DDI) was examined for over 40 drugs using seven human P450-selective marker activities in pooled human liver microsomes. These data were combined with other parameters (systemic C(max), estimated hepatic inlet C(max), fraction unbound, and fraction of the probe drug cleared by the inhibited enzyme) to predict increases in exposure to probe drugs, and the predictions were compared with in vivo DDI gathered from clinical studies reported in the scientific literature. For drugs that had been tested as precipitants of drug interactions for more than one P450 in vivo, the order of inhibitory potencies in vitro generally aligned with the magnitude of the in vivo interactions. With the exception of many drugs known to be mechanism-based inactivators, the use of in vitro IC(50), the fraction of the affected drug metabolized by the target enzyme [f(m(CYP))] and an estimate of free hepatic inlet C(max), was generally successful in identifying those drugs that cause at least a 2-fold increase in the exposure to P450 marker substrate drugs. For CYP3A, incorporation of inhibition of both hepatic and intestinal metabolism was needed for the prediction of DDI. Many CYP3A inhibitors showed a different inhibitory potency for three different CYP3A marker activities; however, these differences generally did not alter the conclusions regarding whether a drug would cause a CYP3A DDI in vivo. Overall, these findings support the conclusion that P450 in vitro inhibition data are valuable in designing clinical DDI study strategies and can be used to predict the magnitudes of DDI.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs are often involved in explicit criteria for inappropriate prescribing in older adults. Several scales were developed for screening of anticholinergic drugs and estimation of the anticholinergic burden. However, variation exists in scale development, in the selection of anticholinergic drugs, and the evaluation of their anticholinergic load. This study aims to systematically review existing anticholinergic risk scales, and to develop a uniform list of anticholinergic drugs differentiating for anticholinergic potency. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE. Studies were included if provided (1) a finite list of anticholinergic drugs; (2) a grading score of anticholinergic potency and, (3) a validation in a clinical or experimental setting. We listed anticholinergic drugs for which there was agreement in the different scales. In case of discrepancies between scores we used a reputed reference source (Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference®) to take a final decision about the anticholinergic activity of the drug. RESULTS: We included seven risk scales, and evaluated 225 different drugs. Hundred drugs were listed as having clinically relevant anticholinergic properties (47 high potency and 53 low potency), to be included in screening software for anticholinergic burden. CONCLUSION: Considerable variation exists among anticholinergic risk scales, in terms of selection of specific drugs, as well as of grading of anticholinergic potency. Our selection of 100 drugs with clinically relevant anticholinergic properties needs to be supplemented with validated information on dosing and route of administration for a full estimation of the anticholinergic burden in poly-medicated older adults.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To report QT prolongation potential in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in order to advise clinicians on safe use of SSRIs other than citalopram in light of citalopram warnings. DATA SOURCES: Primary literature and case reports were identified through a systematic search. Data from drug manufacturers, package inserts, and the ArizonaCERT database were also utilized. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: English-language studies and case reports were included. DATA SYNTHESIS: Studies demonstrate possible dose-related clinically significant QT prolongation with escitalopram. Fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and sertraline at traditional doses demonstrate a lack of clinically significant increases in QTc in the majority of studies. Further, paroxetine monotherapy shows a lack of clinically significant QTc prolongation in all studies. However, case reports or reporting tools still link these SSRIs with QTc prolongation. Fluoxetine, escitalopram, and sertraline used in post-acute coronary syndrome patients did not demonstrate risk of QTc prolongation. CONCLUSION: For clinicians who choose not to use citalopram due to recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations, other antidepressants within this class may be considered. When citalopram is not utilized based on risk factors for TdP, use of escitalopram is not likely the safest alternative. Based on current literature, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and sertraline appear to have similar, low risk for QT prolongation, and paroxetine appears to have the lowest risk. However, there are significant limitations in interpreting the studies, including varying definitions of significant QT prolongation. Therefore, choice of an alternative SSRI should be based on individual risk factors for arrhythmias and other patient-specific factors.
Abstract: Sertraline is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor widely metabolized in the liver by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Besides, it is a P-glycoprotein substrate. Moreover, serotonin transporters and serotonin receptors are involved in its efficacy and safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of polymorphisms of metabolizing enzymes, transporters and receptors on the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and tolerability of sertraline in healthy volunteers. Forty-six healthy volunteers (24 men and 22 women) receiving a 100-mg single oral dose of sertraline were genotyped for 17 genetic variants of CYP enzymes (CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6), ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1), solute carrier family 6 member 4 (SLC6A4), 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A (HTR2A) and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C (HTR2C) genes. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters were similar in men and women. Polymorphisms in CYP2C19 and CYP2B6 genes influenced sertraline pharmacokinetics, with a greater effect of CYP2C19. Individuals carrying defective alleles for CYP2C19 and CYP2B6 showed higher area under the curve (AUC) and half-life (T). Moreover, CYP2C19*17 was related to a decreased AUC and T. No significant effect was found for polymorphisms in CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and ABCB1 on sertraline pharmacokinetics. Sertraline had a small heart rate-lowering effect, directly related to maximum concentration (C) and the presence of ABCB1 minor alleles. Sertraline had no significant effect on blood pressure and QTc. There was a tendency to present more adverse drug reactions in women and individuals with higher AUC of sertraline, such as CYP2C19 intermediate metabolizers and CYP2B6 G516T T/T individuals.