QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of trimipramine and abarelix. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. We do not expect any change in exposure for trimipramine, when combined with abarelix (100%). We do not expect any change in exposure for abarelix, when combined with trimipramine (100%).
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Trimipramine has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 41%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is 23.5 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached after approximately 94 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is moderately strong at 94.9%. The metabolism takes place via CYP2C19, CYP2C9 and CYP2D6, among others and the active transport takes place in particular via PGP.
The bioavailability of abarelix is unknown. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 316.8 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 1267.2 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is 97.5% strong. The metabolism via cytochromes is currently still being worked on.
|Serotonergic Effects a||2||++||Ø|
Recommendation: As a precautionary measure, symptoms of serotonergic overstimulation should be taken into account, especially after increasing the dose and at doses in the upper therapeutic range.
Rating: Trimipramine modulates the serotonergic system to a moderate extent. The risk of a serotonergic syndrome can be classified as low with this medication if the dosage is in the usual range. According to our knowledge, abarelix does not increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||3||+++||Ø|
Recommendation: As a precaution, attention should be paid to anticholinergic symptoms, especially after increasing the dose and at doses in the upper therapeutic range.
Rating: The trimipramine greatly increases anticholinergic activity. According to our knowledge, abarelix does not increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: In combination, trimipramine and abarelix can potentially trigger ventricular arrhythmias of the torsades de pointes type.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||tri||aba|
|Weight gain||1.0 %||+||n.a.|
|Blurred vision||1.0 %||+||n.a.|
Myocardial infarction: trimipramine
Sudden cardiac death: trimipramine
Cholestatic hepatitis: trimipramine
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: Little is known about the impact of cytochrome P450 polymorphisms on the metabolism of trimipramine, which is still widely used as antidepressant due to its positive effect on sleep patterns. A single oral dose of 75 mg trimipramine was given to 42 healthy volunteers selected according to their CYP2D6, CYP2C19, and CYP2C9 genotypes. The reference group included 8 subjects with homozygous active wild-type genotypes of all 3 enzymes (EM). This group was compared with 7 intermediate (IM) with 1 and 7 poor metabolizers (PM) with zero active alleles of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19, respectively, and with 4 subjects with the genotype CYP2C9*3/*3. Pharmacokinetics of trimipramine and its demethylated metabolite strongly depended on the CYP2D6 genotype. Median oral clearance of trimipramine was 276 L/h (range 180-444) in the reference group but only 36 L/h (range 24-48) in CYP2D6 PMs (P < 0.001). These differences could only be explained by an effect of CYP genotypes on both parameters, systemic clearance and bioavailability, the latter being at least 3-fold higher in CYP2D6 PMs than in the reference group. The desmethyltrimipramine area under the concentration-time curve was 40-fold greater in CYP2D6 PMs than in the reference group (1.7 vs. 0.04 mg/L x h in EMs), but below the quantification limit in most carriers of deficiencies of CYP2C19 or CYP2C9. This indicates that both CYP2C enzymes contribute to the demethylation of desmethyltrimipramine and CYP2D6 to further metabolism.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential of anticholinergic drugs as a cause of non-degenerative mild cognitive impairment in elderly people. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: 63 randomly selected general practices in the Montpellier region of southern France. PARTICIPANTS: 372 people aged > 60 years without dementia at recruitment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anticholinergic burden from drug use, cognitive examination, and neurological assessment. RESULTS: 9.2% of subjects continuously used anticholinergic drugs during the year before cognitive assessment. Compared with non-users, they had poorer performance on reaction time, attention, delayed non-verbal memory, narrative recall, visuospatial construction, and language tasks but not on tasks of reasoning, immediate and delayed recall of wordlists, and implicit memory. Eighty per cent of the continuous users were classified as having mild cognitive impairment compared with 35% of non-users, and anticholinergic drug use was a strong predictor of mild cognitive impairment (odds ratio 5.12, P = 0.001). No difference was found between users and non-users in risk of developing dementia at follow-up after eight years. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly people taking anticholinergic drugs had significant deficits in cognitive functioning and were highly likely to be classified as mildly cognitively impaired, although not at increased risk for dementia. Doctors should assess current use of anticholinergic drugs in elderly people with mild cognitive impairment before considering administration of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although some of the aetiological factors are known, it is not yet known whether drugs with anticholinergic activity (AA) contribute to this cognitive decline. Such knowledge would provide opportunities to prevent acceleration of cognitive decline in PD. OBJECTIVE: To study whether the use of agents with anticholinergic properties is an independent risk factor for cognitive decline in patients with PD. METHODS: A community-based cohort of patients with PD (n=235) were included and assessed at baseline. They were reassessed 4 and 8 years later. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A detailed assessment of the AA of all drugs prescribed was made, and AA was classified according to a standardised scale. Relationships between cognitive decline and AA load and duration of treatment were assessed using bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses. RESULTS: More than 40% used drugs with AA at baseline. During the 8-year follow-up, the cognitive decline was higher in those who had been taking AA drugs (median decline on MMSE 6.5 points) compared with those who had not taken such drugs (median decline 1 point; p=0.025). In linear regression analyses adjusting for age, baseline cognition and depression, significant associations with decline on MMSE were found for total AA load (standardised beta=0.229, p=0.04) as well as the duration of using AA drugs (standardised beta 0.231, p=0.032). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an association between anticholinergic drug use and cognitive decline in PD. This may provide an important opportunity for clinicians to avoid increasing progression of cognitive decline by avoiding drugs with AA. Increased awareness by clinicians is required about the classes of drugs that have anticholinergic properties.
Abstract: PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to ascertain, in the context of an integrated health care delivery system, the association between a comprehensive list of drugs known to have potential QT liability and QT prolongation or shortening. METHODS: By using a self-controlled crossover study with 59 467 subjects, we ascertained intra-individual change in log-linear regression-corrected QT (QTcreg ) during the period between 1995 and mid-2008 for 90 drugs while adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, comorbid conditions, number of electrocardiograms (ECGs), and time between pre-ECG and post-ECG. The proportion of users of each drug-developing incident long QT was also estimated. RESULTS: Two drugs (nicardipine and levalbuterol) had no statistically significant intra-individual QTcreg shortening effects, 10 drugs had no statistically significant prolonging effect, and 78 (87%) of the drugs had statistically significant intra-individual mean QTcreg lengthening effects, ranging from 7.6 ms for aripiprazole to 25.2 ms for amiodarone. Three drugs were associated with mean QTcreg prolongation of 20 ms or greater: amiodarone (antiarrhythmic), terfenadine (antihistaminic), and quinidine (antiarrhythmic); whereas 11 drugs were associated with mean QTcreg prolongation of 15 ms or greater but less than 20 ms: trimipramine (tricyclic antidepressant), clomipramine (tricyclic antidepressant), disopyramide (antiarrhythmic), chlorpromazine (antipsychotic), sotalol (beta blocker), itraconazole (antifungal), phenylpropanolamine (decongestant/anorectic), fenfluramine (appetite suppressant), midodrine (antihypotensive), digoxin (cardiac glycoside/antiarrhythmic), and procainamide (antiarrhythmic). CONCLUSIONS: QT prolonging effects were common and varied in strength. Our results lend support to past Food and Drug Administration regulatory actions and support the role for ongoing surveillance of drug-induced QT prolongation.