QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of abiraterone and benperidol. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. We do not expect any change in exposure for abiraterone, when combined with benperidol (100%). We do not expect any change in exposure for benperidol, when combined with abiraterone (100%).
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Abiraterone has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 50%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is 18 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached after approximately 72 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is very strong at 99.8% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 2815 liters, The metabolism mainly takes place via CYP3A4.
The bioavailability of benperidol is unknown. Protein binding [ Pb ] is not known. The metabolism via cytochromes is currently still being worked on.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither abiraterone nor benperidol increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||Ø||+|
Recommendation: As a precaution, attention should be paid to anticholinergic symptoms, especially after increasing the dose and at doses in the upper therapeutic range.
Rating: Benperidol only has a mild effect on the anticholinergic system. The risk of anticholinergic syndrome with this medication is rather low if the dosage is in the usual range. According to our knowledge, abiraterone does not increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: In combination, abiraterone and benperidol can potentially trigger ventricular arrhythmias of the torsades de pointes type.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||abi||ben|
|Peripheral edema||20.0 %||20.0||n.a.|
|Elevated ALT||13.0 %||13.0||n.a.|
|Elevated AST||13.0 %||13.0||n.a.|
|Urinary tract infection||10.0 %||10.0||n.a.|
|Atrial fibrillation||2.6 %||2.6||n.a.|
|Angina pectoris||1.6 %||1.6||n.a.|
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Benperidol is a relatively old antipsychotic drug that has been marketed since 1966. It has been used in Germany for 30 years, but is also available in Belgium, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK. Benperidol is a butyrophenone antipsychotic, with the highest neuroleptic potency in terms of D2 receptor blockade. Those taking it are therefore reputed to be at high risk of extrapyramidal side effects, but benperidol's unusual profile may render it valuable to subgroups of people with schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES: To examine the clinical effects and safety of benperidol for those with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's register (November 2004) for this update. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised controlled trials that compared benperidol with other treatments for people with schizophrenia, or schizophrenia-like psychoses. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We reliably selected studies, quality rated them and extracted data. We independently extracted data but excluded data if loss to follow up was greater than 50%. For dichotomous data, we estimated relative risks (RR), with the 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where possible, we calculated the number needed to treat/harm statistic (NNT/H) and used intention-to-treat analysis. MAIN RESULTS: The update yielded no further studies for inclusion in the review. We identified only one unpublished poorly randomised controlled trial (N=40, duration 30 days, comparison perphenazine). Although benperidol was inferior to perphenazine (1 RCT, N=40, global state no better or worse RR 8.0 CI 2.1 to 30, NNH 1.4 CI 1 to 2) poor reporting suggests that an overestimate of effect is likely. It was not possible to report other outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Currently, there are insufficient data from randomised trials to assess the clinical effects of benperidol. This compound merits further research interest.
Abstract: Three open-label, single-dose studies investigated the impact of hepatic or renal impairment on abiraterone acetate pharmacokinetics and safety/tolerability in non-cancer patients. Patients (n = 8 each group) with mild/moderate hepatic impairment or end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and age-, BMI-matched healthy controls received a single oral 1,000 mg abiraterone acetate (tablet dose); while patients (n = 8 each) with severe hepatic impairment and matched healthy controls received 125- and 2,000-mg abiraterone acetate (suspension doses), respectively (systemic exposure of abiraterone acetate suspension is approximately half to that of tablet formulation). Blood was sampled at specified timepoints up to 72 or 96 hours postdose to measure plasma abiraterone concentrations. Abiraterone exposure was comparable between healthy controls and patients with mild hepatic impairment or ESRD, but increased by 4-fold in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. Despite a 16-fold reduction in dose, abiraterone exposure in patients with severe hepatic impairment was about 22% and 44% of the Cmax and AUC∞ of healthy controls, respectively. These results suggest that abiraterone pharmacokinetics were not changed markedly in patients with ESRD or mild hepatic impairment. However, the capacity to eliminate abiraterone was substantially compromised in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment. A single-dose administration of abiraterone acetate was well-tolerated.
Abstract: Two novel oral drugs that target androgen signaling have recently become available for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Abiraterone acetate inhibits the synthesis of the natural ligands of the androgen receptor, whereas enzalutamide directly inhibits the androgen receptor by several mechanisms. Abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide appear to be equally effective for patients with mCRPC pre- and postchemotherapy. Rational decision making for either one of these drugs is therefore potentially driven by individual patient characteristics. In this review, an overview of the pharmacokinetic characteristics is given for both drugs and potential and proven drug-drug interactions are presented. Additionally, the effect of patient-related factors on drug disposition are summarized and the limited data on the exposure-response relationships are described. The most important pharmacological feature of enzalutamide that needs to be recognized is its capacity to induce several key enzymes in drug metabolism. The potency to cause drug-drug interactions needs to be addressed in patients who are treated with multiple drugs simultaneously. Abiraterone has a much smaller drug-drug interaction potential; however, it is poorly absorbed, which is affected by food intake, and a large interpatient variability in drug exposure is observed. Dose reductions of abiraterone or, alternatively, the selection of enzalutamide, should be considered in patients with hepatic dysfunction. Understanding the pharmacological characteristics and challenges of both drugs could facilitate decision making for either one of the drugs.
Abstract: We present a case of a 77 year-old gentleman with previous coronary artery bypass grafting, admitted to hospital with recurrent torsades de pointes (TdP) due to abiraterone-induced hypokalaemia and prolonged QTc. The patient was on abiraterone and prednisone for metastatic prostate cancer. He required multiple defibrillations for recurrent TdP. Abiraterone is a relatively novel drug used in metastatic prostate cancer and we discuss this potential adverse effect and its management in this unusual presentation.
Abstract: A group effect is generally assumed regarding the prolongation of the QT interval through butyrophenone antipsychotics like haloperidol. Consequently intravenous administration of benperidol is seen critically notwithstanding sparse evidence; thus benperidol and haloperidol were compared regarding their cardiac risk of prolonging the QT interval when administered intravenously for acute sedation of psychotic patients. The QT interval was measured by a 12-lead ECG. For the correction of QT values Bazett's formula was used. The resulting QTc intervals of the benperidol and the haloperidol group were compared using Mann-Whitney U-test. Our data provide statistical evidence for benperidol being less prone to cause QTc prolongation than haloperidol (p = 0.049). The results of our study indicate a more favourable risk profile of benperidol compared to haloperidol regarding QTc prolongation when administered intravenously.