QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Explanations of the substances for patients
|Atorvastatin||1.09 [1.09,5.32] 1,2||1||1.09|
The changes in exposure mentioned relate to changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC]. Aliskiren exposure increases to 194%, when combined with fenofibrate (118%) and atorvastatin (151%). This can lead to increased side effects. Atorvastatin exposure increases to 109%, when combined with aliskiren (100%) and fenofibrate (109%). We do not expect any change in exposure for fenofibrate, when combined with aliskiren (100%) and atorvastatin (100%).
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Aliskiren has a low oral bioavailability [ F ] of 3%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change strongly with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 26 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 104 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is rather weak at 49% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 133 liters. Since the substance has a low hepatic extraction rate of 0.14, displacement from protein binding [Pb] in the context of an interaction can increase exposure. About 23.0% of an administered dose is excreted unchanged via the kidneys and this proportion is seldom changed by interactions. The metabolism mainly takes place via CYP3A4 and the active transport takes place partly via OATP1A2, OATP2B1 and PGP.
The bioavailability of fenofibrate is unknown. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is 20 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached after approximately 80 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is very strong at 99%. The metabolism does not take place via the common cytochromes and the active transport takes place in particular via UGT1A9.
Atorvastatin has a low oral bioavailability [ F ] of 14%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change strongly with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is 14 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached after approximately 56 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is very strong at 98.5% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 381 liters. However, since the substance has a high hepatic extraction rate of 0.73, only changes in the liver blood flow [Q] are relevant. About 21.4% of an administered dose is excreted unchanged via the kidneys and this proportion is seldom changed by interactions. The metabolism mainly takes place via CYP3A4 and the active transport takes place partly via BCRP, MRP2, MRP4, OATP1A2, OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1 and PGP.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither aliskiren, fenofibrate nor atorvastatin increase serotonergic activity.
Rating: According to our findings, neither aliskiren, fenofibrate nor atorvastatin increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
We do not know of any QT-prolonging potential for aliskiren, fenofibrate and atorvastatin.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||ali||fen||ato|
|Urinary tract infection||8.0 %||n.a.||n.a.||8.0|
|Abdominal pain||4.6 %||n.a.||4.6||n.a.|
|Intracranial hemorrhage||2.3 %||n.a.||n.a.||2.3|
|Elevated transaminases||1.8 %||n.a.||+||0.8|
Elevated serum creatinine: aliskiren, fenofibrate
Renal failure: aliskiren
Elevated creatine kinase: atorvastatin
Rhabdomyolysis: atorvastatin, fenofibrate
Rupture of tendon: atorvastatin
Stevens johnson syndrome: aliskiren, fenofibrate
Toxic epidermal necrolysis: aliskiren, fenofibrate
Allergic skin reactions like pruritus and rash: aliskiren, atorvastatin, fenofibrate
Hypersensitivity reaction: fenofibrate
Liver failure: atorvastatin
Cholestatic hepatitis: fenofibrate
Thromboembolic disorder: fenofibrate
Based on your
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of renal dysfunction on the steady-state pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of atorvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor. Nineteen subjects with calculated creatinine clearances ranging from 13 mL/min to 143 mL/min were administered 10 mg atorvastatin daily for 2 weeks. Pharmacokinetic parameters and lipid responses were analyzed by regression on calculated creatinine clearance. Correlations between steady-state atorvastatin pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic parameters and creatinine clearance were weak and, in general, did not achieve statistical significance. Although the elimination rate constant, lambda z (0.579), was significantly correlated with creatinine clearance, neither maximum plasma concentration (Cmax, -0.361) nor oral clearance (Cl/F, 0.306) were; thus, steady-state exposure is not altered. Renal impairment has no significant effect on pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) are metabolized by distinct pathways that may alter the extent of drug-drug interactions. Cerivastatin is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A4 and CYP2C8. Atorvastatin is metabolized solely by CYP3A4, and pravastatin metabolism is not well defined. Coadministration of higher doses of these statins with CYP3A4 inhibitors has the potential for eliciting adverse drug-drug interactions. OBJECTIVE: To determine the comparative effect of itraconazole, a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of cerivastatin, atorvastatin, and pravastatin. METHODS: In this single-site, randomized, three-way crossover, open-labeled study, healthy subjects (n = 18) received single doses of cerivastatin 0.8 mg, atorvastatin 20 mg, or pravastatin 40 mg without and with itraconazole 200 mg. Pharmacokinetic parameters [AUC(0-infinity), AUC(0-tn), peak concentration (Cmax), time to reach Cmax (tmax), and half-life (t1/2)] were determined for parent statins and major metabolites. RESULTS: Concomitant cerivastatin/itraconazole treatment produced small elevations in the cerivastatin AUC(0-infinity), Cmax, and t1/2 (27%, 25%, and 19%, respectively; P < .05 versus cerivastatin alone). Itraconazole coadministration produced similar changes in pravastatin pharmacokinetics [AUC elevated 51% (P < .05 versus pravastatin alone), 24% (Cmax), and 23% (t1/2), respectively]. However, itraconazole dramatically increased atorvastatin AUC (150%), Cmax (38%), and t1/2 (30%) (P < .05). The elevation in atorvastatin AUC was significantly greater than that of cerivastatin (P < .005) or pravastatin (P < .005). CONCLUSION: Itraconazole markedly elevated atorvastatin plasma levels (2.5-fold) after 20 mg dosing, suggesting that concomitant itraconazole/atorvastatin therapy be carefully considered. Itraconazole produced modest elevations in the plasma levels of cerivastatin 0.8 mg or pravastatin 40 mg (1.3-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively), indicating that combination treatment with itraconazole with cerivastatin or pravastatin may be preferable.
Abstract: Hypercholesterolaemia is a risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic disease. Atorvastatin lowers plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels by inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. The mean dose-response relationship has been shown to be log-linear for atorvastatin, but plasma concentrations of atorvastatin acid and its metabolites do not correlate with LDL-cholesterol reduction at a given dose. The clinical dosage range for atorvastatin is 10-80 mg/day, and it is given in the acid form. Atorvastatin acid is highly soluble and permeable, and the drug is completely absorbed after oral administration. However, atorvastatin acid is subject to extensive first-pass metabolism in the gut wall as well as in the liver, as oral bioavailability is 14%. The volume of distribution of atorvastatin acid is 381L, and plasma protein binding exceeds 98%. Atorvastatin acid is extensively metabolised in both the gut and liver by oxidation, lactonisation and glucuronidation, and the metabolites are eliminated by biliary secretion and direct secretion from blood to the intestine. In vitro, atorvastatin acid is a substrate for P-glycoprotein, organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) C and H+-monocarboxylic acid cotransporter. The total plasma clearance of atorvastatin acid is 625 mL/min and the half-life is about 7 hours. The renal route is of minor importance (<1%) for the elimination of atorvastatin acid. In vivo, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 is responsible for the formation of two active metabolites from the acid and the lactone forms of atorvastatin. Atorvastatin acid and its metabolites undergo glucuronidation mediated by uridinediphosphoglucuronyltransferases 1A1 and 1A3. Atorvastatin can be given either in the morning or in the evening. Food decreases the absorption rate of atorvastatin acid after oral administration, as indicated by decreased peak concentration and increased time to peak concentration. Women appear to have a slightly lower plasma exposure to atorvastatin for a given dose. Atorvastatin is subject to metabolism by CYP3A4 and cellular membrane transport by OATP C and P-glycoprotein, and drug-drug interactions with potent inhibitors of these systems, such as itraconazole, nelfinavir, ritonavir, cyclosporin, fibrates, erythromycin and grapefruit juice, have been demonstrated. An interaction with gemfibrozil seems to be mediated by inhibition of glucuronidation. A few case studies have reported rhabdomyolysis when the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin have been affected by interacting drugs. Atorvastatin increases the bioavailability of digoxin, most probably by inhibition of P-glycoprotein, but does not affect the pharmacokinetics of ritonavir, nelfinavir or terfenadine.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The cardiac effects of statins are subject to controversial discussion, and the mechanism of their uptake into the human heart is unknown. A candidate protein is the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 2B1 (SLCO2B1), because related transporters are involved in the uptake of statins into the human liver. In this study we examine OATP2B1 expression in the human heart and describe statins as inhibitors and substrates of OATP2B1. METHODS: The expression of OATP2B1 was analyzed in 46 human atrial and 15 ventricular samples, including samples from hearts with dilated cardiomyopathy and hearts with ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS: Significant messenger ribonucleic acid expression was found in all samples, with no difference in the diseased hearts. However, patients who had taken atorvastatin exhibit decreased OATP2B1 messenger ribonucleic acid expression compared with patients with no statin treatment. OATP2B1 protein was detected at approximately 85 kd in atrial samples, as well as ventricular samples, and could be localized to the vascular endothelium. Furthermore, estrone-3-sulfate transport into OATP2B1-overexpressing Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells was inhibited by various drugs, including atorvastatin, simvastatin, cerivastatin, glyburide (INN, glibenclamide), and gemfibrozil, with the most pronounced effect being found for atorvastatin (inhibition constant, 0.7 +/- 0.4 micromol/L). Whereas simvastatin (lactone) itself was not transported by OATP2B1, atorvastatin was identified as a high-affinity substrate for OATP2B1 (Michaelis-Menten constant, 0.2 micromol/L) by direct transport measurement via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. CONCLUSION: OATP2B1 is a high-affinity uptake transporter for atorvastatin and is expressed in the vascular endothelium of the human heart, suggesting its involvement in cardiac uptake of atorvastatin.
Abstract: The inhibition of hepatic uptake transporters, such as OATP1B1, on the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin is unknown. Here, we investigate the effect of a model hepatic transporter inhibitor, rifampin, on the kinetics of atorvastatin and its metabolites in humans. The inhibitory effect of a single rifampin dose on atorvastatin kinetics was studied in 11 healthy volunteers in a randomized, crossover study. Each subject received two 40-mg doses of atorvastatin, one on study day 1 and one on study day 8, separated by 1 week. One intravenous 30-min infusion of 600 mg rifampin was administered to each subject on either study day 1 or study day 8. Plasma concentrations of atorvastatin and metabolites were above the limits of quantitation for up to 24 h after dosing. Rifampin significantly increased the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of atorvastatin acid by 6.8+/-2.4-fold and that of 2-hydroxy-atorvastatin acid and 4-hydroxy-atorvastatin acid by 6.8+/-2.5- and 3.9+/-2.4-fold, respectively. The AUC values of the lactone forms of atorvastatin, 2-hydroxy-atorvastatin and 4-hydroxy-atorvastatin, were also significantly increased, but to a lower extent. An intravenous dose of rifampin substantially increased the plasma concentrations of atorvastatin and its acid and lactone metabolites. The data confirm that OATP1B transporters represent the major hepatic uptake systems for atorvastatin and its active metabolites. Inhibition of hepatic uptake may have consequences for efficacy and toxicity of drugs like atorvastatin that are mainly eliminated by the hepatobiliary system.
Abstract: Thirty-two healthy volunteers with different SLCO1B1 genotypes ingested a 20 mg dose of atorvastatin and 10 mg dose of rosuvastatin with a washout period of 1 week. Subjects with the SLCO1B1 c.521CC genotype (n=4) had a 144% (P<0.001) or 61% (P=0.049) greater mean area under the plasma atorvastatin concentration-time curve from 0 to 48 h (AUC(0-48 h)) than those with the c.521TT (n=16) or c.521TC (n=12) genotype, respectively. The AUC(0-48 h) of 2-hydroxyatorvastatin was 100% greater in subjects with the c.521CC genotype than in those with the c.521TT genotype (P=0.018). Rosuvastatin AUC(0-48 h) and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) were 65% (P=0.002) and 79% (P=0.003) higher in subjects with the c.521CC genotype than in those with the c.521TT genotype. These results indicate that, unexpectedly, SLCO1B1 polymorphism has a larger effect on the AUC of atorvastatin than on the more hydrophilic rosuvastatin.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Aliskiren is an orally active direct renin inhibitor approved for the treatment of hypertension. This study assessed the effects of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics and safety of aliskiren alone and in combination with the angiotensin receptor antagonist irbesartan. METHODS: This open-label study enrolled 17 males with mild, moderate or severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance [CL(CR)] 50-80, 30-49 and <30 mL/minute, respectively) and 17 healthy males matched for age and bodyweight. Subjects received oral aliskiren 300 mg once daily on days 1-7 and aliskiren coadministered with irbesartan 300 mg on days 8-14. Plasma aliskiren concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry at frequent intervals up to 24 hours after dosing on days 1, 7 and 14. RESULTS: Renal clearance of aliskiren averaged 1280 +/- 500 mL/hour (mean +/- SD) in healthy subjects and 559 +/- 220, 312 +/- 75 and 243 +/- 186 mL/hour in patients with mild, moderate and severe renal impairment, respectively. At steady state (day 7), the geometric mean ratios (renal impairment : matched healthy volunteers) ranged from 1.21 to 2.05 for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) over the dosage interval tau (24h) [AUC(tau)]) and from 0.83 to 2.25 for the maximum observed plasma concentration of aliskiren at steady state. Changes in exposure did not correlate with CL(CR), consistent with an effect of renal impairment on non-renal drug disposition. The observed large intersubject variability in aliskiren pharmacokinetic parameters was unrelated to the degree of renal impairment. Accumulation of aliskiren at steady state (indicated by the AUC from 0 and 24 hours [AUC(24)] on day 7 vs day 1) was similar in healthy subjects (1.79 [95% CI 1.24, 2.60]) and those with renal impairment (range 1.39-1.99). Coadministration with irbesartan did not alter the pharmacokinetics of aliskiren. Aliskiren was well tolerated when administered alone or with irbesartan. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to aliskiren is increased by renal impairment but does not correlate with the severity of renal impairment (CL(CR)). This is consistent with previous data indicating that renal clearance of aliskiren represents only a small fraction of total clearance. Initial dose adjustment of aliskiren is unlikely to be required in patients with renal impairment.
Abstract: This study investigated the potential pharmacokinetic interaction between the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren and modulators of P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Aliskiren stimulated in vitro P-glycoprotein ATPase activity in recombinant baculovirus-infected Sf9 cells with high affinity (K(m) 2.1 micromol/L) and was transported by organic anion-transporting peptide OATP2B1-expressing HEK293 cells with moderate affinity (K(m) 72 micromol/L). Three open-label, multiple-dose studies in healthy subjects investigated the pharmacokinetic interactions between aliskiren 300 mg and digoxin 0.25 mg (n = 22), atorvastatin 80 mg (n = 21), or ketoconazole 200 mg bid (n = 21). Coadministration with aliskiren resulted in changes of <30% in AUC(tau) and C(max,ss) of digoxin, atorvastatin, o-hydroxy-atorvastatin, and rho-hydroxy-atorvastatin, indicating no clinically significant interaction with P-glycoprotein or CYP3A4 substrates. Aliskiren AUC(tau) was significantly increased by coadministration with atorvastatin (by 47%, P < .001) or ketoconazole (by 76%, P < .001) through mechanisms most likely involving transporters such as P-glycoprotein and organic anion-transporting peptide and possibly through metabolic pathways such as CYP3A4 in the gut wall. These results indicate that aliskiren is a substrate for but not an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein. On the basis of the small changes in exposure to digoxin and atorvastatin and the <2-fold increase in exposure to aliskiren during coadministration with atorvastatin and ketoconazole, the authors conclude that the potential for clinically relevant drug interactions between aliskiren and these substrates and/or inhibitors of P-glycoprotein/CPY3A4/OATP is low.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Both atorvastatin and rifampicin are substrates of OATP1B1 (organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1) encoded by SLCO1B1 gene. Rifampicin is a potent inhibitor of SLCO1B1 (IC50 1.5 umol/l) and SLCO1B1 521T>C functional genetic polymorphism alters the kinetics of atorvastatin in vivo. We hypothesize that rifampicin might influence atorvastatin kinetics in a SLCO1B1 polymorphism dependent manner. METHODS: Sixteen subjects with known SLCO1B1 genotypes (6 c.521TT, 6 c.521TC and 4 c.521CC) were divided into 2 groups (atorvastatin-placebo group, n=8; atorvastatin-rifampicin group, n=8) randomly. In this 2-phase crossover study, atorvastatin (40 mg single-oral dose) pharmacokinetics after co-administration of placebo and rifampicin (600 mg single-oral dose) were measured for up to 48 h by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In the third phase, rifampicin (450 mg single-oral dose) pharmacokinetics was measured additionally. RESULTS: Rifampicin increased atorvastatin plasma concentration in accordance with SLCO1B1 521T>C genotype while the increasing percentage of AUC((0-48)) among c.521TT, c.521TC and c.521CC individuals were 833+/-245% vs 468+/-233% vs 330+/-223% (P=0.007). However, SLCO1B1 521T>C exerted no impact on rifampicin pharmacokinetics (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that rifampicin elevated the plasma concentration of atorvastatin depending on SLCO1B1 genotype and rifampicin pharmacokinetics were not altered by SLCO1B1 genotype.
Abstract: The ABCG2 c.421C>A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was determined in 660 healthy Finnish volunteers, of whom 32 participated in a pharmacokinetic crossover study involving the administration of 20 mg atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. The frequency of the c.421A variant allele was 9.5% (95% confidence interval 8.1-11.3%). Subjects with the c.421AA genotype (n = 4) had a 72% larger mean area under the plasma atorvastatin concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)) than individuals with the c.421CC genotype had (n = 16; P = 0.049). In participants with the c.421AA genotype, the rosuvastatin AUC(0-infinity) was 100% greater than in those with c.421CA (n = 12) and 144% greater than in those with the c.421CC genotype. Also, those with the c.421AA genotype showed peak plasma rosuvastatin concentrations 108% higher than those in the c.421CA genotype group and 131% higher than those in the c.421CC genotype group (P < or = 0.01). In MDCKII-ABCG2 cells, atorvastatin transport was increased in the apical direction as compared with vector control cells (transport ratio 1.9 +/- 0.1 vs. 1.1 +/- 0.1). These results indicate that the ABCG2 polymorphism markedly affects the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin and, even more so, of rosuvastatin-potentially affecting the efficacy and toxicity of statin therapy.
Abstract: To identify pharmacokinetic (PK) drug-drug interactions between tipranavir-ritonavir (TPV/r) and rosuvastatin and atorvastatin, we conducted two prospective, open-label, single-arm, two-period studies. The geometric mean (GM) ratio was 1.37 (90% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 1.62) for the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) for rosuvastatin and 2.23 (90% CI, 1.83 to 2.72) for the maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) for rosuvastatin with TPV/r at steady state versus alone. The GM ratio was 9.36 (90% CI, 8.02 to 10.94) for the AUC of atorvastatin and 8.61 (90% CI, 7.25 to 10.21) for the Cmax of atorvastatin with TPV/r at steady state versus alone. Tipranavir PK parameters were not affected by single-dose rosuvastatin or atorvastatin. Mild gastrointestinal intolerance, headache, and mild reversible liver enzyme elevations (grade 1 and 2) were the most commonly reported adverse drug reactions. Based on these interactions, we recommend low initial doses of rosuvastatin (5 mg) and atorvastatin (10 mg), with careful clinical monitoring of rosuvastatin- or atorvastatin-related adverse events when combined with TPV/r.
Abstract: This 12-week, multicenter, open-label study assessed the efficacy, pharmacokinetics and safety of a once-daily aliskiren in Japanese hypertensive patients with renal dysfunction. Patients (n=40, aged 20-80 years) with mean sitting diastolic blood pressure (msDBP) >or=95 and <110 mm Hg and serum creatinine between >or=1.3 and <3.0 mg per 100 ml in males or between >or=1.2 and <3.0 mg per 100 ml in females were eligible. Patients began therapy with a once-daily morning oral dose of 75 mg of aliskiren. In patients with inadequate blood pressure control (msDBP >or=90 or mean sitting systolic blood pressure [msSBP] >or=140 mm Hg) and without safety concerns (serum potassium >5.5 mEq l(-1) or an increase in serum creatinine >or=20%), the aliskiren dose was increased to 150 mg and then to 300 mg in sequential steps starting from Week 2. Efficacy was assessed as change in msSBP/msDBP from baseline to the Week 8 endpoint (with the last observation carried forward). The mean reduction from baseline to Week 8 endpoint was 13.9+/-16.6 and 11.6+/-9.7 mm Hg for msSBP and msDBP, respectively. At the Week 8 endpoint, 65% patients had achieved blood pressure response (msDBP <90 or a 10 mm Hg decrease or msSBP <140 or a 20 mm Hg decrease) and 30% had achieved blood pressure control (msSBP <140 mm Hg and msDBP <90 mm Hg). Aliskiren was well tolerated with no new safety concerns in Japanese hypertensive patients with renal dysfunction.
Abstract: In a randomized crossover study, 11 healthy volunteers took 100 mg (first dose 200 mg) of the antifungal drug itraconazole, a P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4 inhibitor, or placebo twice daily for 5 days. On day 3, they ingested a single 150-mg dose of aliskiren, a renin inhibitor used in the treatment of hypertension. Itraconazole raised the peak plasma aliskiren concentration 5.8-fold (range, 1.1- to 24.3-fold; P < .001) and the area under the plasma aliskiren concentration-time curve 6.5-fold (range, 2.6- to 20.5-fold; P < .001) but had no significant effect on aliskiren elimination half-life. Itraconazole increased the amount of aliskiren excreted into the urine during 12 hours 8.0-fold (P < .001) and its renal clearance 1.2-fold (P = .042). Plasma renin activity 24 hours after aliskiren intake was 68% lower during the itraconazole phase than during the placebo phase (P = .011). In conclusion, itraconazole markedly raises the plasma concentrations and enhances the renin-inhibiting effect of aliskiren. The interaction is probably mainly explained by inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux of aliskiren in the small intestine, with a minor contribution from inhibition of CYP3A4. Concomitant use of aliskiren and itraconazole is best avoided.
Abstract: The authors describe the drug-drug interaction between aliskiren and verapamil in healthy participants. Eighteen participants first received an oral dose of aliskiren 300 mg (highest recommended clinical dose) in period 1. After a 10-day washout period, the participants received verapamil 240 mg/d for 8 days (period 2). On day 8, the participants also received an oral dose of aliskiren 300 mg. Safety and pharmacokinetic analyses were performed during each treatment period. Concomitant administration of a single dose of aliskiren during steady-state verapamil resulted in an increase in plasma concentration of aliskiren. The mean increase in AUC(0-∞), AUC(last), and C(max) was about 2-fold. On day 8, in the presence of aliskiren, AUC(τ,ss) of R-norverapamil, R-verapamil, S-norverapamil, and S-verapamil was decreased by 10%, 16%, 10%, and 25%, respectively. Similarly, the C(max,ss) of R-norverapamil, R-verapamil, S-norverapamil, and S-verapamil was decreased by 13%, 18%, 12%, and 24%, respectively. Aliskiren did not affect the AUC(τ,ss) ratios of R-norverapamil/R-verapamil and S-norverapamil/S-verapamil. Aliskiren administered alone or in combination with verapamil was well tolerated in healthy participants. In conclusion, no dose adjustment is necessary when aliskiren is administered with moderate ABCB1 inhibitors such as verapamil (240 mg/d).
Abstract: To explore the clinical relevance of inhibition of multidrug resistance transporter 1 and organic anion transporting polypeptide transporter, a drug-drug interaction study was conducted using aliskiren and cyclosporine. This was an open-label, single-sequence, parallel-group, single-dose study in healthy subjects. Subjects (n = 14) first received aliskiren 75 mg orally (period 1), followed by aliskiren 75 mg + cyclosporine 200 mg (period 2) after a 7-day washout period, and aliskiren 75 mg + cyclosporine 600 mg (period 3) after a 14-day washout period. Safety and pharmacokinetics were analyzed during each period. The primary objective was to characterize pharmacokinetics of aliskiren (single-dose and combination with cyclosporine). The increases in area under the time-concentration curve from time 0 to infinity and maximum concentration associated with cyclosporine 200 mg or 600 mg were 4- to 5-fold and 2.5-fold, respectively. Mean half-life increased from 25 to 45 hours. Based on comparison to literature, a single-dose of aliskiren 75 mg did not alter the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine. Aliskiren 75 mg was well tolerated. Combination with cyclosporine increased the number of adverse events, mainly hot flush and gastrointestinal symptoms, with no serious adverse events. Two adverse events led to withdrawal (ligament rupture, not suspected to be study-drug related; and vomiting, suspected to be study-drug related). Laboratory parameters, vital signs, and electrocardiographs showed no time- or treatment-related changes. As cyclosporine significantly altered the pharmacokinetics of aliskiren in humans, its use with aliskiren is not recommended.
Abstract: Telaprevir is a hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor that is both a substrate and an inhibitor of CYP3A. Amlodipine and atorvastatin are both substrates of CYP3A and are among the drugs most frequently used by patients with hepatitis C. This study was conducted to examine the effect of telaprevir on atorvastatin and amlodipine pharmacokinetics (PK). This was an open-label, single sequence, nonrandomized study involving 21 healthy male and female volunteers. A coformulation of 5 mg amlodipine and 20 mg atorvastatin was administered on day 1. Telaprevir was taken with food as a 750-mg dose every 8 h from day 11 until day 26, and a single dose of the amlodipine-atorvastatin combination was readministered on day 17. Plasma samples were collected for determination of the PK of telaprevir, amlodipine, atorvastatin, ortho-hydroxy atorvastatin, and para-hydroxy atorvastatin. When administration with telaprevir was compared with administration without telaprevir, the least-square mean ratios (90% confidence limits) for amlodipine were 1.27 (1.21, 1.33) for the maximum drug concentration in serum (C(max)) and 2.79 (2.58, 3.01) for the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC(0-∞)); for atorvastatin, they were 10.6 (8.74, 12.9) for the C(max) and 7.88 (6.84, 9.07) for the AUC(0-∞). Telaprevir significantly increased exposure to amlodipine and atorvastatin, consistent with the inhibitory effect of telaprevir on the CYP3A-mediated metabolism of these agents.
Abstract: The human organic anion and cation transporters are classified within two SLC superfamilies. Superfamily SLCO (formerly SLC21A) consists of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), while the organic anion transporters (OATs) and the organic cation transporters (OCTs) are classified in the SLC22A superfamily. Individual members of each superfamily are expressed in essentially every epithelium throughout the body, where they play a significant role in drug absorption, distribution and elimination. Substrates of OATPs are mainly large hydrophobic organic anions, while OATs transport smaller and more hydrophilic organic anions and OCTs transport organic cations. In addition to endogenous substrates, such as steroids, hormones and neurotransmitters, numerous drugs and other xenobiotics are transported by these proteins, including statins, antivirals, antibiotics and anticancer drugs. Expression of OATPs, OATs and OCTs can be regulated at the protein or transcriptional level and appears to vary within each family by both protein and tissue type. All three superfamilies consist of 12 transmembrane domain proteins that have intracellular termini. Although no crystal structures have yet been determined, combinations of homology modelling and mutation experiments have been used to explore the mechanism of substrate recognition and transport. Several polymorphisms identified in members of these superfamilies have been shown to affect pharmacokinetics of their drug substrates, confirming the importance of these drug transporters for efficient pharmacological therapy. This review, unlike other reviews that focus on a single transporter family, briefly summarizes the current knowledge of all the functionally characterized human organic anion and cation drug uptake transporters of the SLCO and the SLC22A superfamilies.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Aliskiren represents a novel class of orally active renin inhibitors. This study analyses the pharmacokinetics, tolerability and safety of single-dose aliskiren inpatients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing haemodialysis. METHODS: Six ESRD patients and six matched healthy volunteers were enrolled in an open-label, parallel-group, single-sequence study. The ESRD patients underwent two treatment periods where 300 mg of aliskiren was administered 48 or 1 h before a standardized haemodialysis session (4 h, 1.4 m(2) high-flux filter, blood flow 300 mL/min, dialysate flow 500 mL/min). Washout was >10 days between both periods. Blood and dialysis samples were taken for up to 96 h postdose to determine aliskiren concentrations. RESULTS: Compared with the healthy subjects (1681 ± 1034 ng·h/mL), the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to infinity was 61% (haemodialysis at 48 h) and 41% (haemodialysis at 1 h) higher in ESRD patients receiving single-dose aliskiren 300 mg. The maximum (peak) plasma drug concentration (481 ± 497 ng/mL in healthy subjects) was 17% higher (haemodialysis at 48 h) and 16% lower (haemodialysis at 1 h). In both treatment periods, dialysis clearance was below 2% of oral clearance and the mean fraction eliminated from circulation was 10 and 12% in period 1 and 2, respectively. Drug AUCs were similar in ESRD patients receiving aliskiren 1 or 48 h before dialysis. No severe adverse events occurred. CONCLUSION: The exposure of aliskiren is moderately higher in ESRD patients. Only a minor portion is removed by a typical haemodialysis session. Aliskiren exposure is not significantly affected by intermittent haemodialysis, suggesting that no dose adjustment is necessary in this population.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.