QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Aliskiren is used for high blood pressure and is taken orally as a tablet. Aliskiren is the first representative of the direct renin inhibitors and intervenes in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). It binds directly and selectively to the enzyme renin and thus ultimately prevents the activation of angiotensin II, the most powerful blood pressure-increasing substance in the body. The result is a lowering of the blood pressure through the expansion of the blood vessels and through the reduced release of aldosterone and stress hormones in the adrenal gland, because less sodium and water are retained in the kidney. In this way the heart is also relieved.
The warnings are checked for the combination of several active substances. For the individual substances, please consult the relevant specialist information.
Since only aliskiren was entered without any further substances, no pharmacokinetic interaction can be detected.
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Aliskiren has a low oral bioavailability [ F ] of 3%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change strongly with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 26 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 104 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is rather weak at 49% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 133 liters. Since the substance has a low hepatic extraction rate of 0.14, displacement from protein binding [Pb] in the context of an interaction can lead to increased exposure. About 23.0% of an administered dose is excreted unchanged via the kidneys and this proportion is seldom changed by interactions. The metabolism mainly takes place via CYP3A4 and the active transport takes place partly via OATP1A2, OATP2B1 and PGP.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, aliskiren does not increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, aliskiren does not increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
We do not know of any QT-prolonging potential for aliskiren.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||ali|
|Elevated serum creatinine||1.0 %||+|
|Stevens johnson syndrome||0.0 %||0.1|
|Toxic epidermal necrolysis||0.0 %||0.1|
|Allergic skin reactions like pruritus and rash||0.0 %||0.1|
Renal failure: aliskiren
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Aliskiren is an orally active direct renin inhibitor approved for the treatment of hypertension. This study assessed the effects of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics and safety of aliskiren alone and in combination with the angiotensin receptor antagonist irbesartan. METHODS: This open-label study enrolled 17 males with mild, moderate or severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance [CL(CR)] 50-80, 30-49 and <30 mL/minute, respectively) and 17 healthy males matched for age and bodyweight. Subjects received oral aliskiren 300 mg once daily on days 1-7 and aliskiren coadministered with irbesartan 300 mg on days 8-14. Plasma aliskiren concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry at frequent intervals up to 24 hours after dosing on days 1, 7 and 14. RESULTS: Renal clearance of aliskiren averaged 1280 +/- 500 mL/hour (mean +/- SD) in healthy subjects and 559 +/- 220, 312 +/- 75 and 243 +/- 186 mL/hour in patients with mild, moderate and severe renal impairment, respectively. At steady state (day 7), the geometric mean ratios (renal impairment : matched healthy volunteers) ranged from 1.21 to 2.05 for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) over the dosage interval tau (24h) [AUC(tau)]) and from 0.83 to 2.25 for the maximum observed plasma concentration of aliskiren at steady state. Changes in exposure did not correlate with CL(CR), consistent with an effect of renal impairment on non-renal drug disposition. The observed large intersubject variability in aliskiren pharmacokinetic parameters was unrelated to the degree of renal impairment. Accumulation of aliskiren at steady state (indicated by the AUC from 0 and 24 hours [AUC(24)] on day 7 vs day 1) was similar in healthy subjects (1.79 [95% CI 1.24, 2.60]) and those with renal impairment (range 1.39-1.99). Coadministration with irbesartan did not alter the pharmacokinetics of aliskiren. Aliskiren was well tolerated when administered alone or with irbesartan. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to aliskiren is increased by renal impairment but does not correlate with the severity of renal impairment (CL(CR)). This is consistent with previous data indicating that renal clearance of aliskiren represents only a small fraction of total clearance. Initial dose adjustment of aliskiren is unlikely to be required in patients with renal impairment.
Abstract: This study investigated the potential pharmacokinetic interaction between the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren and modulators of P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Aliskiren stimulated in vitro P-glycoprotein ATPase activity in recombinant baculovirus-infected Sf9 cells with high affinity (K(m) 2.1 micromol/L) and was transported by organic anion-transporting peptide OATP2B1-expressing HEK293 cells with moderate affinity (K(m) 72 micromol/L). Three open-label, multiple-dose studies in healthy subjects investigated the pharmacokinetic interactions between aliskiren 300 mg and digoxin 0.25 mg (n = 22), atorvastatin 80 mg (n = 21), or ketoconazole 200 mg bid (n = 21). Coadministration with aliskiren resulted in changes of <30% in AUC(tau) and C(max,ss) of digoxin, atorvastatin, o-hydroxy-atorvastatin, and rho-hydroxy-atorvastatin, indicating no clinically significant interaction with P-glycoprotein or CYP3A4 substrates. Aliskiren AUC(tau) was significantly increased by coadministration with atorvastatin (by 47%, P < .001) or ketoconazole (by 76%, P < .001) through mechanisms most likely involving transporters such as P-glycoprotein and organic anion-transporting peptide and possibly through metabolic pathways such as CYP3A4 in the gut wall. These results indicate that aliskiren is a substrate for but not an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein. On the basis of the small changes in exposure to digoxin and atorvastatin and the <2-fold increase in exposure to aliskiren during coadministration with atorvastatin and ketoconazole, the authors conclude that the potential for clinically relevant drug interactions between aliskiren and these substrates and/or inhibitors of P-glycoprotein/CPY3A4/OATP is low.
Abstract: This 12-week, multicenter, open-label study assessed the efficacy, pharmacokinetics and safety of a once-daily aliskiren in Japanese hypertensive patients with renal dysfunction. Patients (n=40, aged 20-80 years) with mean sitting diastolic blood pressure (msDBP) >or=95 and <110 mm Hg and serum creatinine between >or=1.3 and <3.0 mg per 100 ml in males or between >or=1.2 and <3.0 mg per 100 ml in females were eligible. Patients began therapy with a once-daily morning oral dose of 75 mg of aliskiren. In patients with inadequate blood pressure control (msDBP >or=90 or mean sitting systolic blood pressure [msSBP] >or=140 mm Hg) and without safety concerns (serum potassium >5.5 mEq l(-1) or an increase in serum creatinine >or=20%), the aliskiren dose was increased to 150 mg and then to 300 mg in sequential steps starting from Week 2. Efficacy was assessed as change in msSBP/msDBP from baseline to the Week 8 endpoint (with the last observation carried forward). The mean reduction from baseline to Week 8 endpoint was 13.9+/-16.6 and 11.6+/-9.7 mm Hg for msSBP and msDBP, respectively. At the Week 8 endpoint, 65% patients had achieved blood pressure response (msDBP <90 or a 10 mm Hg decrease or msSBP <140 or a 20 mm Hg decrease) and 30% had achieved blood pressure control (msSBP <140 mm Hg and msDBP <90 mm Hg). Aliskiren was well tolerated with no new safety concerns in Japanese hypertensive patients with renal dysfunction.
Abstract: In a randomized crossover study, 11 healthy volunteers took 100 mg (first dose 200 mg) of the antifungal drug itraconazole, a P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4 inhibitor, or placebo twice daily for 5 days. On day 3, they ingested a single 150-mg dose of aliskiren, a renin inhibitor used in the treatment of hypertension. Itraconazole raised the peak plasma aliskiren concentration 5.8-fold (range, 1.1- to 24.3-fold; P < .001) and the area under the plasma aliskiren concentration-time curve 6.5-fold (range, 2.6- to 20.5-fold; P < .001) but had no significant effect on aliskiren elimination half-life. Itraconazole increased the amount of aliskiren excreted into the urine during 12 hours 8.0-fold (P < .001) and its renal clearance 1.2-fold (P = .042). Plasma renin activity 24 hours after aliskiren intake was 68% lower during the itraconazole phase than during the placebo phase (P = .011). In conclusion, itraconazole markedly raises the plasma concentrations and enhances the renin-inhibiting effect of aliskiren. The interaction is probably mainly explained by inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux of aliskiren in the small intestine, with a minor contribution from inhibition of CYP3A4. Concomitant use of aliskiren and itraconazole is best avoided.
Abstract: The authors describe the drug-drug interaction between aliskiren and verapamil in healthy participants. Eighteen participants first received an oral dose of aliskiren 300 mg (highest recommended clinical dose) in period 1. After a 10-day washout period, the participants received verapamil 240 mg/d for 8 days (period 2). On day 8, the participants also received an oral dose of aliskiren 300 mg. Safety and pharmacokinetic analyses were performed during each treatment period. Concomitant administration of a single dose of aliskiren during steady-state verapamil resulted in an increase in plasma concentration of aliskiren. The mean increase in AUC(0-∞), AUC(last), and C(max) was about 2-fold. On day 8, in the presence of aliskiren, AUC(τ,ss) of R-norverapamil, R-verapamil, S-norverapamil, and S-verapamil was decreased by 10%, 16%, 10%, and 25%, respectively. Similarly, the C(max,ss) of R-norverapamil, R-verapamil, S-norverapamil, and S-verapamil was decreased by 13%, 18%, 12%, and 24%, respectively. Aliskiren did not affect the AUC(τ,ss) ratios of R-norverapamil/R-verapamil and S-norverapamil/S-verapamil. Aliskiren administered alone or in combination with verapamil was well tolerated in healthy participants. In conclusion, no dose adjustment is necessary when aliskiren is administered with moderate ABCB1 inhibitors such as verapamil (240 mg/d).
Abstract: To explore the clinical relevance of inhibition of multidrug resistance transporter 1 and organic anion transporting polypeptide transporter, a drug-drug interaction study was conducted using aliskiren and cyclosporine. This was an open-label, single-sequence, parallel-group, single-dose study in healthy subjects. Subjects (n = 14) first received aliskiren 75 mg orally (period 1), followed by aliskiren 75 mg + cyclosporine 200 mg (period 2) after a 7-day washout period, and aliskiren 75 mg + cyclosporine 600 mg (period 3) after a 14-day washout period. Safety and pharmacokinetics were analyzed during each period. The primary objective was to characterize pharmacokinetics of aliskiren (single-dose and combination with cyclosporine). The increases in area under the time-concentration curve from time 0 to infinity and maximum concentration associated with cyclosporine 200 mg or 600 mg were 4- to 5-fold and 2.5-fold, respectively. Mean half-life increased from 25 to 45 hours. Based on comparison to literature, a single-dose of aliskiren 75 mg did not alter the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine. Aliskiren 75 mg was well tolerated. Combination with cyclosporine increased the number of adverse events, mainly hot flush and gastrointestinal symptoms, with no serious adverse events. Two adverse events led to withdrawal (ligament rupture, not suspected to be study-drug related; and vomiting, suspected to be study-drug related). Laboratory parameters, vital signs, and electrocardiographs showed no time- or treatment-related changes. As cyclosporine significantly altered the pharmacokinetics of aliskiren in humans, its use with aliskiren is not recommended.
Abstract: The human organic anion and cation transporters are classified within two SLC superfamilies. Superfamily SLCO (formerly SLC21A) consists of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), while the organic anion transporters (OATs) and the organic cation transporters (OCTs) are classified in the SLC22A superfamily. Individual members of each superfamily are expressed in essentially every epithelium throughout the body, where they play a significant role in drug absorption, distribution and elimination. Substrates of OATPs are mainly large hydrophobic organic anions, while OATs transport smaller and more hydrophilic organic anions and OCTs transport organic cations. In addition to endogenous substrates, such as steroids, hormones and neurotransmitters, numerous drugs and other xenobiotics are transported by these proteins, including statins, antivirals, antibiotics and anticancer drugs. Expression of OATPs, OATs and OCTs can be regulated at the protein or transcriptional level and appears to vary within each family by both protein and tissue type. All three superfamilies consist of 12 transmembrane domain proteins that have intracellular termini. Although no crystal structures have yet been determined, combinations of homology modelling and mutation experiments have been used to explore the mechanism of substrate recognition and transport. Several polymorphisms identified in members of these superfamilies have been shown to affect pharmacokinetics of their drug substrates, confirming the importance of these drug transporters for efficient pharmacological therapy. This review, unlike other reviews that focus on a single transporter family, briefly summarizes the current knowledge of all the functionally characterized human organic anion and cation drug uptake transporters of the SLCO and the SLC22A superfamilies.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Aliskiren represents a novel class of orally active renin inhibitors. This study analyses the pharmacokinetics, tolerability and safety of single-dose aliskiren inpatients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing haemodialysis. METHODS: Six ESRD patients and six matched healthy volunteers were enrolled in an open-label, parallel-group, single-sequence study. The ESRD patients underwent two treatment periods where 300 mg of aliskiren was administered 48 or 1 h before a standardized haemodialysis session (4 h, 1.4 m(2) high-flux filter, blood flow 300 mL/min, dialysate flow 500 mL/min). Washout was >10 days between both periods. Blood and dialysis samples were taken for up to 96 h postdose to determine aliskiren concentrations. RESULTS: Compared with the healthy subjects (1681 ± 1034 ng·h/mL), the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to infinity was 61% (haemodialysis at 48 h) and 41% (haemodialysis at 1 h) higher in ESRD patients receiving single-dose aliskiren 300 mg. The maximum (peak) plasma drug concentration (481 ± 497 ng/mL in healthy subjects) was 17% higher (haemodialysis at 48 h) and 16% lower (haemodialysis at 1 h). In both treatment periods, dialysis clearance was below 2% of oral clearance and the mean fraction eliminated from circulation was 10 and 12% in period 1 and 2, respectively. Drug AUCs were similar in ESRD patients receiving aliskiren 1 or 48 h before dialysis. No severe adverse events occurred. CONCLUSION: The exposure of aliskiren is moderately higher in ESRD patients. Only a minor portion is removed by a typical haemodialysis session. Aliskiren exposure is not significantly affected by intermittent haemodialysis, suggesting that no dose adjustment is necessary in this population.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.