QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Explanations of the substances for patients
|Pravastatin||3.14 [3.14,3.16] 1||3.11||1.02|
The changes in exposure mentioned relate to changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC]. Pravastatin exposure increases to 314%, when combined with ciclosporin (311%) and amiodarone (102%). This can lead to increased side effects. Ciclosporin exposure increases to 123%, when combined with pravastatin (100%) and amiodarone (123%). We did not detect any change in exposure to amiodarone, when combined with pravastatin (100%). We cannot currently estimate the influence of ciclosporin.
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Pravastatin has a low oral bioavailability [ F ] of 18%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change strongly with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather short at 0.79 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached quickly. The protein binding [ Pb ] is rather weak at 48.5% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is 34 liters in the middle range. which is why, with a mean hepatic extraction rate of 0.65, both liver blood flow [Q] and a change in protein binding [Pb] are relevant. About 47.0% of an administered dose is excreted unchanged via the kidneys and this proportion is seldom changed by interactions. The metabolism does not take place via the common cytochromes and the active transport takes place partly via BCRP, MRP2, MRP4, OATP1A2, OATP1B1, OATP2B1 and PGP.
Ciclosporin has a low oral bioavailability [ F ] of 27%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change strongly with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is 13.35 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached after approximately 53.4 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is 95.4% strong and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 92 liters, Since the substance has a low hepatic extraction rate of 0.24, displacement from protein binding [Pb] in the context of an interaction can increase exposure. The metabolism mainly takes place via CYP3A4 and the active transport takes place in particular via PGP.
Amiodarone has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 55%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 1884 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 7536 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is 96% strong. The metabolism takes place via CYP2C8 and CYP3A4, among others and the active transport takes place in particular via PGP.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither pravastatin, ciclosporin nor amiodarone increase serotonergic activity.
Recommendation: As a precaution, attention should be paid to anticholinergic symptoms, especially after increasing the dose and at doses in the upper therapeutic range.
Rating: Ciclosporin only has a mild effect on the anticholinergic system. The risk of anticholinergic syndrome with this medication is rather low if the dosage is in the usual range. According to our findings, neither pravastatin nor amiodarone increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: Amiodarone can trigger potentially torsades de pointes ventricular arrhythmias. We do not know of any QT-prolonging potential for pravastatin and ciclosporin.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||pra||cic||ami|
|Musculoskeletal pain||14.4 %||14.4↑||n.a.||n.a.|
|Upper respiratory infection||12.7 %||12.7↑||n.a.||n.a.|
Headache (10%): ciclosporin, pravastatin
Paresthesia (7.4%): amiodarone, ciclosporin
Ataxia (6.5%): amiodarone
Coordination problem (6.5%): amiodarone
Dizziness (6.5%): amiodarone
Seizure (3%): ciclosporin
Peripheral neuropathy: amiodarone
Pseudotumor cerebri: amiodarone
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: ciclosporin
Hepatotoxicity (7%): amiodarone, ciclosporin
Photosensitivity (6.5%): amiodarone
Stevens johnson syndrome: amiodarone
Toxic epidermal necrolysis: amiodarone
Constipation (6.5%): amiodarone
Loss of appetite (6.5%): amiodarone
Gingival hypertrophy: ciclosporin
Blurred vision (6.5%): amiodarone
Burning sensation in eye: ciclosporin
Pain in eye: ciclosporin
Optic neuritis: amiodarone
Visual loss: amiodarone
Hyperthyroidism (2%): amiodarone
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (2%): amiodarone
Pulmonary fibrosis: amiodarone
Heart failure: amiodarone
Ventricular arrhythmia: amiodarone
Hypersensitivity reaction: amiodarone
Renal failure: amiodarone
Hemolytic uremic syndrome: ciclosporin
Rupture of tendon: pravastatin
Based on your
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine was studied in six healthy volunteers after administration of the drug orally (10 mg/kg) and intravenously (3 mg/kg) with and without concomitant rifampin administration. Both blood and plasma (separated at 37 degrees C) samples were analyzed for cyclosporine concentration. For blood and plasma, respectively, clearances of cyclosporine were calculated to be 0.30 and 0.55 L/hr/kg, values for volume of distribution at steady state were 1.31 and 1.68 L/kg, and bioavailabilities were 27% and 33% during the pre-rifampin phase. Post-rifampin phase clearances of cyclosporine were 0.42 and 0.79 L/hr/kg, values for volume of distribution at steady state were 1.36 and 1.35 L/kg, and bioavailabilities were 10% and 9% for blood and plasma, respectively. Rifampin not only induces the hepatic metabolism of cyclosporine but also decreases its bioavailability to a greater extent than would be predicted by the increased metabolism. The decreased bioavailability most probably can be explained by an induction of intestinal cytochrome P450 enzymes, which appears to be markedly greater than the induction of hepatic metabolism.
Abstract: 1. The pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine (CsA) and the time course of CsA metabolites were studied in five bone marrow transplant patients after intravenous (i.v.) administration on two separate occasions and once after oral CsA administration. 2. Cyclosporine and cyclosporine metabolites were measured in whole blood by h.p.l.c. 3. Cyclosporine clearance after i.v. administration decreased from 3.9 +/- 1.7 ml min-1 kg-1 to 2.0 +/- 0.6 ml min-1 kg-1 after 14 days of treatment. The mean +/- s.d. absolute oral bioavailability of cyclosporine was 17 +/- 11%. 4. Hydroxylated CsA (M-17) was the major metabolite in blood. There were no significant differences in the mean metabolite/CsA AUC ratios between the first and second i.v. studies. 5. After oral administration, the metabolite to CsA AUC ratios were higher for most metabolites compared to those observed in the second i.v. study, suggesting a contribution of intestinal metabolism to the clearance of CsA.
Abstract: Pravastatin sodium, a competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, is a new orally effective hypocholesterolaemic agent. In a two-way crossover study, eight healthy male subjects each received an intravenous and an oral dose of [14C]-pravastatin sodium. The oral absorption of [14C] activity from pravastatin sodium was about 34% and the oral bioavailability was about 18%, suggesting first-pass metabolism of pravastatin. After the intravenous dose, the recovery of radioactivity averaged 60% and 34% in urine and faeces, respectively. Corresponding values were 20% (urine) and 71% (faeces) for the oral dose. The estimated average plasma elimination half-life of pravastatin was 0.8 and 1.8 h for the intravenous and oral routes, respectively. The average values for total and renal clearances were 13.5 and 6.3 ml min-1 kg-1, respectively, and the steady-state volume of distribution averaged 0.51 kg-1. These results suggest that both kidney and liver are important sites of elimination for pravastatin.
Abstract: Extensive pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles after oral dosing of 300 mg cyclosporin A (CsA) were determined in whole blood by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 14 healthy male volunteers, using two-compartment models with either first order (M1) or zero order (M0) absorption. According to zero order absorption the mean of the following PK parameters was determined: terminal half-life = 12.1 +/- 5.0 h, apparent volume of distribution at steady-state = 5.6 +/- 2.11 X kg-1, apparent clearance = 0.51 +/- 0.11 l X h-1 X kg-1. The time lag between drug ingestion and first blood level was short, 0.38 +/- 0.11 h. Drug absorption lasted for 2.8 +/- 1.6 h. The end of absorption was indicated in each individual by a sharp drop in blood levels. The observations support the assumption that CsA is absorbed in the upper part of the small intestine with a clear-cut termination (absorption window). This assumption may explain the high degree of variability in the bioavailability of CsA.
Abstract: Amiodarone is considered to be safe in patients with prior QT prolongation and torsades de pointes taking class I antiarrhythmic agents who require continued antiarrhythmic drug therapy. However, the safety of amiodarone in advanced heart failure patients with a history of drug-induced torsades de pointes, who may be more susceptible to proarrhythmia, is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess amiodarone safety and efficacy in heart failure patients with prior antiarrhythmic drug-induced torsades de pointes. We determined the history of torsades de pointes in 205 patients with heart failure treated with amiodarone, and compared the risk of sudden death in patients with and without such a history. To evaluate the possibility that all patients with a history of torsades de pointes would be at high risk for sudden death regardless of amiodarone treatment, we compared this risk in patients with a history of torsades de pointes who were and were not subsequently treated with amiodarone. Of 205 patients with advanced heart failure, 8 (4%) treated with amiodarone had prior drug-induced torsades de pointes. Despite similar severity of heart failure, the 1-year actuarial sudden death risk was markedly increased in amiodarone patients with than without prior torsades de pointes (55% vs 15%, p = 0.0001). Similarly, the incidence of 1-year sudden death was markedly increased in patients with prior torsades de pointes taking amiodarone compared with such patients who were not subsequently treated with amiodarone (55% vs 0%, p = 0.09).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Abstract: A novel human organic transporter, OATP2, has been identified that transports taurocholic acid, the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and thyroid hormone, as well as the hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor, pravastatin. OATP2 is expressed exclusively in liver in contrast to all other known transporter subtypes that are found in both hepatic and nonhepatic tissues. OATP2 is considerably diverged from other family members, sharing only 42% sequence identity with the four other subtypes. Furthermore, unlike other subtypes, OATP2 did not transport digoxin or aldosterone. The rat isoform oatp1 was also shown to transport pravastatin, whereas other members of the OATP family, i.e. rat oatp2, human OATP, and the prostaglandin transporter, did not. Cis-inhibition studies indicate that both OATP2 and roatp1 also transport other statins including lovastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin. In summary, OATP2 is a novel organic anion transport protein that has overlapping but not identical substrate specificities with each of the other subtypes and, with its liver-specific expression, represents a functionally distinct OATP isoform. Furthermore, the identification of oatp1 and OATP2 as pravastatin transporters suggests that they are responsible for the hepatic uptake of this liver-specific hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor in rat and man.
Abstract: Pravastatin, one of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) widely used in the management of hypercholesterolaemia, has unique pharmacokinetic characteristics among the members of this class. Many in vivo and in vitro human and animal studies suggest that active transport mechanisms are involved in the pharmacokinetics of pravastatin. The oral bioavailability of pravastatin is low because of incomplete absorption and a first-pass effect. The drug is rapidly absorbed from the upper part of the small intestine, probably via proton-coupled carrier-mediated transport, and then taken up by the liver by a sodium-independent bile acid transporter. About half of the pravastatin that reaches the liver via the portal vein is extracted by the liver, and this hepatic extraction is mainly attributed to biliary excretion which is performed by a primary active transport mechanism. The major metabolites are produced by chemical degradation in the stomach rather than by cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism in the liver. The intact drug and its metabolites are cleared through both hepatic and renal routes, and tubular secretion is a predominant mechanism in renal excretion. The dual routes of pravastatin elimination reduce the need for dosage adjustment if the function of either the liver or kidney is impaired, and also reduce the possibility of drug interactions compared with other statins. which are largely eliminated by metabolism. The lower protein binding than other statins weakens the tendency for displacement of highly protein-bound drugs. Although all statins show a hepatoselective disposition, the mechanism for pravastatin is different from that of the others. There is high uptake of pravastatin by the liver via an active transport mechanism, but not by other tissues because of its hydrophilicity, whereas the disposition characteristics of other statins result from high hepatic extraction because of high lipophilicity. These pharmacokinetic properties of pravastatin may be the result of the drug being given in the pharmacologically active open hydroxy acid form and the fact that its hydrophilicity is markedly higher than that of other statins. The nature of the pravastatin transporters, particularly in humans, remains unknown at present. Further mechanistic studies are required to establish the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships of pravastatin and to provide the optimal therapeutic efficacy for various types of patients with hypercholesterolaemia.
Abstract: Involvement of LST-1 (a human liver-specific transporter, also called OATP2) as the major transporter in the uptake of pravastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, by human liver was demonstrated. The hepatic uptake of pravastatin evaluated using human hepatocytes was Na(+)-independent and reached saturation with a Michaelis constant (K(m)) of 11.5 +/- 2.2 microM. The uptake of pravastatin was temperature-dependent and was inhibited by estradiol-17beta-D-glucuronide, taurocholic acid, bromosulfophthalein, and simvastatin acid, but not by p-aminohippurate. Estradiol-17beta-D-glucuronide competitively inhibited pravastatin uptake with an inhibition constant comparable to the K(m) value for estradiol-17beta-D-glucuronide transport, indicating that a common transporter mediates the transport of pravastatin and estradiol-17beta-D-glucuronide in human hepatocytes. The results obtained with human hepatocytes agreed with those obtained with LST-1 expressing Xenopus oocytes. Oocytes microinjected with human liver polyadenylated mRNA showed Na(+)-independent uptake of pravastatin and estradiol-17beta-D-glucuronide. A simultaneous injection of LST-1 antisense oligonucleotides completely abolished this uptake. Expression of LST-1 was immunohistochemically demonstrated in the human hepatocytes, but not in Hep G2 cells, which showed very low uptake of pravastatin. Therefore, LST-1 was regarded as a key molecule for pravastatin in liver-specific inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, making pravastatin accessible to the target enzyme, which would otherwise not be inhibited by this hydrophilic drug.
Abstract: Human organic anion transporting polypeptide 2 (OATP2/SLC21A6) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2/ABCC2) play important roles in the vectorial transport of organic anions across hepatocytes. In the present study, we have established a double-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK II) cell monolayer, which expresses both OATP2 and MRP2 on basal and apical membranes, respectively. The basal-to-apical transport of 17 beta estradiol 17 beta-d-glucuronide (E(2)17 beta G), pravastatin, and leukotriene C(4) (LTC(4)), which are substrates of OATP2 and MRP2, was significantly higher than that in the opposite direction in the double-transfected cells. Such vectorial transport was also observed for taurolithocholate sulfate, which is transported by rat oatp1 and Mrp2. The K(m) values of E(2)17 beta G and pravastatin for the basal-to-apical flux were 27.9 and 24.3 microm, respectively, which were comparable with those reported for OATP2. Moreover, the MRP2-mediated export of E(2)17 beta G across the apical membrane was not saturated. In contrast, basal-to-apical transport of estrone-3-sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, which are significantly transported by OATP2, but not by MRP2, was not stimulated by MRP2 expression. The double-transfected MDCK II monolayer expressing both OATP2 and MRP2 may be used to analyze the hepatic vectorial transport of organic anions and to screen the transport profiles of new drug candidates.
Abstract: The pH-sensitive activity of human organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP-B, which is expressed at the apical membrane of human small intestinal epithelial cells, was functionally characterized. When initial uptake of estrone-3-sulfate, a typical substrate of OATP, was studied kinetically, we observed an increase in V(max) with decrease of pH from 7.4 to 5.0, whereas the change in K(m) was negligible. OATP-B-mediated uptake of estrone-3-sulfate was independent of sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, or glutathione, whereas the proton ionophore carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone exhibited a pH-dependent inhibitory effect, suggesting that a proton gradient is a driving force for OATP-B. When OATP-B was expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, uptake activities for anionic compounds showed various kinds of pH sensitivity. Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, estrone-3-sulfate, and fexofenadine were transported by OATP-B at both neutral and acidic pH, whereas estradiol-17beta-glucuronide, acetic acid, and lactic acid were not transported at all. Transport of taurocholic acid and pravastatin by OATP-B was observed only at acidic pH, demonstrating a pH-sensitive substrate specificity of OATP-B. Because the physiological pH close to the surface of intestinal epithelial cells is acidic, the roles of OATP-B in the small intestine might be different from those in other tissues, such as liver basolateral membrane. Although the driving force for OATP-B has not been fully established, the clarification of factors, such as pH, that affect the OATP-B-activity is essential for an understanding of the physiological and pharmacological relevance of the transporter in the small intestine.
Abstract: Cyclosporine and tacrolimus share the same pharmacodynamic property of activated T-cell suppression via inhibition of calcineurin. The introduction of these drugs to the immunosuppressive repertoire of transplant management has greatly improved the outcomes in organ transplantation and constitutes arguably one of the major breakthroughs in modern medicine. To this date, calcineurin inhibitors are the mainstay of prevention of allograft rejection. The experience gained from the laboratory and clinical use of cyclosporine and tacrolimus has greatly advanced our knowledge about the nature of many aspects of immune response. However, the clinical practice still struggles with the shortcomings of these drugs: the significant inter- and intraindividual variability of their pharmacokinetics, the unpredictability of their pharmacodynamic effects, as well as complexity of interactions with other agents in transplant recipients. This article briefly reviews the pharmacological aspects of calcineurin antagonists as they relate to the mode of action and pharmacokinetics as well as drug interactions and monitoring.
Abstract: Understanding the mechanisms of drug interactions with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) has become increasingly important because of the potential for serious adverse effects, most notably myopathy. Most of the evidence supports the role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes in many of these drug interactions. However, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux protein located in the gastrointestinal tract, placenta, kidneys, brain, and liver, may also play a role. Results of several studies with in vitro models have shown that lovastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin are inhibitors for P-gp and may be substrates for this transporter as well. Pravastatin and fluvastatin consistently demonstrate no significant inhibition of P-gp. Drug interaction studies involving statins and digoxin support a role for P-gp. Many additional drugs such as diltiazem, verapamil, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and cyclosporine, as well as dietary supplements such as St. John's wort and grapefruit juice, interact with statins and are modulators of both CYP3A4 and P-gp. However, the role of P-gp in these specific drug interactions remains unclear.
Abstract: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) dose-dependently lower both the level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease. In 2004, the UK approved a low-dose over-the-counter (OTC) simvastatin, but the US has rejected applications for non-prescription preparations of statins. The pharmacokinetics and interaction potentials of the possible OTC candidate statins simvastatin, lovastatin, fluvastatin and pravastatin are clearly different. Simvastatin and lovastatin are mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A, fluvastatin is metabolized by CYP2C9, and pravastatin is excreted largely unchanged. Several cell membrane transporters can influence the disposition of statins, e.g. the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 enhances their hepatic uptake. The c.521T>C (p.Val174Ala) genetic polymorphism of SLCO1B1 (encoding OATP1B1) considerably increases the plasma concentrations of simvastatin acid and moderately increases those of pravastatin but seems to have no significant effect on fluvastatin. Strong inhibitors of CYP3A (itraconazole, ritonavir) greatly (up to 20-fold) increase plasma concentrations of simvastatin, lovastatin and their active acid forms, thus enhancing the risk of myotoxicity. Weak or moderately potent CYP3A inhibitors such as verapamil, diltiazem and grapefruit juice can be used cautiously with low doses of simvastatin or lovastatin, but their concomitant use needs medical supervision. Potent inducers of CYP3A can greatly decrease plasma concentrations of simvastatin and simvastatin acid, and probably those of lovastatin and lovastatin acid. Although fluvastatin is metabolized by CYP2C9, its concentrations are changed less than 2-fold by inhibitors or inducers of CYP2C9. Pravastatin plasma concentrations are not significantly affected by any CYP inhibition and only slightly affected by inducers. Ciclosporin inhibits CYP3A, P-glycoprotein and OATP1B1. Gemfibrozil and its glucuronide inhibit CYP2C8 and OATP1B1. Ciclosporin and gemfibrozil increase plasma concentrations of statins and the risk of their myotoxicity, but fluvastatin seems to carry a smaller risk than other statins. Inhibitors of OATP1B1 may decrease the benefit-risk ratio of simvastatin, lovastatin and pravastatin by interfering with their (active acid forms) entry into hepatocytes. Understanding the differences in the pharmacokinetics and interaction potential of various statins helps in their selection for possible non-prescription status. On the pharmacokinetic basis, fluvastatin and pravastatin can be better choices than simvastatin or lovastatin for an OTC statin.
Abstract: Although therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of immunosuppressive drugs has been an integral part of routine clinical practice in solid organ transplantation for many years, ongoing research in the field of immunosuppressive drug metabolism, pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical TDM keeps yielding new insights that might have future clinical implications. In this review, the authors will highlight some of these new insights for the calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) cyclosporine and tacrolimus and the antimetabolite mycophenolic acid (MPA) and will discuss the possible consequences. For CNIs, important relevant lessons for TDM can be learned from the results of 2 recently published large CNI minimization trials. Furthermore, because acute rejection and drug-related adverse events do occur despite routine application of CNI TDM, alternative approaches to better predict the dose-concentration-response relationship in the individual patient are being explored. Monitoring of CNI concentrations in lymphocytes and other tissues, determination of CNI metabolites, and CNI pharmacogenetics and pharmacodynamics are in their infancy but have the potential to become useful additions to conventional CNI TDM. Although MPA is usually administered at a fixed dose, there is a rationale for MPA TDM, and this is substantiated by the increasing knowledge of the many nongenetic and genetic factors contributing to the interindividual and intraindividual variability in MPA pharmacokinetics. However, recent, large, randomized clinical trials investigating the clinical utility of MPA TDM have reported conflicting data. Therefore, alternative pharmacokinetic (ie, MPA free fraction and metabolites) and pharmacodynamic approaches to better predict drug efficacy and toxicity are being explored. Finally, for MPA and tacrolimus, novel formulations have become available. For MPA, the differences in pharmacokinetic behavior between the old and the novel formulation will have implications for TDM, whereas for tacrolimus, this probably will not to be the case.
Abstract: The human organic anion and cation transporters are classified within two SLC superfamilies. Superfamily SLCO (formerly SLC21A) consists of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), while the organic anion transporters (OATs) and the organic cation transporters (OCTs) are classified in the SLC22A superfamily. Individual members of each superfamily are expressed in essentially every epithelium throughout the body, where they play a significant role in drug absorption, distribution and elimination. Substrates of OATPs are mainly large hydrophobic organic anions, while OATs transport smaller and more hydrophilic organic anions and OCTs transport organic cations. In addition to endogenous substrates, such as steroids, hormones and neurotransmitters, numerous drugs and other xenobiotics are transported by these proteins, including statins, antivirals, antibiotics and anticancer drugs. Expression of OATPs, OATs and OCTs can be regulated at the protein or transcriptional level and appears to vary within each family by both protein and tissue type. All three superfamilies consist of 12 transmembrane domain proteins that have intracellular termini. Although no crystal structures have yet been determined, combinations of homology modelling and mutation experiments have been used to explore the mechanism of substrate recognition and transport. Several polymorphisms identified in members of these superfamilies have been shown to affect pharmacokinetics of their drug substrates, confirming the importance of these drug transporters for efficient pharmacological therapy. This review, unlike other reviews that focus on a single transporter family, briefly summarizes the current knowledge of all the functionally characterized human organic anion and cation drug uptake transporters of the SLCO and the SLC22A superfamilies.
Abstract: Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family transporters accept a number of drugs and are increasingly being recognized as important factors in governing drug and metabolite pharmacokinetics. OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 play an important role in hepatic drug uptake while OATP2B1 and OATP1A2 might be key players in intestinal absorption and transport across blood-brain barrier of drugs, respectively. To understand the importance of OATPs in the hepatic clearance of drugs, the rate-determining process for elimination should be considered; for some drugs, hepatic uptake clearance rather than metabolic intrinsic clearance is the more important determinant of hepatic clearances. The importance of the unbound concentration ratio (liver/blood), K(p,uu) , of drugs, which is partly governed by OATPs, is exemplified in interpreting the difference in the IC(50) of statins between the hepatocyte and microsome systems for the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity. The intrinsic activity and/or expression level of OATPs are affected by genetic polymorphisms and drug-drug interactions. Their effects on the elimination rate or intestinal absorption rate of drugs may sometimes depend on the substrate drug. This is partly because of the different contribution of OATP isoforms to clearance or intestinal absorption. When the contribution of the OATP-mediated pathway is substantial, the pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs should be greatly affected. This review describes the estimation of the contribution of OATP1B1 to the total hepatic uptake of drugs from the data of fold-increases in the plasma concentration of substrate drugs by the genetic polymorphism of this transporter. To understand the importance of the OATP family transporters, modeling and simulation with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model are helpful.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The most common acquired cause of Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is drug induced QT interval prolongation. It is an electrophysiological entity, which is characterized by an extended duration of the ventricular repolarization. Reflected as a prolonged QT interval in a surface ECG, this syndrome increases the risk for polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (Torsade de Pointes) and sudden death. METHOD: Bibliographic databases as MEDLINE and EMBASE, reports and drug alerts from several regulatory agencies (FDA, EMEA, ANMAT) and drug safety guides (ICH S7B, ICH E14) were consulted to prepare this article. The keywords used were: polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, adverse drug events, prolonged QT, arrhythmias, intensive care unit and Torsade de Pointes. Such research involved materials produced up to December 2017. RESULTS: Because of their mechanism of action, antiarrhythmic drugs such as amiodarone, sotalol, quinidine, procainamide, verapamil and diltiazem are associated to the prolongation of the QTc interval. For this reason, they require constant monitoring when administered. Other noncardiovascular drugs that are widely used in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), such as ondansetron, macrolide and fluoroquinolone antibiotics, typical and atypical antipsychotics agents such as haloperidol, thioridazine, and sertindole are also frequently associated with the prolongation of the QTc interval. As a consequence, critical patients should be closely followed and evaluated. CONCLUSION: ICU patients are particularly prone to experience a QTc interval prolongation mainly for two reasons. In the first place, they are exposed to certain drugs that can prolong the repolarization phase, either by their mechanism of action or through the interaction with other drugs. In the second place, the risk factors for TdP are prevalent clinical conditions among critically ill patients. As a consequence, the attending physician is expected to perform preventive monitoring and ECG checks to control the QTc interval.
Abstract: Programmed cell death, which occurs through a conserved core molecular pathway, is important for fundamental developmental and homeostatic processes. The human iron-sulfur binding protein NAF-1/CISD2 binds to Bcl-2 and its disruption in cells leads to an increase in apoptosis. Other members of the CDGSH iron sulfur domain (CISD) family include mitoNEET/CISD1 and Miner2/CISD3. In humans, mutations in CISD2 result in Wolfram syndrome 2, a disease in which the patients display juvenile diabetes, neuropsychiatric disorders and defective platelet aggregation. The C. elegans genome contains three previously uncharacterized cisd genes that code for CISD-1, which has homology to mitoNEET/CISD1 and NAF-1/CISD2, and CISD-3.1 and CISD-3.2, both of which have homology to Miner2/CISD3. Disrupting the function of the cisd genes resulted in various germline abnormalities including distal tip cell migration defects and a significant increase in the number of cell corpses within the adult germline. This increased germ cell death is blocked by a gain-of-function mutation of the Bcl-2 homolog CED-9 and requires functional caspase CED-3 and the APAF-1 homolog CED-4. Furthermore, the increased germ cell death is facilitated by the pro-apoptotic, CED-9-binding protein CED-13, but not the related EGL-1 protein. This work is significant because it places the CISD family members as regulators of physiological germline programmed cell death acting through CED-13 and the core apoptotic machinery.
Abstract: Amiodarone is one of the most commonly used antiarrhythmic drugs. Despite its well-known side effects, amiodarone is considered to be a relatively safe drug, especially in short-term usage to prevent life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Our case demonstrates an instance where short-term usage can yield drug side effect.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.