QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of oxycodone and asenapine. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. We did not detect any change in exposure to oxycodone. We currently cannot estimate the influence of asenapine. We do not expect any change in exposure for asenapine, when combined with oxycodone (100%).
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Oxycodone has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 61%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather short at 3.7 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached quickly. The protein binding [ Pb ] is rather weak at 41.5% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 241 liters, which is why, with a mean hepatic extraction rate of 0.38, both liver blood flow [Q] and a change in protein binding [Pb] are relevant. The metabolism takes place via CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, among others and the active transport takes place in particular via UGT2B7.
Asenapine has a low oral bioavailability [ F ] of 2%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change strongly with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is 24 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached after approximately 96 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is moderately strong at 95% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 1700 liters. The metabolism mainly takes place via CYP1A2 and the active transport takes place in particular via UGT1A4.
|Serotonergic Effects a||1||+||Ø|
Recommendation: As a precautionary measure, symptoms of serotonergic overstimulation should be taken into account, especially after increasing the dose and at doses in the upper therapeutic range.
Rating: Oxycodone has a mild effect on the serotonergic system. The risk of a serotonergic syndrome can be classified as low with this medication if the dosage is in the usual range. According to our knowledge, asenapine does not increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||2||+||+|
Recommendation: As a precaution, attention should be paid to anticholinergic symptoms, especially after increasing the dose and at doses in the upper therapeutic range.
Rating: Oxycodone and asenapine only have a mild effect on the anticholinergic system. The risk of anticholinergic syndrome with this medication is rather low if the dosage is in the usual range.
QT time prolongation
Asenapine can potentially increase QT time, but we do not know about torsades de pointes arrhythmias. We do not know of any QT-prolonging potential for oxycodone.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||oxy||ase|
|Weight gain||11.5 %||n.a.||11.5|
Suicidal (2.5%): asenapine
Orthostatic hypotension (1.5%): asenapine
Loss of appetite: oxycodone
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: asenapine
Increased frequency of urination: oxycodone
Respiratory depression: oxycodone
Hypersensitivity reaction: asenapine
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: 1. The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of oxycodone were studied in nine healthy young volunteers in a cross-over study. Each subject received oxycodone chloride once intramuscularly (0.14 mg kg-1) and twice orally (0.28 mg kg-1) at intervals of 2 weeks. A double-blind randomized pretreatment with amitriptyline (10-50 mg a day) or placebo was given prior to oral oxycodone. 2. The concentrations of oxycodone, noroxycodone and oxymorphone in plasma and the 24 h urine recoveries of their conjugated and unconjugated forms were measured by gas chromatography. 3. No differences were found between treatments in mean Cmax and AUC values of oxycodone which varied from 34 to 38 ng ml-1 and from 208 to 245 ng ml-1 h, respectively. The median tmax of oxycodone was 1 h in all groups. The bioavailability of oral relative to i.m. oxycodone was 60%. The mean renal clearance of oxycodone was 0.07-0.08 l min-1. The kinetics of oxycodone were unaffected by amitriptyline. 4. The mean ratio of the AUC(0.24 h) values of unconjugated noroxycodone to oxycodone was 0.45 after i.m. oxycodone and 0.6-0.8 after oral oxycodone. Plasma oxymorphone concentrations were below the limit of the assay. Eight to 14% of the dose of oxycodone was excreted in the urine as unconjugated and conjugated oxycodone over 24 h. Oxymorphone was excreted mainly as a conjugate whereas noroxycodone was recovered mostly in an unconjugated form.
Abstract: Oxycodone chloride (0.07 mg kg-1) was given by intravenous bolus to nine young adult surgical patients on the first postoperative day. Plasma was sampled for up to 12 h. Mean values of t1/2z, CL and Vss were 222 min, 0.78 l min-1 and 2.60 l kg-1, respectively. The concentrations of the metabolite noroxycodone was also measured. The mean AUC(0,12) ratio of noroxycodone to oxycodone was 0.33. Oxymorphone was not detected.
Abstract: The efficacy and safety of graded doses (10, 20, and 30 mg) of controlled-release (CR) oxycodone was compared with that of immediate-release (IR) oxycodone (15 mg), immediate-release oxycodone 10 mg in combination with acetaminophen 650 mg (APAP), and placebo in a single-dose, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study. The participants, 182 inpatients experiencing moderate to severe pain after abdominal or gynecologic surgery, provided hourly ratings of pain intensity and relief for 12 hours after administration. All active treatments were significantly superior to placebo for many hourly measurements and for the sum of pain intensity differences (SPID) and total pain relief (TOTPAR). A dose response was found among the three levels of CR oxycodone for pain relief and peak pain intensity difference (PID), with the 20- and 30-mg doses being significantly better than the 10-mg dose. For all active treatments, peak PID and peak pain relief occurred approximately 2 to 4 hours after administration. The median time to onset of relief was 32 minutes for oxycodone plus APAP, 41 minutes for IR oxycodone, and 46 minutes for CR oxycodone 30 mg. Duration of pain relief showed that the 10-, 20-, and 30-mg doses of CR oxycodone had durations of action of 10 to 12 hours compared with IR oxycodone and oxycodone plus APAP (both approximately 7 hours). Typical adverse events, particularly somnolence, occurred in all active treatment groups. Treatment with CR oxycodone was safe and effective in this study, and its characteristics will be beneficial in the treatment of pain.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To report a case of severe serotonergic symptoms following the addition of oxycodone to fluvoxamine. CASE SUMMARY: A 70-year-old woman developed severe serotonergic features, including confusion, nausea, fever, clonus, hyperreflexia, hypertonia, shivering, and tachycardia, following the addition of oxycodone 40 mg twice daily to fluvoxamine 200 mg/day, easily fulfilling diagnostic criteria for serotonin syndrome. Discontinuation of the offending drugs resulted in resolution of her symptoms over 48 hours, and no other cause of the syndrome was identified. Use of the Naranjo probability scale indicated a probable relationship between the serotonergic symptoms and the addition of oxycodone to fluvoxamine therapy. DISCUSSION: Serotonin syndrome is a serious adverse reaction usually due to interactions with serotonergic drugs. There have been only 3 previous reports involving oxycodone. Most previous reports of serotonin syndrome involving analgesics have been associated with meperidine, dextromethorphan, and tramadol. Unlike these synthetic opioids, however, oxycodone does not inhibit the reuptake of serotonin. In addition, there are a number of other possible pharmacologic mechanisms for the interaction we observed. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring for serotonergic adverse events should be done when oxycodone is given to patients receiving serotonin-reuptake inhibitors.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal relationship between cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications and memory and executive function in older men. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred forty-four community-dwelling men aged 65 and older with diagnosed hypertension. MEASUREMENTS: The outcomes were measured using the Hopkins Verbal Recall Test (HVRT) for short-term memory and the instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) scale for executive function at baseline and during follow-up. Anticholinergic medication use was ascertained using participants' primary care visit records and quantified as total anticholinergic burden using a clinician-rated anticholinergic score. RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications over the preceding 12 months was associated with poorer performance on the HVRT and IADLs. On average, a 1-unit increase in the total anticholinergic burden per 3 months was associated with a 0.32-point (95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.05-0.58) and 0.10-point (95% CI=0.04-0.17) decrease in the HVRT and IADLs, respectively, independent of other potential risk factors for cognitive impairment, including age, education, cognitive and physical function, comorbidities, and severity of hypertension. The association was attenuated but remained statistically significant with memory (0.29, 95% CI=0.01-0.56) and executive function (0.08, 95% CI=0.02-0.15) after further adjustment for concomitant non-anticholinergic medications. CONCLUSION: Cumulative anticholinergic exposure across multiple medications over 1 year may negatively affect verbal memory and executive function in older men. Prescription of drugs with anticholinergic effects in older persons deserves continued attention to avoid deleterious adverse effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Oxycodone is a mu-opioid receptor agonist that is metabolized mainly in the liver by cytochrome P450 3A and 2D6 enzymes. Rifampin is a strong inducer of several drug-metabolizing enzymes. The authors studied the interaction of rifampin with oxycodone. Their hypothesis was that rifampin enhances the CYP3A-mediated metabolism of oxycodone and attenuates its pharmacologic effect. METHODS: The protocol was a four-session, paired crossover. Twelve volunteers were given 600 mg oral rifampin or placebo once daily for 7 days. Oxycodone was given on day 6. In the first part of the study, 0.1 mg/kg oxycodone hydrochloride was given intravenously. In the second part of the study, 15 mg oxycodone hydrochloride was given orally. Concentrations of oxycodone and its metabolites noroxycodone, oxymorphone, and noroxymorphone were determined for 48 h. Psychomotor effects were characterized for 12 h by several visual analog scales. Analgesic effects were characterized by measuring the heat pain threshold and cold pain sensitivity. RESULTS: Rifampin decreased the area under the oxycodone concentration-time curve of intravenous and oral oxycodone by 53% and 86%, respectively (P < 0.001). Oral bioavailability of oxycodone was decreased from 69% to 21% (P < 0.001). Rifampin greatly increased the plasma metabolite-to-parent drug ratios for noroxycodone and noroxymorphone (P < 0.001). Pharmacologic effects of oral oxycodone were attenuated. CONCLUSIONS: Induction of cytochrome P450 3A by rifampin reduced the area under the oxycodone concentration-time curve of intravenous and oral oxycodone. The pharmacologic effects of oxycodone were modestly attenuated. To maintain adequate analgesia, dose adjustment of oxycodone may be necessary, when used concomitantly with rifampin.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP34A) inhibitor itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of orally and intravenously administered oxycodone. METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects were administered 200 mg itraconazole or placebo orally for 5 days in a four-session paired cross-over study. On day 4, oxycodone was administered intravenously (0.1 mg/kg) in the first part of the study and orally (10 mg) in the second part. Plasma concentrations of oxycodone and its oxidative metabolites were measured for 48 h, and pharmacodynamic effects were evaluated. RESULTS: Itraconazole decreased plasma clearance (Cl) and increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-infinity) of intravenous oxycodone by 32 and 51%, respectively (P<0.001) and increased the AUC(0-infinity) of orally administrated oxycodone by 144% (P<0.001). Most of the pharmacokinetic changes in oral oxycodone were seen in the elimination phase, with modest effects by itraconazole on its peak concentration, which was increased by 45% (P=0.009). The AUC(0-48) of noroxycodone was decreased by 49% (P<0.001) and that of oxymorphone was increased by 359% (P<0.001) after the administration of oral oxycodone. The pharmacologic effects of oxycodone were enhanced by itraconazole only modestly. CONCLUSIONS: Itraconazole increased the exposure to oxycodone by inhibiting its CYP3A4-mediated N-demethylation. The clinical use of itraconazole in patients receiving multiple doses of oxycodone for pain relief may increase the risk of opioid-associated adverse effects.
Abstract: An assessment of the effects of asenapine on QTc interval in patients with schizophrenia revealed a discrepancy between the results obtained by two different methods: an intersection-union test (IUT) (as recommended in the International Conference on Harmonisation E14 guidance) and an exposure-response (E-R) analysis. Simulations were performed in order to understand and reconcile this discrepancy. Although estimates of the time-matched, placebo-corrected mean change in QTc from baseline (ddQTc) at peak plasma concentrations from the E-R analysis ranged from 2 to 5 ms per dose level, the IUT applied to simulated data from the E-R model yielded maximum ddQTc estimates of 7-10 ms for the various doses of asenapine. These results indicate that the IUT can produce biased estimates that may induce a high false-positive rate in individual thorough QTc trials. In such cases, simulations from an E-R model can aid in reconciling the results from the two methods and may support the use of E-R results as a basis for labeling.
Abstract: The metabolism and excretion of asenapine [(3aRS,12bRS)-5-chloro-2-methyl-2,3,3a,12b-tetrahydro-1H-dibenzo[2,3:6,7]-oxepino [4,5-c]pyrrole (2Z)-2-butenedioate (1:1)] were studied after sublingual administration of [(14)C]-asenapine to healthy male volunteers. Mean total excretion on the basis of the percent recovery of the total radioactive dose was ∼90%, with ∼50% appearing in urine and ∼40% excreted in feces; asenapine itself was detected only in feces. Metabolic profiles were determined in plasma, urine, and feces using high-performance liquid chromatography with radioactivity detection. Approximately 50% of drug-related material in human plasma was identified or quantified. The remaining circulating radioactivity corresponded to at least 15 very polar, minor peaks (mostly phase II products). Overall, >70% of circulating radioactivity was associated with conjugated metabolites. Major metabolic routes were direct glucuronidation and N-demethylation. The principal circulating metabolite was asenapine N(+)-glucuronide; other circulating metabolites were N-desmethylasenapine-N-carbamoyl-glucuronide, N-desmethylasenapine, and asenapine 11-O-sulfate. In addition to the parent compound, asenapine, the principal excretory metabolite was asenapine N(+)-glucuronide. Other excretory metabolites were N-desmethylasenapine-N-carbamoylglucuronide, 11-hydroxyasenapine followed by conjugation, 10,11-dihydroxy-N-desmethylasenapine, 10,11-dihydroxyasenapine followed by conjugation (several combinations of these routes were found) and N-formylasenapine in combination with several hydroxylations, and most probably asenapine N-oxide in combination with 10,11-hydroxylations followed by conjugations. In conclusion, asenapine was extensively and rapidly metabolized, resulting in several regio-isomeric hydroxylated and conjugated metabolites.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the plasma dispositions of oxycodone and its demethylates and dose escalation based on genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6, CYP3A5, ABCB1, and OPRM1 in cancer patients receiving oxycodone. Sixty-two Japanese cancer patients receiving oxycodone extended-release tablets were enrolled. Predose plasma concentrations (C(12)) of oxycodone, noroxycodone, and oxymorphone were determined at the titrated dose. Daily oxycodone escalation rate was evaluated as the opioid escalation index (OEI). Genetic variants did not significantly alter oxycodone C(12). Oxymorphone C(12) and its ratio to oxycodone C(12) were significantly higher in CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers than in intermediate metabolizers but did not affect dose escalation. In contrast, noroxycodone C(12) and its ratio to oxycodone C(12) were significantly higher in the CYP3A5*1 carrier group than in the *3/*3 group. The OEI was significantly higher in the CYP3A5*3/*3 group than in the *1 carrier group. No significant difference was observed in the OEI in the other genetic variants. Noroxycodone C(12) was higher in the dose escalation group as compared to the nonescalation group and significantly affected the incidence of dose escalation. In conclusion, CYP3A5*3 altered the plasma disposition of noroxycodone, which was inversely affecting the dose escalation in cancer patients receiving oxycodone.
Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIMS: The nature and extent of adverse cognitive effects due to the prescription of anticholinergic drugs in older people with and without dementia is unclear. METHODS: We calculated the anticholinergic load (ACL) of medications taken by participants of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of ageing, a cohort of 211 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 133 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients and 768 healthy controls (HC) all aged over 60 years. The association between ACL and cognitive function was examined for each diagnostic group (HC, MCI, AD). RESULTS: A high ACL within the HC group was associated with significantly slower response speeds for the Stroop color and incongruent trials. No other significant relationships between ACL and cognition were noted. CONCLUSION: In this large cohort, prescribed anticholinergic drugs appeared to have modest effects upon psychomotor speed and executive function, but not on other areas of cognition in healthy older adults.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The effects of hepatic or renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of atypical antipsychotics are not well understood. Drug exposure may increase in patients with hepatic disease, owing to a reduction of certain metabolic enzymes. The objective of the present study was to study the effects of hepatic or renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of asenapine and its N-desmethyl and N⁺-glucuronide metabolites. METHODS: Two clinical studies were performed to assess exposure to asenapine, desmethylasenapine and asenapine N⁺-glucuronide in subjects with hepatic or renal impairment. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from plasma concentration-time data, using standard noncompartmental methods. The pharmacokinetic variables that were studied included the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and the time to reach the maximum plasma concentration (t(max)). Eligible subjects, from inpatient and outpatient clinics, were aged ≥18 years with a body mass index of ≥18 kg/m² and ≤32 kg/m². Sublingual asenapine (Saphris®) was administered as a single 5 mg dose. RESULTS: Thirty subjects participated in the hepatic impairment study (normal hepatic function, n = 8; mild hepatic impairment [Child-Pugh class A], n = 8; moderate hepatic impairment [Child-Pugh class B], n = 8; severe hepatic impairment [Child-Pugh class C], n = 6). Thirty-three subjects were enrolled in the renal impairment study (normal renal function, n = 9; mild renal impairment, n = 8; moderate renal impairment, n = 8; severe renal impairment, n = 8). Asenapine and N-desmethylasenapine exposures were unaltered in subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment, compared with healthy controls. Severe hepatic impairment was associated with increased area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(∞)) values for total asenapine, N-desmethylasenapine and asenapine N⁺-glucuronide (5-, 3-, and 2-fold, respectively), with slight increases in the C(max) of asenapine but 3- and 2-fold decreases in the C(max) values for N-desmethylasenapine and asenapine N⁺-glucuronide, respectively, compared with healthy controls. The mean AUC(∞) of unbound asenapine was more than 7-fold higher in subjects with severe hepatic impairment than in healthy controls. Mild renal impairment was associated with slight elevations in the AUC(∞) of asenapine compared with healthy controls; alterations observed with moderate and severe renal impairment were marginal. N-desmethylasenapine exposure was only slightly altered by renal impairment. No correlations were observed between exposure and creatinine clearance. CONCLUSION: Severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C) was associated with pronounced increases in asenapine exposure, but significant increases were not seen with mild (Child-Pugh class A) or moderate (Child-Pugh class B) hepatic impairment, or with any degree of renal impairment. Asenapine is not recommended in patients with severe hepatic impairment; no dose adjustment is needed in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment, or in patients with renal impairment.
Abstract: A 77-year-old female with recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer presented to a hospital outpatient clinic with tremor, weakness, inability to coordinate motor movements, and confusion. It was suspected that the symptoms were due to possible central nervous system metastases; however, a CT scan of her head was unremarkable. The lung clinic liaison pharmacist took a medication history from the patient, complimented by extra information from the patient's community pharmacy. The pharmacist suspected the rare side effect of serotonin syndrome was responsible for the patient's presenting symptoms caused by the combination of oxycodone and citalopram. The patient's symptoms resolved soon after oxycodone was changed to morphine.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare oxycodone concentrations in saliva and whole blood with a view to propose therapeutic concentrations in oral fluid. Oral fluid is an easy specimen to collect with several advantages over urine, including ease of collection and difficulty of adulteration. As oral fluid is a reflection of free drug circulating in the blood, drug concentrations in saliva are more closely related to blood levels than urine concentrations. The number of testing laboratories offering the analysis of prescription pain medications in urine has increased significantly over the last few years, along with the overuse and abuse of pain killing drugs, specifically oxycodone. Hence, the utility of oral fluid analysis in this field was assessed. DESIGN: Paired specimens of blood and oral fluid were retrospectively studied in an attempt to establish a range for oxycodone concentrations in oral fluid reflective of therapeutic intake. Twenty-three paired oral fluid-blood specimens were studied. Oral fluid samples had been collected with the Quantisal™ oral fluid device, stored cold and shipped overnight to the laboratory prior to testing. Blood specimens were collected simultaneously in gray top tubes. RESULTS: From 23 pairs of samples, the median concentration in oral fluid was 524 μg/L and blood was 53 μg/L. The whole blood to plasma ratio for oxycodone was 1.3, so the median plasma concentration was 41 μg/L projecting a saliva to plasma ratio (S:P ratio) of 12. The comparison of oral fluid-blood concentrations allowed the projection of a S:P ratio for oxycodone and the development of a potential therapeutic range for oxycodone in oral fluid. CONCLUSION: Saliva drug concentrations in pain management are more closely related to blood levels than urine so can be more easily interpreted. These data provide a foundation for interpretative advances; however, further research surrounding other pain medications and controlled studies are necessary.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Evaluation of a potential risk of metabolic drug-drug interactions (DDI) is of high importance in the clinical setting. In this study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed for oxycodone and its two primary metabolites, oxymorphone and noroxycodone, in order to assess different DDI scenarios using published in vitro and in vivo data. Once developed and refined, the model was able to simulate pharmacokinetics of the three compounds and the DDI extent in case of coadministration with an inhibitor, as well as the oxymorphone concentration variation between CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers (EM) and poor metabolizers (PM). The reliability of the model was tested against published clinical studies monitoring different inhibitors and dose regimens, and all predicted area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) ratios were within the twofold acceptance range. This approach represents a strategy to evaluate the impact of coadministration of different CYP inhibitors using mechanistic incorporation of drug-dependent and system-dependent available in vitro and in vivo data.
Abstract: Oxycodone is a commonly used analgesic with a large body of pharmacokinetic data from various immediate-release or controlled-release formulations, under different administration routes, and in diverse populations. Longer terminal half-lives from extravascular administration as compared to IV administration have been attributed to flip-flop pharmacokinetics with the rate constant of absorption slower than elimination. However, PK parameters from the extravascular studies showed faster absorption than elimination. Sustained release formulations guided by the flip-flop concept produced mixed outcomes in formulation development and clinical studies. This research aims to develop a mechanistic knowledge of oxycodone ADME, and provide a consistent interpretation of diverging results and insight to guide further extended release development and optimize the clinical use of oxycodone. PK data of oxycodone in human studies were collected from literature and digitized. The PK data were analyzed using a new PK model with Weibull function to describe time-varying drug releases/ oral absorption, and elimination dependent upon drug input to the portal vein. The new and traditional PK models were coded in NONMEM. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address the relationship between rates of drug release/absorption and PK profiles plus terminal half-lives. Traditional PK model could not be applied consistently to describe drug absorption and elimination of oxycodone. Errors were forced on absorption, elimination, or both parameters when IV and PO profiles were fitted separately. The new mechanistic PK model with Weibull function on absorption and slower total body clearance caused by slower absorption adequately describes the complex interplay between oxycodone absorption and elimination in vivo. Terminal phase of oxycodone PK profile was shown to reflect slower total body drug clearance due to slower drug release/absorption from oral formulations. Mechanistic PK models with Weibull absorption functions, and release rate-dependent saturable total body clearance well described the diverging oxycodone absorption and elimination kinetics in the literature. It showed no actual drug absorption during the terminal phase, but slower drug clearance caused by slower release/absorption producing the appearance of flip-flop and offered new insight for the development of modified release formulations and clinical use of oxycodone.
Abstract: The hepatic metabolism of oxycodone by cytochromes P450 (CYP) and the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT), the main metabolic enzymes of phase I and phase II, respectively, was assessed in vitro. The N-demethylation by CYP3A4/5 and the O-demethylation by CYP2D6 in human liver microsomes (HLM) followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with intrinsic clearances of 1.46μL/min/mg and 0.35μL/min/mg, respectively. Although noroxycodone and oxymorphone mainly contribute to the elimination of oxycodone, the simulated total in vivo clearance using in vitro phase I metabolism was underestimated. For the first time, metabolism of oxycodone by UGT was deeply investigated using HLM, recombinant enzymes and selective inhibitors. Oxycodone-glucuronide was mainly produced by UGT2B7 (K=762±153μM, V=344±20 peak area/min/mg) and to a lesser extent by UGT2B4 (K=2454±497μM, V=201±19 peak area/min/mg). Finally, the kinetics of the drug-drug interactions were assessed using two CYP and UGT cocktail approaches. Incubations of HLM with phase I and phase II drug probes showed that oxycodone mainly decreased the in vitro activities of CYP2D6, CYP3A4/5, UGT1A3, UGT1A6 and UGT2B subfamily with an important impact on UGT2B7.
Abstract: Asenapine is one of the newer atypical antipsychotics on the market. It is a sublingually administered drug that is indicated for the treatment of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and is considered to be safe and well tolerated. Herein, we report a 71-year-old female with a history of bipolar disorder who had ventricular trigemini and experienced a large increase in her QTc interval after starting treatment with asenapine. These changes ceased following withdrawal of asenapine. In this case report, we discuss the importance of cardiac monitoring when switching antipsychotics, even to those that are considered to have low cardiac risk.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.
Abstract: A highly selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay has been described for the determination of asenapine (ASE) in presence of its inactive metabolites-desmethyl asenapine (DMA) and asenapine--glucuronide (ASG). ASE, and ASE 13C-d3, used as internal standard (IS), were extracted from 300 µL human plasma by a simple and precise liquid-liquid extraction procedure using methyl-butyl ether. Baseline separation of ASE from its inactive metabolites was achieved on Chromolith Performance RP(100 mm × 4.6 mm) column using acetonitrile-5.0 mM ammonium acetate-10% formic acid (90:10:0.1, v/v/v) within 4.5 min. Quantitation of ASE was done on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization in the positive mode. The protonated precursor to product ion transitions monitored for ASE and ASE 13C-d3 were286.1 → 166.0 and290.0 → 166.1, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of the method were 0.0025 ng/mL and 0.050 ng/mL respectively in a linear concentration range of 0.050-20.0 ng/mL for ASE. The intra-batch and inter-batch precision (% CV) and mean relative recovery across quality control levels were ≤ 5.8% and 87.3%, respectively. Matrix effect, evaluated as IS-normalized matrix factor, ranged from 1.03 to 1.05. The stability of ASE under different storage conditions was ascertained in presence of the metabolites. The developed method is much simpler, matrix free, rapid and economical compared to the existing methods. The method was successfully used for a bioequivalence study of asenapine in healthy Indian subjects for the first time.