QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of asenapine and promethazine. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. We do not expect any change in exposure for asenapine, when combined with promethazine (100%). We did not detect any change in exposure to promethazine. We currently cannot estimate the influence of asenapine.
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Asenapine has a low oral bioavailability [ F ] of 2%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change strongly with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is 24 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached after approximately 96 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is moderately strong at 95% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 1700 liters. The metabolism mainly takes place via CYP1A2 and the active transport takes place in particular via UGT1A4.
Promethazine has a low oral bioavailability [ F ] of 25%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change strongly with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is 14.5 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached after approximately 58 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is moderately strong at 93%. The metabolism mainly takes place via CYP2D6.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither asenapine nor promethazine increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||4||+||+++|
Recommendation: The risk of anticholinergic side effects such as blurred vision, confusion and tremor is increased with this therapy. If possible, the therapy should be switched or the patient should be closely monitored for other symptoms, such as constipation, mydriasis and reduced vigilance.
Rating: Together, promethazine (strong) and asenapine (mild) increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: In combination, asenapine and promethazine can potentially trigger ventricular arrhythmias of the torsades de pointes type.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||ase||pro|
|Weight gain||11.5 %||11.5||n.a.|
|Orthostatic hypotension||1.5 %||1.5||n.a.|
Lowered convulsive threshold: promethazine
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: asenapine, promethazine
Hypersensitivity reaction: asenapine
Respiratory depression: promethazine
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: This article reviews clinical pharmacokinetic data on the H1-receptor antagonists, commonly referred to as the antihistamines. Despite their widespread use over an extended period, relatively little pharmacokinetic data are available for many of these drugs. A number of H1-receptor antagonists have been assayed mainly using radioimmunoassay methods. These have also generally measured metabolites to greater or lesser extents. Thus, the interpretation of such data is complex. After oral administration of H1-receptor antagonists as syrup or tablet formulations, peak plasma concentrations are usually observed after 2 to 3 hours. Bioavailability has not been extensively studied, but is about 0.34 for chlorpheniramine, 0.40 to 0.60 for diphenhydramine, and about 0.25 for promethazine. Most of these drugs are metabolised in the liver, this being very extensive in some instances (e.g. cyproheptadine and terfenadine). Total body clearance in adults is generally in the range of 5 to 12 ml/min/kg (for astemizole, brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine, diphenhydramine, hydroxyzine, promethazine and triprolidine), while their elimination half-lives range from about 3 hours to about 18 days [cinnarizine about 3 hours; diphenhydramine about 4 hours; promethazine 10 to 14 hours; chlorpheniramine 14 to 25 hours; hydroxyzine about 20 hours; brompheniramine about 25 hours; astemizole and its active metabolites about 7 to 20 days (after long term administration); flunarizine about 18 to 20 days]. They also have relatively large apparent volumes of distribution in excess of 4 L/kg. In children, the elimination half-lives of chlorpheniramine and hydroxyzine are shorter than in adults. In patients with alcohol-related liver disease, the elimination half-life of diphenhydramine was increased from 9 to 15 hours, while in patients with chronic renal disease that of chlorpheniramine was very greatly prolonged. Little, if any, published information is available on the pharmacokinetics of these drugs in neonates, pregnancy or during lactation. The relatively long half-lives of a number of the older H1-receptor antagonists such as brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine and hydroxyzine suggest that they can be administered to adults once daily.
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of promethazine hydrochloride after administration of rectal suppositories at three dosage strengths and oral syrup were studied. The study had an open-label, randomized, crossover design. At intervals of five to nine days, healthy volunteers were given two 12.5-mg promethazine rectal suppositories, one 25-mg suppository, one 50-mg suppository, or 50 mg (10 mL) of promethazine oral syrup. Blood samples were collected before each dose and at intervals from 0.5 to 48 hours afterward. Promethazine concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and pharmacokinetic values were calculated with noncompartmental methods. Thirty-six subjects (18 men and 18 women) completed the study. Absorption was highly variable for all the formulations. On average, absorption was more rapid and the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) higher for the syrup than for the suppositories. Cmax was significantly lower for the 50-mg suppository (mean, 9.04 ng/mL) than for the syrup (19.3 ng/mL). The time to Cmax (tmax) was significantly shorter for the syrup (mean, 4.4 hours) than for the suppositories (6.7-8.6 hours). There were no significant differences in dose-normalized Cmax among the three suppository treatments. Area under the concentration-versus-time curve (AUC) was comparable between the syrup and the 50-mg suppository and between the treatments with two 12.5-mg suppositories and the 25-mg suppository. Elimination profiles were similar among all treatments (mean half-life [t1/2], 16-19 hours). There were no significant differences in pharmacokinetics on the basis of sex or race. The mean relative bioavailability for the three suppository treatments ranged from 70% to 97%. Individual relative bioavailabilities ranged from 4% to 343%. The pharmacokinetics of promethazine administered in oral syrup and rectal suppositories were highly variable, but, in general, the suppositories produced a lower Cmax and later tmax than the syrup. All formulations were comparable in terms of dose-normalized AUC and t1/2, and the three suppository treatments were comparable in terms of dose-normalized Cmax.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.
Abstract: An assessment of the effects of asenapine on QTc interval in patients with schizophrenia revealed a discrepancy between the results obtained by two different methods: an intersection-union test (IUT) (as recommended in the International Conference on Harmonisation E14 guidance) and an exposure-response (E-R) analysis. Simulations were performed in order to understand and reconcile this discrepancy. Although estimates of the time-matched, placebo-corrected mean change in QTc from baseline (ddQTc) at peak plasma concentrations from the E-R analysis ranged from 2 to 5 ms per dose level, the IUT applied to simulated data from the E-R model yielded maximum ddQTc estimates of 7-10 ms for the various doses of asenapine. These results indicate that the IUT can produce biased estimates that may induce a high false-positive rate in individual thorough QTc trials. In such cases, simulations from an E-R model can aid in reconciling the results from the two methods and may support the use of E-R results as a basis for labeling.
Abstract: The metabolism and excretion of asenapine [(3aRS,12bRS)-5-chloro-2-methyl-2,3,3a,12b-tetrahydro-1H-dibenzo[2,3:6,7]-oxepino [4,5-c]pyrrole (2Z)-2-butenedioate (1:1)] were studied after sublingual administration of [(14)C]-asenapine to healthy male volunteers. Mean total excretion on the basis of the percent recovery of the total radioactive dose was ∼90%, with ∼50% appearing in urine and ∼40% excreted in feces; asenapine itself was detected only in feces. Metabolic profiles were determined in plasma, urine, and feces using high-performance liquid chromatography with radioactivity detection. Approximately 50% of drug-related material in human plasma was identified or quantified. The remaining circulating radioactivity corresponded to at least 15 very polar, minor peaks (mostly phase II products). Overall, >70% of circulating radioactivity was associated with conjugated metabolites. Major metabolic routes were direct glucuronidation and N-demethylation. The principal circulating metabolite was asenapine N(+)-glucuronide; other circulating metabolites were N-desmethylasenapine-N-carbamoyl-glucuronide, N-desmethylasenapine, and asenapine 11-O-sulfate. In addition to the parent compound, asenapine, the principal excretory metabolite was asenapine N(+)-glucuronide. Other excretory metabolites were N-desmethylasenapine-N-carbamoylglucuronide, 11-hydroxyasenapine followed by conjugation, 10,11-dihydroxy-N-desmethylasenapine, 10,11-dihydroxyasenapine followed by conjugation (several combinations of these routes were found) and N-formylasenapine in combination with several hydroxylations, and most probably asenapine N-oxide in combination with 10,11-hydroxylations followed by conjugations. In conclusion, asenapine was extensively and rapidly metabolized, resulting in several regio-isomeric hydroxylated and conjugated metabolites.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The effects of hepatic or renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of atypical antipsychotics are not well understood. Drug exposure may increase in patients with hepatic disease, owing to a reduction of certain metabolic enzymes. The objective of the present study was to study the effects of hepatic or renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of asenapine and its N-desmethyl and N⁺-glucuronide metabolites. METHODS: Two clinical studies were performed to assess exposure to asenapine, desmethylasenapine and asenapine N⁺-glucuronide in subjects with hepatic or renal impairment. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from plasma concentration-time data, using standard noncompartmental methods. The pharmacokinetic variables that were studied included the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and the time to reach the maximum plasma concentration (t(max)). Eligible subjects, from inpatient and outpatient clinics, were aged ≥18 years with a body mass index of ≥18 kg/m² and ≤32 kg/m². Sublingual asenapine (Saphris®) was administered as a single 5 mg dose. RESULTS: Thirty subjects participated in the hepatic impairment study (normal hepatic function, n = 8; mild hepatic impairment [Child-Pugh class A], n = 8; moderate hepatic impairment [Child-Pugh class B], n = 8; severe hepatic impairment [Child-Pugh class C], n = 6). Thirty-three subjects were enrolled in the renal impairment study (normal renal function, n = 9; mild renal impairment, n = 8; moderate renal impairment, n = 8; severe renal impairment, n = 8). Asenapine and N-desmethylasenapine exposures were unaltered in subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment, compared with healthy controls. Severe hepatic impairment was associated with increased area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(∞)) values for total asenapine, N-desmethylasenapine and asenapine N⁺-glucuronide (5-, 3-, and 2-fold, respectively), with slight increases in the C(max) of asenapine but 3- and 2-fold decreases in the C(max) values for N-desmethylasenapine and asenapine N⁺-glucuronide, respectively, compared with healthy controls. The mean AUC(∞) of unbound asenapine was more than 7-fold higher in subjects with severe hepatic impairment than in healthy controls. Mild renal impairment was associated with slight elevations in the AUC(∞) of asenapine compared with healthy controls; alterations observed with moderate and severe renal impairment were marginal. N-desmethylasenapine exposure was only slightly altered by renal impairment. No correlations were observed between exposure and creatinine clearance. CONCLUSION: Severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C) was associated with pronounced increases in asenapine exposure, but significant increases were not seen with mild (Child-Pugh class A) or moderate (Child-Pugh class B) hepatic impairment, or with any degree of renal impairment. Asenapine is not recommended in patients with severe hepatic impairment; no dose adjustment is needed in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment, or in patients with renal impairment.
Abstract: The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) voltage-gated K(+) channels are located in heart cell membranes and hold a unique selectivity filter (SF) amino acid sequence (SVGFG) as compared to other K(+) channels (TVGYG). The hERG provokes the acquired long QT syndrome (ALQTS) when blocked, as a side effect of drugs, leading to arrhythmia or heart failure. Its pore domain - including the SF - is believed to be a cardiotoxic drug target. In this study combining solution and solid-state NMR experiments we examine the structure and function of hERG's L(622)-K(638) segment which comprises the SF, as well as its role in the ALQTS using reported active drugs. We first show that the SF segment is unstructured in solution with and without K(+) ions in its surroundings, consistent with the expected flexibility required for the change between the different channel conductive states predicted by computational studies. We also show that the SF segment has the potential to perturb the membrane, but that the presence of K(+) ions cancels this interaction. The SF moiety appears to be a possible target for promethazine in the ALQTS mechanism, but not as much for bepridil, cetirizine, diphenhydramine and fluvoxamine. The membrane affinity of the SF is also affected by the presence of drugs which also perturb model DMPC-based membranes. These results thus suggest that the membrane could play a role in the ALQTS by promoting the access to transmembrane or intracellular targets on the hERG channel, or perturbing the lipid-protein synergy.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a displeasing experience that distresses surgical patients during the first 24 h after a surgical procedure. The incidence of postoperative nausea occurs in about 50%, the incidence of postoperative vomiting is about 30%, and in high-risk patients, the PONV rate could be as high as 80%. Therefore, the study design of this single arm, non-randomized, pilot study assessed the efficacy and safety profile of a triple therapy combination with palonosetron, dexamethasone, and promethazine to prevent PONV in patients undergoing craniotomies under general anesthesia. METHODS: The research protocol was approved by the institutional review board and 40 subjects were provided written informed consent. At induction of anesthesia, a triple therapy of palonosetron 0.075 mg IV, dexamethasone 10 mg IV, and promethazine 25 mg IV was given as PONV prophylaxis. After surgery, subjects were transferred to the surgical intensive care unit or post anesthesia care unit as clinically indicated. Ondansetron 4 mg IV was administered as primary rescue medication to subjects with PONV symptoms. PONV was assessed and collected every 24 h for 5 days via direct interview and/or medical charts review. RESULTS: The overall incidence of PONV during the first 24 h after surgery was 30% (n = 12). The incidence of nausea and emesis 24 h after surgery was 30% (n = 12) and 7.5% (n = 3), respectively. The mean time to first emetic episode, first rescue, and first significant nausea was 31.3 (±33.6), 15.1 (±25.8), and 21.1 (±25.4) hours, respectively. The overall incidence of nausea and vomiting after 24-120 h period after surgery was 30% (n = 12). The percentage of subjects without emesis episodes over 24-120 h postoperatively was 70% (n = 28). No subjects presented a prolonged QTc interval ≥500 ms before and/or after surgery. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrated that this triple therapy regimen may be an adequate alternative regimen for the treatment of PONV in patients undergoing neurological surgery under general anesthesia. More studies with a control group should be performed to demonstrate the efficacy of this regimen and that palonosetron is a low risk for QTc prolongation. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT02635828 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02635828).
Abstract: Asenapine is one of the newer atypical antipsychotics on the market. It is a sublingually administered drug that is indicated for the treatment of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and is considered to be safe and well tolerated. Herein, we report a 71-year-old female with a history of bipolar disorder who had ventricular trigemini and experienced a large increase in her QTc interval after starting treatment with asenapine. These changes ceased following withdrawal of asenapine. In this case report, we discuss the importance of cardiac monitoring when switching antipsychotics, even to those that are considered to have low cardiac risk.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.
Abstract: A highly selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay has been described for the determination of asenapine (ASE) in presence of its inactive metabolites-desmethyl asenapine (DMA) and asenapine--glucuronide (ASG). ASE, and ASE 13C-d3, used as internal standard (IS), were extracted from 300 µL human plasma by a simple and precise liquid-liquid extraction procedure using methyl-butyl ether. Baseline separation of ASE from its inactive metabolites was achieved on Chromolith Performance RP(100 mm × 4.6 mm) column using acetonitrile-5.0 mM ammonium acetate-10% formic acid (90:10:0.1, v/v/v) within 4.5 min. Quantitation of ASE was done on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization in the positive mode. The protonated precursor to product ion transitions monitored for ASE and ASE 13C-d3 were286.1 → 166.0 and290.0 → 166.1, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of the method were 0.0025 ng/mL and 0.050 ng/mL respectively in a linear concentration range of 0.050-20.0 ng/mL for ASE. The intra-batch and inter-batch precision (% CV) and mean relative recovery across quality control levels were ≤ 5.8% and 87.3%, respectively. Matrix effect, evaluated as IS-normalized matrix factor, ranged from 1.03 to 1.05. The stability of ASE under different storage conditions was ascertained in presence of the metabolites. The developed method is much simpler, matrix free, rapid and economical compared to the existing methods. The method was successfully used for a bioequivalence study of asenapine in healthy Indian subjects for the first time.