QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of asenapine and torasemide. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
|Torasemide||1 [1,3.85] 1,2||1|
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. We do not expect any change in exposure for asenapine, when combined with torasemide (100%). We do not expect any change in exposure for torasemide, when combined with asenapine (100%). The AUC is between 100% and 385% depending on the CYP2C9
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Asenapine has a low oral bioavailability [ F ] of 2%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change strongly with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is 24 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached after approximately 96 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is moderately strong at 95% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 1700 liters. The metabolism mainly takes place via CYP1A2 and the active transport takes place in particular via UGT1A4.
Torasemide has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 80%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather short at 3.5 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached quickly. The protein binding [ Pb ] is very strong at 99% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is small at 15 liters. Since the substance has a low hepatic extraction rate of 0.02, displacement from protein binding [Pb] in the context of an interaction can lead to increased exposure. The metabolism takes place via CYP2C8 and CYP2C9, among others and the active transport takes place in particular via OATP1B1.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither asenapine nor torasemide increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||+||Ø|
Recommendation: As a precaution, attention should be paid to anticholinergic symptoms, especially after increasing the dose and at doses in the upper therapeutic range.
Rating: Asenapine only has a mild effect on the anticholinergic system. The risk of anticholinergic syndrome with this medication is rather low if the dosage is in the usual range. According to our knowledge, torasemide does not increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: In combination, asenapine and torasemide can potentially trigger ventricular arrhythmias of the torsades de pointes type.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||ase||tor|
|Weight gain||11.5 %||11.5||n.a.|
|Orthostatic hypotension||1.5 %||1.5||n.a.|
|Abdominal pain||1.0 %||n.a.||+|
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: asenapine
Hypersensitivity reaction: asenapine
Hearing loss: torasemide
Toxic epidermal necrolysis: torasemide
Thromboembolic disorder: torasemide
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: Torasemide is a new loop diuretic that potentially may have renal tubular effects from both the blood and urinary sides of the nephron. We assessed its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in eight normal subjects administering intravenous doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg compared with 40 mg furosemide. We assessed the effect of probenecid on response to the 20 mg dose. A dose intermediate to the 10 and 20 mg doses appeared equally natriuretic to 40 mg furosemide. Although total clearance was the same with all doses (about 0.45 ml/min/kg), renal clearance and the fraction of unchanged drug appearing in the urine decreased with higher doses raising the question of saturable renal secretion. Urinary dose-response curves showed torasemide to be five times as potent as furosemide. Probenecid pretreatment decreased both urine volume (P = 0.0016) and sodium excretion (P = 0.0003), implying that delivery of drug to the urinary side of the nephron is the major determinant of response.
Abstract: The new loop diuretic torasemide belongs to the pyridine sulfonylurea class. It is well absorbed and yields a bioavailablity of about 80% in healthy individuals, even higher in patients with oedema. This is roughly double that of the 'classical' loop diuretic furosemide (frusemide) [26 to 65%]. Torasemide is highly bound to protein (99%) as is furosemide. The volume of distribution of torasemide was determined as 0.2 L/kg as compared with 0.11 to 0.18 L/kg for furosemide. Torasemide undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism; only 20% of the parent drug is recovered unchanged in the urine. For comparison only 10 to 20% of furosemide undergoes phase II metabolisation (to the glucuronide). In chronic renal failure the renal clearance of torasemide decreased in proportion to the decrease of the patients' glomerular filtration rate, whereas the total plasma clearance (3 times that of the renal clearance) appeared to be independent of renal function. As expected, the renal excretion of torasemide metabolites is significantly retarded in renal disease. The pharmacokinetics of torasemide are significantly influenced by liver disease. Total plasma clearance of torasemide was reduced to about half of that found in the control group, yielding an increase in elimination half-life. A greater than normal fraction of torasemide was recovered in the urine of patients with cirrhosis. In contrast, the kinetics of furosemide appeared to depend more on kidney function than on liver disease. The pharmacodynamics of torasemide are principally the same as those reported from conventional loop diuretics due to their interference with one binding site in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop, the Na+:K+:2Cl- carrier. The maximum natriuretic effect of all loop diuretics amounts to about 3 mmol Na+/min. Members of this class differ, however, with respect to their intravenous potency or affinity for the receptor, respectively: bumetanide > piretanide > torasemide > furosemide. So far, the only loop diuretic which has been shown to effectively lower high blood pressure is torasemide. This effect occurs at the low dose of 2.5 mg/day.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Torasemide is frequently used for the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. However, the determinants of torasemide pharmacokinetics in patients during steady-state conditions are largely unknown. We therefore explored the impact of genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 (CYP2C9) and organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 (SLCO1B1), gender, and the effects of losartan and irbesartan comedication on the interindividual variability of steady-state pharmacokinetics of torasemide. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients receiving stable medication with torasemide 10 mg once daily and with an indication for additional angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) treatment to control hypertension or to treat heart failure were selected. Blood samples were taken before torasemide administration and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours after administration. After this first study period, patients received either irbesartan 150 mg (five female and seven male patients aged 69+/-8 years) or losartan 100 mg (two female and ten male patients aged 61+/-8 years) once daily. After 3 days of ARB medication, eight blood samples were again collected at the timepoints indicated above. The patients' long-term medications, which did not include known CYP2C9 inhibitors, were maintained at a constant dose during the study. All patients were genotyped for CYP2C9 (*1/*1 [n=15]; *1/*2 [n = 4]; *1/*3 [n=5]) as well as for SLCO1B1 (c.521TT [n=13]; c.521TC [n=11]). RESULTS: Factorial ANOVA revealed an independent impact of the CYP2C9 genotype (dose-normalized area under the plasma concentration-time curve during the 24-hour dosing interval at steady state [AUC(24,ss)/D]: *1/*1 375.5+/-151.4 microg x h/L/mg vs *1/*3 548.5+/-271.6 microg x h/L/mg, p=0.001), the SLCO1B1 genotype (AUC(24,ss)/D: TT 352.3+/-114 microg x h/L/mg vs TC 487.6+/-218.4 microg x h/L/mg, p<0.05) and gender (AUC(24,ss)/D: males 359.5+/-72.2 microg x h/L/mg vs females 547.3+/-284 microg x h/L/mg, p<0.01) on disposition of torasemide. Coadministration of irbesartan caused a 13% increase in the AUC(24,ss)/D of torasemide (p=0.002), whereas losartan had no effect. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the CYP2C9*3 and SLCO1B1 c.521TC genotype and female gender are significant and independent predictors of the pharmacokinetics of torasemide. Coadministration of irbesartan yields moderate but significant increases in the torasemide plasma concentration and elimination half-life.
Abstract: An assessment of the effects of asenapine on QTc interval in patients with schizophrenia revealed a discrepancy between the results obtained by two different methods: an intersection-union test (IUT) (as recommended in the International Conference on Harmonisation E14 guidance) and an exposure-response (E-R) analysis. Simulations were performed in order to understand and reconcile this discrepancy. Although estimates of the time-matched, placebo-corrected mean change in QTc from baseline (ddQTc) at peak plasma concentrations from the E-R analysis ranged from 2 to 5 ms per dose level, the IUT applied to simulated data from the E-R model yielded maximum ddQTc estimates of 7-10 ms for the various doses of asenapine. These results indicate that the IUT can produce biased estimates that may induce a high false-positive rate in individual thorough QTc trials. In such cases, simulations from an E-R model can aid in reconciling the results from the two methods and may support the use of E-R results as a basis for labeling.
Abstract: The metabolism and excretion of asenapine [(3aRS,12bRS)-5-chloro-2-methyl-2,3,3a,12b-tetrahydro-1H-dibenzo[2,3:6,7]-oxepino [4,5-c]pyrrole (2Z)-2-butenedioate (1:1)] were studied after sublingual administration of [(14)C]-asenapine to healthy male volunteers. Mean total excretion on the basis of the percent recovery of the total radioactive dose was ∼90%, with ∼50% appearing in urine and ∼40% excreted in feces; asenapine itself was detected only in feces. Metabolic profiles were determined in plasma, urine, and feces using high-performance liquid chromatography with radioactivity detection. Approximately 50% of drug-related material in human plasma was identified or quantified. The remaining circulating radioactivity corresponded to at least 15 very polar, minor peaks (mostly phase II products). Overall, >70% of circulating radioactivity was associated with conjugated metabolites. Major metabolic routes were direct glucuronidation and N-demethylation. The principal circulating metabolite was asenapine N(+)-glucuronide; other circulating metabolites were N-desmethylasenapine-N-carbamoyl-glucuronide, N-desmethylasenapine, and asenapine 11-O-sulfate. In addition to the parent compound, asenapine, the principal excretory metabolite was asenapine N(+)-glucuronide. Other excretory metabolites were N-desmethylasenapine-N-carbamoylglucuronide, 11-hydroxyasenapine followed by conjugation, 10,11-dihydroxy-N-desmethylasenapine, 10,11-dihydroxyasenapine followed by conjugation (several combinations of these routes were found) and N-formylasenapine in combination with several hydroxylations, and most probably asenapine N-oxide in combination with 10,11-hydroxylations followed by conjugations. In conclusion, asenapine was extensively and rapidly metabolized, resulting in several regio-isomeric hydroxylated and conjugated metabolites.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The effects of hepatic or renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of atypical antipsychotics are not well understood. Drug exposure may increase in patients with hepatic disease, owing to a reduction of certain metabolic enzymes. The objective of the present study was to study the effects of hepatic or renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of asenapine and its N-desmethyl and N⁺-glucuronide metabolites. METHODS: Two clinical studies were performed to assess exposure to asenapine, desmethylasenapine and asenapine N⁺-glucuronide in subjects with hepatic or renal impairment. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from plasma concentration-time data, using standard noncompartmental methods. The pharmacokinetic variables that were studied included the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and the time to reach the maximum plasma concentration (t(max)). Eligible subjects, from inpatient and outpatient clinics, were aged ≥18 years with a body mass index of ≥18 kg/m² and ≤32 kg/m². Sublingual asenapine (Saphris®) was administered as a single 5 mg dose. RESULTS: Thirty subjects participated in the hepatic impairment study (normal hepatic function, n = 8; mild hepatic impairment [Child-Pugh class A], n = 8; moderate hepatic impairment [Child-Pugh class B], n = 8; severe hepatic impairment [Child-Pugh class C], n = 6). Thirty-three subjects were enrolled in the renal impairment study (normal renal function, n = 9; mild renal impairment, n = 8; moderate renal impairment, n = 8; severe renal impairment, n = 8). Asenapine and N-desmethylasenapine exposures were unaltered in subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment, compared with healthy controls. Severe hepatic impairment was associated with increased area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(∞)) values for total asenapine, N-desmethylasenapine and asenapine N⁺-glucuronide (5-, 3-, and 2-fold, respectively), with slight increases in the C(max) of asenapine but 3- and 2-fold decreases in the C(max) values for N-desmethylasenapine and asenapine N⁺-glucuronide, respectively, compared with healthy controls. The mean AUC(∞) of unbound asenapine was more than 7-fold higher in subjects with severe hepatic impairment than in healthy controls. Mild renal impairment was associated with slight elevations in the AUC(∞) of asenapine compared with healthy controls; alterations observed with moderate and severe renal impairment were marginal. N-desmethylasenapine exposure was only slightly altered by renal impairment. No correlations were observed between exposure and creatinine clearance. CONCLUSION: Severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C) was associated with pronounced increases in asenapine exposure, but significant increases were not seen with mild (Child-Pugh class A) or moderate (Child-Pugh class B) hepatic impairment, or with any degree of renal impairment. Asenapine is not recommended in patients with severe hepatic impairment; no dose adjustment is needed in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment, or in patients with renal impairment.
Abstract: The human organic anion and cation transporters are classified within two SLC superfamilies. Superfamily SLCO (formerly SLC21A) consists of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), while the organic anion transporters (OATs) and the organic cation transporters (OCTs) are classified in the SLC22A superfamily. Individual members of each superfamily are expressed in essentially every epithelium throughout the body, where they play a significant role in drug absorption, distribution and elimination. Substrates of OATPs are mainly large hydrophobic organic anions, while OATs transport smaller and more hydrophilic organic anions and OCTs transport organic cations. In addition to endogenous substrates, such as steroids, hormones and neurotransmitters, numerous drugs and other xenobiotics are transported by these proteins, including statins, antivirals, antibiotics and anticancer drugs. Expression of OATPs, OATs and OCTs can be regulated at the protein or transcriptional level and appears to vary within each family by both protein and tissue type. All three superfamilies consist of 12 transmembrane domain proteins that have intracellular termini. Although no crystal structures have yet been determined, combinations of homology modelling and mutation experiments have been used to explore the mechanism of substrate recognition and transport. Several polymorphisms identified in members of these superfamilies have been shown to affect pharmacokinetics of their drug substrates, confirming the importance of these drug transporters for efficient pharmacological therapy. This review, unlike other reviews that focus on a single transporter family, briefly summarizes the current knowledge of all the functionally characterized human organic anion and cation drug uptake transporters of the SLCO and the SLC22A superfamilies.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: Asenapine is one of the newer atypical antipsychotics on the market. It is a sublingually administered drug that is indicated for the treatment of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and is considered to be safe and well tolerated. Herein, we report a 71-year-old female with a history of bipolar disorder who had ventricular trigemini and experienced a large increase in her QTc interval after starting treatment with asenapine. These changes ceased following withdrawal of asenapine. In this case report, we discuss the importance of cardiac monitoring when switching antipsychotics, even to those that are considered to have low cardiac risk.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.
Abstract: A highly selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay has been described for the determination of asenapine (ASE) in presence of its inactive metabolites-desmethyl asenapine (DMA) and asenapine--glucuronide (ASG). ASE, and ASE 13C-d3, used as internal standard (IS), were extracted from 300 µL human plasma by a simple and precise liquid-liquid extraction procedure using methyl-butyl ether. Baseline separation of ASE from its inactive metabolites was achieved on Chromolith Performance RP(100 mm × 4.6 mm) column using acetonitrile-5.0 mM ammonium acetate-10% formic acid (90:10:0.1, v/v/v) within 4.5 min. Quantitation of ASE was done on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization in the positive mode. The protonated precursor to product ion transitions monitored for ASE and ASE 13C-d3 were286.1 → 166.0 and290.0 → 166.1, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of the method were 0.0025 ng/mL and 0.050 ng/mL respectively in a linear concentration range of 0.050-20.0 ng/mL for ASE. The intra-batch and inter-batch precision (% CV) and mean relative recovery across quality control levels were ≤ 5.8% and 87.3%, respectively. Matrix effect, evaluated as IS-normalized matrix factor, ranged from 1.03 to 1.05. The stability of ASE under different storage conditions was ascertained in presence of the metabolites. The developed method is much simpler, matrix free, rapid and economical compared to the existing methods. The method was successfully used for a bioequivalence study of asenapine in healthy Indian subjects for the first time.