QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of astemizole and efavirenz. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. We did not detect any change in exposure to astemizole. We currently cannot estimate the influence of efavirenz. We did not detect any change in exposure to efavirenz. We currently cannot estimate the influence of astemizole.
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Astemizole has a low oral bioavailability [ F ] of 3%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change strongly with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is 22 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached after approximately 88 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is 97% strong. The metabolism takes place via CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, among others.
Efavirenz has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 73%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 47.5 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 190 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is very strong at 99.6% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 184 liters, The metabolism takes place via CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4, among others and the active transport takes place partly via BCRP and UGT2B7.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither astemizole nor efavirenz increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither astemizole nor efavirenz increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: In combination, astemizole and efavirenz can potentially trigger ventricular arrhythmias of the torsades de pointes type.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||ast||efa|
Elevated ALT: efavirenz
Elevated AST: efavirenz
Elevated GGT: efavirenz
Liver failure: efavirenz
Dream disorder: efavirenz
Erythema multiforme: efavirenz
Stevens johnson syndrome: efavirenz
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: Astemizole is a long-acting, highly selective histamine1-receptor antagonist with minimal central and anticholinergic effects. Comparison studies have shown astemizole to be equal or superior to currently available antihistamines, beclomethasone nasal spray, and cromolyn sodium in relieving allergic symptoms of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. Other uses include treatment of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria. Astemizole is not as effective for treatment of acute allergic symptoms because of its delayed onset of action. Astemizole and its active metabolite, desmethylastemizole, have long elimination half-lives permitting once-daily dosing. The incidence of sedation is lower than with conventional antihistamines, but increased appetite and weight gain do occur. Astemizole should be useful for both maintenance and prophylactic therapy in patients with chronic allergic conditions who cannot tolerate the sedative or anticholinergic effects of conventional antihistamines.
Abstract: Astemizole is an H1-histamine receptor antagonist with a long duration of action permitting once daily administration. Its efficacy in seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis has been convincingly demonstrated, and several comparative studies suggest that astemizole is at least as effective as some other H1-histamine receptor antagonists. A few smaller studies have shown beneficial effects on the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria (but not atopic dermatitis). While astemizole appears to share with other H1-histamine receptor antagonists a tendency to increase appetite and cause weight gain after prolonged use, it offers the important advantage of an absence of significant central nervous system depression or anticholinergic effects with usual doses. Thus, astemizole offers a worthwhile improvement in side effect profile over 'traditional' H1-histamine receptor antagonists, especially in patients bothered by the sedative effects of these drugs.
Abstract: An overdose of astemizole predisposes the myocardium to ventricular dysrhythmias, including torsades de pointes. Herein we describe a case of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia and also review previous case reports in the literature. All the patients were young, and dysrhythmias developed only in those with corrected QT intervals greater than 500 ms. Although several mechanisms have been postulated, no clear explanation has been provided for why astemizole promotes myocardial dysrhythmias. Treatment of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes includes discontinuing use of astemizole, intravenous administration of magnesium sulfate and isoproterenol, temporary cardiac pacing, and, when necessary, direct current cardioversion. A cardiac cause of syncope or convulsions must not be overlooked, especially in patients taking H1 antagonists because they often have these symptoms before hospitalization or detection of torsades de pointes (or both).
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: A 26 year-old woman was admitted to the hospital two hours after astemizole overdose. Electrocardiograph showed a prolonged QT interval. Torsade de pointes occurred 13 h after ingestion. Plasma levels of astemizole plus hydroxylated metabolites showed an apparent plasma half-life of 17 h. The possible occurrence of torsade de pointes in astemizole overdose, and the long elimination time of astemizole and hydroxylated metabolites, makes it necessary to maintain ECG monitoring until QT interval has returned to normal.
Abstract: AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic itraconazole treatment on the pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of single dose astemizole in healthy subjects was studied. METHODS: Twelve male volunteers were taking orally 200 mg twice daily itraconazole or placebo for 14 days with a washout period of 4 weeks in between. Approximately 2 h after the morning dose of itraconazole or placebo on day 11, 10 mg astemizole was orally administered. The plasma concentrations of astemizole and desmethylastemizole were measured by radioimmunoassay up to 504 h after administration; electrocardiograms with analysis of the QTc interval were recorded up to 24 h post administration. RESULTS: Itraconazole treatment did not significantly change the peak concentration of astemizole (0.74 vs 0.81 ng ml-1) but it increased the area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (5.46 to 9.95 ng ml-1 h) and from 0 to infinity (17.4 to 48.2 ng ml-1 h), and the elimination half-life (2.1 to 3.6 days). The systemic bioavailability of desmethylastemizole was also increased. The QTc interval did not increase after astemizole administration and there was no difference in the QTc intervals between the itraconazole and placebo session. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic administration of itraconazole influences the metabolism of single dose astemizole in normal volunteers without changes of cardiac repolarization during the first 24 h after astemizole administration. However, the reduction in astemizole clearance under concomitant administration of itraconazole may result in a marked increase in astemizole plasma concentrations and QTc alterations during chronic combined intake of astemizole with itraconazole.
Abstract: Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) which shows good inhibitory activity against HIV-1. Reduced susceptibility to efavirenz has been reported with HIV-1 variants containing single and multiple mutations to the reverse transcriptase enzyme. In vitro and in vivo data suggest that the resistance profile of efavirenz overlaps with that of the NNRTIs nevirapine and delavirdine. Clinically significant drug interactions have been reported with efavirenz and indinavir and saquinavir. An increase in dosage of indinavir from 800 to 1000 mg 3 times daily is recommended during coadministration with efavirenz. Use of efavirenz in combination with saquinavir as the sole protease inhibitor is not recommended. Once-daily efavirenz in combination with zidovudine plus lamivudine or indinavir or nelfinavir increased CD4+ cell counts and reduced HIV RNA plasma levels to below quantifiable levels (< 400 copies/ml) in HIV-infected patients. A sustained reduction in viral load was maintained for at least 72 weeks in 1 study. Nervous system symptoms (including headache, dizziness, insomnia and fatigue) and dermatological effects (including maculopapular rash) appear to be the most common adverse events reported with efavirenz-containing antiretroviral regimens.
Abstract: Second-generation histamine H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines) have been developed to reduce or eliminate the sedation and anticholinergic adverse effects that occur with older H1 receptor antagonists. This article evaluates second-generation antihistamines, including acrivastine, astemizole, azelastine, cetirizine, ebastine, fexofenadine, ketotifen, loratadine, mizolastine and terfenadine, for significant features that affect choice. In addition to their primary mechanism of antagonising histamine at the H1 receptor, these agents may act on other mediators of the allergic reaction. However, the clinical significance of activity beyond that mediated by histamine H1 receptor antagonism has yet to be demonstrated. Most of the agents reviewed are metabolised by the liver to active metabolites that play a significant role in their effect. Conditions that result in accumulation of astemizole, ebastine and terfenadine may prolong the QT interval and result in torsade de pointes. The remaining agents reviewed do not appear to have this risk. For allergic rhinitis, all agents are effective and the choice should be based on other factors. For urticaria, cetirizine and mizolastine demonstrate superior suppression of wheal and flare at the dosages recommended by the manufacturer. For atopic dermatitis, as adjunctive therapy to reduce pruritus, cetirizine, ketotifen and loratadine demonstrate efficacy. Although current evidence does not suggest a primary role for these agents in the management of asthma, it does support their use for asthmatic patients when there is coexisting allergic rhinitis, dermatitis or urticaria.
Abstract: AIMS: The aims of the present study were to investigate the metabolism of astemizole in human liver microsomes, to assess possible pharmacokinetic drug-interactions with astemizole and to compare its metabolism with terfenadine, a typical H1 receptor antagonist known to be metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4. METHODS: Astemizole or terfenadine were incubated with human liver microsomes or recombinant cytochromes P450 in the absence or presence of chemical inhibitors and antibodies. RESULTS: Troleandomycin, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, markedly reduced the oxidation of terfenadine (26% of controls) in human liver microsomes, but showed only a marginal inhibition on the oxidation of astemizole (81% of controls). Three metabolites of astemizole were detected in a liver microsomal system, i.e. desmethylastemizole (DES-AST), 6-hydroxyastemizole (6OH-AST) and norastemizole (NOR-AST) at the ratio of 7.4 : 2.8 : 1. Experiments with recombinant P450s and antibodies indicate a negligible role for CYP3A4 on the main metabolic route of astemizole, i.e. formation of DES-AST, although CYP3A4 may mediate the relatively minor metabolic routes to 6OH-AST and NOR-AST. Recombinant CYP2D6 catalysed the formation of 6OH-AST and DES-AST. Studies with human liver microsomes, however, suggest a major role for a mono P450 in DES-AST formation. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to terfenadine, a minor role for CYP3A4 and involvement of multiple P450 isozymes are suggested in the metabolism of astemizole. These differences in P450 isozymes involved in the metabolism of astemizole and terfenadine may associate with distinct pharmacokinetic influences observed with coadministration of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To report a case of acquired long QT syndrome that, after exclusion of all other possible causes, was probably related to therapy with efavirenz, a novel nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. CASE SUMMARY: This patient presented with recurrent syncope and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, which was treated with overdrive ventricular pacing and was eliminated by discontinuation of the offending drug. DISCUSSION: This is the first reported case of QT prolongation and severe ventricular arrhythmia associated with the use of efavirenz. The temporal relationship between the initiation of treatment and the onset of electrocardiographic abnormalities, the absence of other apparent precipitating factors, as well as the normalization of QT interval and the resolution of the arrhythmia after discontinuation of the drug, strongly suggest a causal relationship between efavirenz and this adverse clinical event. CONCLUSIONS: Our case shows that any new pharmaceutical compound introduced in clinical practice may potentially result in QT prolongation and life-threatening arrhythmia.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz is currently used at a fixed dose of 600 mg/d. However, dosage individualization based on plasma concentration monitoring might be indicated. This study aimed to assess the efavirenz pharmacokinetic profile and interpatient versus intrapatient variability in patients who are positive for human immunodeficiency virus, to explore the relationship between drug exposure, efficacy, and central nervous system toxicity and to build up a Bayesian approach for dosage adaptation. METHODS: The population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by use of NONMEM based on plasma samples from a cohort of unselected patients receiving efavirenz. With the use of a 1-compartment model with first-order absorption, the influence of demographic and clinical characteristics on oral clearance and oral volume of distribution was examined. The average drug exposure during 1 dosing interval was estimated for each patient and correlated with markers of efficacy and toxicity. The population kinetic parameters and the variabilities were integrated into a Bayesian equation for dosage adaptation based on a single plasma sample. RESULTS: Data from 235 patients with a total of 719 efavirenz concentrations were collected. Oral clearance was 9.4 L/h, oral volume of distribution was 252 L, and the absorption rate constant was 0.3 h(-1). Neither the demographic covariates evaluated nor the comedications showed a clinically significant influence on efavirenz pharmacokinetics. A large interpatient variability was found to affect efavirenz relative bioavailability (coefficient of variation, 54.6%), whereas the intrapatient variability was small (coefficient of variation, 26%). An inverse correlation between average drug exposure and viral load and a trend with central nervous system toxicity were detected. This enabled the derivation of a dosing adaptation strategy suitable to bring the average concentration into a therapeutic target from 1000 to 4000 microg/L to optimize viral load suppression and to minimize central nervous system toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: The high interpatient and low intrapatient variability values, as well as the potential relationship with markers of efficacy and toxicity, support the therapeutic drug monitoring of efavirenz. However, further evaluation is needed before individualization of an efavirenz dosage regimen based on routine drug level monitoring should be recommended for optimal patient management.
Abstract: There are few data on the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive patients with end-stage renal disease. We describe the tolerability, safety and efficacy of an efavirenz-containing regimen in one such patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.
Abstract: Drug-drug interactions involving efavirenz are of major concern in clinical practice. We evaluated the effects of multiple doses of efavirenz on omeprazole 5-hydroxylation (CYP2C19) and sulfoxidation (CYP3A). Healthy volunteers (n = 57) were administered a single 20 mg oral dose of racemic omeprazole either with a single 600 mg oral dose of efavirenz or after 17 days of administration of 600 mg/day of efavirenz. The concentrations of racemic omeprazole, 5-hydroxyomeoprazole (and their enantiomers), and omeprazole sulfone in plasma were measured using a chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Relative to single-dose treatment, multiple doses of efavirenz significantly decreased (P < 0.0001) the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity (AUC(0-∞)) of racemic-, R- and S-omeprazole (2.01- to 2.15-fold) and the corresponding AUC(0-∞) metabolic ratio (MR) for 5-hydroxyomeprazole (1.36- to 1.44-fold) as well as the MR for omeprazole sulfone (∼2.0) (P < 0.0001). The significant reduction in the AUC of 5-hydroxyomeprazole after repeated efavirenz dosing suggests induction of sequential metabolism and mixed inductive/inhibitory effects of efavirenz on CYP2C19. In conclusion, efavirenz enhances omeprazole metabolism in a nonstereoselective manner through induction of CYP3A and CYP2C19 activity.
Abstract: In this study, we present efavirenz physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model development as an example of our best practice approach that uses a stepwise approach to verify the different components of the model. First, a PBPK model for efavirenz incorporating in vitro and clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) data was developed to predict exposure following multiple dosing (600 mg q.d.). Alfentanil i.v. and p.o. drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies were utilized to evaluate and refine the CYP3A4 induction component in the liver and gut. Next, independent DDI studies with substrates of CYP3A4 (maraviroc, atazanavir, and clarithromycin) and CYP2B6 (bupropion) verified the induction components of the model (area under the curve [AUC] ratios within 1.0-1.7-fold of observed). Finally, the model was refined to incorporate the fractional contribution of enzymes, including CYP2B6, propagating autoinduction into the model (Racc 1.7 vs. 1.7 observed). This validated mechanistic model can now be applied in clinical pharmacology studies to prospectively assess both the victim and perpetrator DDI potential of efavirenz.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral drugs are among the therapeutic agents with the highest potential for drug-drug interactions (DDIs). In the absence of clinical data, DDIs are mainly predicted based on preclinical data and knowledge of the disposition of individual drugs. Predictions can be challenging, especially when antiretroviral drugs induce and inhibit multiple cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes simultaneously. METHODS: This study predicted the magnitude of the DDI between efavirenz, an inducer of CYP3A4 and inhibitor of CYP2C8, and dual CYP3A4/CYP2C8 substrates (repaglinide, montelukast, pioglitazone, paclitaxel) using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling approach integrating concurrent effects on CYPs. In vitro data describing the physicochemical properties, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of efavirenz and CYP3A4/CYP2C8 substrates as well as the CYP-inducing and -inhibitory potential of efavirenz were obtained from published literature. The data were integrated in a PBPK model developed using mathematical descriptions of molecular, physiological, and anatomical processes defining pharmacokinetics. Plasma drug-concentration profiles were simulated at steady state in virtual individuals for each drug given alone or in combination with efavirenz. The simulated pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs given alone were compared against existing clinical data. The effect of efavirenz on CYP was compared with published DDI data. RESULTS: The predictions indicate that the overall effect of efavirenz on dual CYP3A4/CYP2C8 substrates is induction of metabolism. The magnitude of induction tends to be less pronounced for dual CYP3A4/CYP2C8 substrates with predominant CYP2C8 metabolism. CONCLUSION: PBPK modeling constitutes a useful mechanistic approach for the quantitative prediction of DDI involving simultaneous inducing or inhibitory effects on multiple CYPs as often encountered with antiretroviral drugs.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.