QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of astemizole and ivabradine. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. We do not expect any change in exposure for astemizole, when combined with ivabradine (100%). We did not detect any change in exposure to ivabradine. We currently cannot estimate the influence of astemizole.
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Astemizole has a low oral bioavailability [ F ] of 3%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change strongly with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is 22 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached after approximately 88 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is 97% strong. The metabolism takes place via CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, among others.
Ivabradine has a low oral bioavailability [ F ] of 38%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change strongly with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather short at 1.9 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached quickly. The protein binding [ Pb ] is rather weak at 70% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 100 liters, which is why, with a mean hepatic extraction rate of 0.60, both liver blood flow [Q] and a change in protein binding [Pb] are relevant. The metabolism mainly takes place via CYP3A4.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither astemizole nor ivabradine increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither astemizole nor ivabradine increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: In combination, astemizole and ivabradine can potentially trigger ventricular arrhythmias of the torsades de pointes type.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||ast||iva|
|Atrial fibrillation||8.3 %||n.a.||8.3|
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: Astemizole is a long-acting, highly selective histamine1-receptor antagonist with minimal central and anticholinergic effects. Comparison studies have shown astemizole to be equal or superior to currently available antihistamines, beclomethasone nasal spray, and cromolyn sodium in relieving allergic symptoms of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. Other uses include treatment of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria. Astemizole is not as effective for treatment of acute allergic symptoms because of its delayed onset of action. Astemizole and its active metabolite, desmethylastemizole, have long elimination half-lives permitting once-daily dosing. The incidence of sedation is lower than with conventional antihistamines, but increased appetite and weight gain do occur. Astemizole should be useful for both maintenance and prophylactic therapy in patients with chronic allergic conditions who cannot tolerate the sedative or anticholinergic effects of conventional antihistamines.
Abstract: Astemizole is an H1-histamine receptor antagonist with a long duration of action permitting once daily administration. Its efficacy in seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis has been convincingly demonstrated, and several comparative studies suggest that astemizole is at least as effective as some other H1-histamine receptor antagonists. A few smaller studies have shown beneficial effects on the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria (but not atopic dermatitis). While astemizole appears to share with other H1-histamine receptor antagonists a tendency to increase appetite and cause weight gain after prolonged use, it offers the important advantage of an absence of significant central nervous system depression or anticholinergic effects with usual doses. Thus, astemizole offers a worthwhile improvement in side effect profile over 'traditional' H1-histamine receptor antagonists, especially in patients bothered by the sedative effects of these drugs.
Abstract: An overdose of astemizole predisposes the myocardium to ventricular dysrhythmias, including torsades de pointes. Herein we describe a case of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia and also review previous case reports in the literature. All the patients were young, and dysrhythmias developed only in those with corrected QT intervals greater than 500 ms. Although several mechanisms have been postulated, no clear explanation has been provided for why astemizole promotes myocardial dysrhythmias. Treatment of astemizole-induced torsades de pointes includes discontinuing use of astemizole, intravenous administration of magnesium sulfate and isoproterenol, temporary cardiac pacing, and, when necessary, direct current cardioversion. A cardiac cause of syncope or convulsions must not be overlooked, especially in patients taking H1 antagonists because they often have these symptoms before hospitalization or detection of torsades de pointes (or both).
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: A 26 year-old woman was admitted to the hospital two hours after astemizole overdose. Electrocardiograph showed a prolonged QT interval. Torsade de pointes occurred 13 h after ingestion. Plasma levels of astemizole plus hydroxylated metabolites showed an apparent plasma half-life of 17 h. The possible occurrence of torsade de pointes in astemizole overdose, and the long elimination time of astemizole and hydroxylated metabolites, makes it necessary to maintain ECG monitoring until QT interval has returned to normal.
Abstract: AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic itraconazole treatment on the pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of single dose astemizole in healthy subjects was studied. METHODS: Twelve male volunteers were taking orally 200 mg twice daily itraconazole or placebo for 14 days with a washout period of 4 weeks in between. Approximately 2 h after the morning dose of itraconazole or placebo on day 11, 10 mg astemizole was orally administered. The plasma concentrations of astemizole and desmethylastemizole were measured by radioimmunoassay up to 504 h after administration; electrocardiograms with analysis of the QTc interval were recorded up to 24 h post administration. RESULTS: Itraconazole treatment did not significantly change the peak concentration of astemizole (0.74 vs 0.81 ng ml-1) but it increased the area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (5.46 to 9.95 ng ml-1 h) and from 0 to infinity (17.4 to 48.2 ng ml-1 h), and the elimination half-life (2.1 to 3.6 days). The systemic bioavailability of desmethylastemizole was also increased. The QTc interval did not increase after astemizole administration and there was no difference in the QTc intervals between the itraconazole and placebo session. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic administration of itraconazole influences the metabolism of single dose astemizole in normal volunteers without changes of cardiac repolarization during the first 24 h after astemizole administration. However, the reduction in astemizole clearance under concomitant administration of itraconazole may result in a marked increase in astemizole plasma concentrations and QTc alterations during chronic combined intake of astemizole with itraconazole.
Abstract: Second-generation histamine H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines) have been developed to reduce or eliminate the sedation and anticholinergic adverse effects that occur with older H1 receptor antagonists. This article evaluates second-generation antihistamines, including acrivastine, astemizole, azelastine, cetirizine, ebastine, fexofenadine, ketotifen, loratadine, mizolastine and terfenadine, for significant features that affect choice. In addition to their primary mechanism of antagonising histamine at the H1 receptor, these agents may act on other mediators of the allergic reaction. However, the clinical significance of activity beyond that mediated by histamine H1 receptor antagonism has yet to be demonstrated. Most of the agents reviewed are metabolised by the liver to active metabolites that play a significant role in their effect. Conditions that result in accumulation of astemizole, ebastine and terfenadine may prolong the QT interval and result in torsade de pointes. The remaining agents reviewed do not appear to have this risk. For allergic rhinitis, all agents are effective and the choice should be based on other factors. For urticaria, cetirizine and mizolastine demonstrate superior suppression of wheal and flare at the dosages recommended by the manufacturer. For atopic dermatitis, as adjunctive therapy to reduce pruritus, cetirizine, ketotifen and loratadine demonstrate efficacy. Although current evidence does not suggest a primary role for these agents in the management of asthma, it does support their use for asthmatic patients when there is coexisting allergic rhinitis, dermatitis or urticaria.
Abstract: AIMS: The aims of the present study were to investigate the metabolism of astemizole in human liver microsomes, to assess possible pharmacokinetic drug-interactions with astemizole and to compare its metabolism with terfenadine, a typical H1 receptor antagonist known to be metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4. METHODS: Astemizole or terfenadine were incubated with human liver microsomes or recombinant cytochromes P450 in the absence or presence of chemical inhibitors and antibodies. RESULTS: Troleandomycin, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, markedly reduced the oxidation of terfenadine (26% of controls) in human liver microsomes, but showed only a marginal inhibition on the oxidation of astemizole (81% of controls). Three metabolites of astemizole were detected in a liver microsomal system, i.e. desmethylastemizole (DES-AST), 6-hydroxyastemizole (6OH-AST) and norastemizole (NOR-AST) at the ratio of 7.4 : 2.8 : 1. Experiments with recombinant P450s and antibodies indicate a negligible role for CYP3A4 on the main metabolic route of astemizole, i.e. formation of DES-AST, although CYP3A4 may mediate the relatively minor metabolic routes to 6OH-AST and NOR-AST. Recombinant CYP2D6 catalysed the formation of 6OH-AST and DES-AST. Studies with human liver microsomes, however, suggest a major role for a mono P450 in DES-AST formation. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to terfenadine, a minor role for CYP3A4 and involvement of multiple P450 isozymes are suggested in the metabolism of astemizole. These differences in P450 isozymes involved in the metabolism of astemizole and terfenadine may associate with distinct pharmacokinetic influences observed with coadministration of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4.
Abstract: The effects of the CYP3A4 inducer, Hypericum perforatum, on the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of ivabradine were assessed. An open-label, 2-period, nonrandomized, phase-I, pharmacokinetic interaction design was used. Twelve healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of ivabradine (10 mg) followed by H perforatum (300 mg orally, 3 times a day) for 14 days, combining the last dose with another single dose of ivabradine. Pharmacokinetic data for ivabradine (S16257) and its main active metabolite (S18982) prior to and after the administration of H perforatum were analyzed. After repeated administration of H perforatum, highest observed concentration in plasma (C(max)) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) were significantly decreased for ivabradine (32.7 +/- 16.6 vs 15.4 +/- 7.0 ng/mL, P < .01; 114 +/- 39.1 vs 43.7 +/- 12.0 ng x h/mL, P < .01, respectively), and for S18982 (C(max), 6.8 +/- 3.7 vs 5.1 +/- 2.0 ng/mL, P < .05; AUC, 56.2 +/- 23.4 vs 38.3 +/- 25.1 ng x h/mL, P < .01). Tendencies toward shorter time to C(max) and lower apparent terminal half-life values were found. Pharmacokinetic results are consistent with an induction of ivabradine metabolism by H perforatum.
Abstract: WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Ivabradine is a novel heart rate-lowering agent that selectively and specifically inhibits the depolarizing cardiac pacemaker If current in the sinus node. Our objective was to evaluate a possible pharmacokinetic interaction between ivabradine and carbamazepine in healthy volunteers. METHODS: The study consisted of two periods: Period 1 (Reference), when each volunteer received a single dose of 10 mg ivabradine and Period 2 (Test), when each volunteer received a single dose of 10 mg ivabradine and 400 mg carbamazepine. Between the two periods, the subjects were treated for 15 days with a single daily dose of 400 mg carbamazepine. Plasma concentrations of ivabradine were determined during a 12-h period following drug administration, using a high-throughput liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analytical method. Pharmacokinetic parameters of ivabradine administered in each treatment period were calculated using non-compartmental and compartmental analysis to determine if there were statistically significant differences. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In the two periods of treatments, the mean peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) were 16·25 ng/mL (ivabradine alone) and 3·69 ng/mL (ivabradine after pretreatment with carbamazepine). The time taken to reach C(max), t(max), were 0·97 and 1·14 h, respectively, and the total areas under the curve (AUC(0-∞)) were 52·49 and 10·33 ng h/mL, respectively. These differences were statistically significant for C(max) and AUC(0-∞) when ivabradine was administered with carbamazepine, whereas they were not for t(max), half-life and mean residence time. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: T Carbamazepine interacts with ivabradine in healthy volunteers, and lowers its bioavailability by about 80%. This magnitude of effect is likely to be clinically significant.
Abstract: A 68-year-old man had a cardiac syncope. He was known to have a long QT-interval and was treated with ivabradine for paroxysmal sinusal tachycardia. In the last 5 days, azithromycin had been prescribed for sinusitis. An electrocardiogram showed torsades de pointes (TdP). Azithromycin is known to prolong the QT-interval. Ivabradine does not affect the QT-interval but has a conditional risk of TdP when taken with other drugs that block its metabolic breakdown. This case presents the specific problem of a patient with long QT who received two medications, which may interact and prolong the QT.
Abstract: The objectives of this work were first to describe the pharmacokinetic (PK) of ivabradine and its active metabolite in a paediatric patient population after repeated oral administration of ivabradine using a population PK approach, and secondly to assess whether the blood/plasma ratio and the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship are preserved in the paediatric population in comparison to adult. PK data for 70 patients were obtained after blood sampling using dried blood spot and one plasma sample in order to assess the relationship between blood and plasma concentration. In order to describe ivabradine and its metabolite blood concentrations in children, a joint population PK model was developed taking into account weight & age effects on PK parameters. Plasma PK exposure parameters were calculated in children using plasma PK profiles. In order to assess the PK/PD relationship in children, an adult PK/PD model was used. The relationship between blood and plasma concentrations was described using linear mixed effect models. Two and one-compartment models best described parent and metabolite dispositions. Weight effects were fixed to the allometric values of ¾ on clearance (CL) and 1 on volume. A maturation function was added on metabolite formation clearance (CL PM ) reflecting enzyme maturation. Plasma exposure comparison indicated that higher dose/kg were necessary to achieve a similar exposure between younger and older children. No differences between age classes were observed in terms of range of exposure at the maintenance dose. The PK/PD relationship in adult patients is conserved in children.
Abstract: We aimed to determine the pharmacokinetics and safety of three single oral doses (5, 10 and 15 mg) of ivabradine hemisulfate sustained-release tablets in healthy Chinese volunteers. A total of 12 volunteers (six males and six females) were randomized to receive a single oral dose of ivabradine hemisulfate sustained-release tablets 5, 10 or 15 mg, with a 1-week washout between periods. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals from 0 to 48 h after drug administration, and the concentrations of ivabradine and N-desmethyl ivabradine were determined by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by non-compartmental analysis. After administering single doses of 5, 10 and 15 mg, the mean maximum concentration (C) levels of ivabradine were 4.36, 7.29 and 12.62 ng/mL, and the mean area under the curve from time 0 to 48 h (AUC) values were 55.66, 101.16 and 182.09 h·ng/mL, respectively. The mean Clevels of N-desmethyl ivabradine were 1.05, 2.03 and 3.16 ng/mL, and the mean AUCvalues were 20.61, 39.44 and 65.72 h·ng/mL, respectively. The median time of maximum concentration (T) levels of ivabradine and N-desmethyl ivabradine were 5 h for all three doses tested. The pharmacokinetic properties of ivabradine hemisulfate sustained-release tablets were linear at doses from 5 to 15 mg. Ivabradine hemisulfate sustained-release tablet appears to be well tolerated in these healthy volunteers.