QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
|Urinary tract infection|
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Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of warfarin, cimetidine and mirabegron. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
|Warfarin||1.3 [1.3,3.89] 1||1.24||1.04|
The changes in exposure mentioned relate to changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC]. Warfarin exposure increases to 130%, when combined with cimetidine (124%) and mirabegron (104%). The AUC is between 130% and 389% depending on the CYP2C9
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Warfarin has a high oral bioavailability [ F ] of 90%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change little during an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 41.7 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 166.8 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is very strong at 99%. The metabolism takes place via CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4, among others.
Cimetidine has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 65%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather short at 1.6333333 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached quickly. The protein binding [ Pb ] is very weak at 19% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 91 liters. The metabolism does not take place via the common cytochromes and the active transport takes place partly via BCRP and PGP.
Mirabegron has a low oral bioavailability [ F ] of 37%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change strongly with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 51 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 204 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is moderately strong at 71% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 1670 liters, which is why, with a mean hepatic extraction rate of 0.36, both liver blood flow [Q] and a change in protein binding [Pb] are relevant. The metabolism takes place via CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, among others and the active transport takes place partly via OATP1A2 and PGP.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither warfarin, cimetidine nor mirabegron increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||Ø||+||Ø|
Recommendation: As a precaution, attention should be paid to anticholinergic symptoms, especially after increasing the dose and at doses in the upper therapeutic range.
Rating: Cimetidine only has a mild effect on the anticholinergic system. The risk of anticholinergic syndrome with this medication is rather low if the dosage is in the usual range. According to our findings, neither warfarin nor mirabegron increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: In combination, cimetidine and mirabegron can potentially trigger ventricular arrhythmias of the torsades de pointes type. We do not know of any QT-prolonging potential for warfarin.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||war||cim||mir|
|Urinary tract infection||5.7 %||n.a.||n.a.||5.7|
|Cerebrovascular accident||0.4 %||n.a.||n.a.||0.4|
Urinary retention: mirabegron
Tissue necrosis: warfarin
Hypersensitivity reaction: warfarin
Intracranial hemorrhage: warfarin
Based on your
Abstract: The simplest complete system accounting for the time-course of changes in the prothrombin time induced by warfarin requires the combination of 4 independent models: A pharmacokinetic model for the absorption, distribution, and elimination of warfarin. Warfarin is essentially completely absorbed, reaching a maximum plasma concentration between 2 and 6 hours. It distributes into a small volume of distribution (10 L/70kg) and is eliminated by hepatic metabolism with a very small clearance (0.2 L/h/70kg). The elimination half-life is about 35 hours. A pharmacodynamic model for the effect of warfarin on the synthesis of clotting factors (prothrombin complex). Prothrombin complex synthesis is inhibited 50% at a warfarin concentration of about 1.5 mg/L. Warfarin concentrations associated with therapeutic anticoagulation are of similar magnitude. A physiological model for the synthesis and degradation of the prothrombin complex. The synthesis rate is about 5%/h/70kg and the elimination half-life estimated from changes in prothrombin time is approximately 17 hours. On average it will take 3 days for the anticoagulant effect of warfarin to reach a stable value when warfarin concentrations are constant. A model for the relationship between the activity of prothrombin complex and the prothrombin time. In general there is a hyperbolic relationship between these quantities. Its exact shape depends upon the method used for measuring the prothrombin time. Attempts to integrate these models into a single system have used essentially the same pharmacokinetic, physiological, and prothrombin activity models. Four distinct pharmacodynamic models have been proposed: linear, log-linear, power and Emax. One might be preferred on theoretical grounds (Emax) but its performance is not clearly different from the others. Empirical methods for warfarin dose prediction as well as those based on the combined pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-physiological-prothrombin system have been proposed. Only one (which was also the first) [Sheiner 1969] has been adequately described and compared with the performance of an unaided physician. The programme compared favourably with decisions made by those physicians normally responsible for adjusting warfarin dose, but was not tested prospectively. A sizeable body of theoretical and experimental observations has contributed to our understanding of the warfarin dose-effect relationship. It remains to be demonstrated that any alternative method is superior to the traditional empirical approach to warfarin dose adjustment.
Abstract: Recently, the use of astemizole and terfenadine, both non-sedating H1-antihistamines, caused considerable concern. Several case reports suggested an association of both drugs with an increased risk of torsades de pointes, a special form of ventricular tachycardia. The increased risk of both H1-antihistamines was associated with exposure to supratherapeutic doses; for terfenadine the risk was also associated with concomitant exposure to the cytochrome P-450 inhibitors ketoconazole, erythromycin and cimetidine. To predict the size of the population that runs the risk of developing this potentially fatal adverse reaction in the Netherlands, the prevalence of prescribing supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was studied. Data were obtained from the PHARMO data base in 1990, a pharmacy-based record linkage system encompassing a catchment population of 300,000 individuals. The results of the study showed that the prescribing of supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was low. Furthermore, the results of a sensitivity analysis showed that the risk of fatal torsades de pointes has to be as high as 1 in 10,000 to cause one death in the Netherlands in one year.
Abstract: Astemizole (Hismanal), an antihistamine agent, has been reported to be associated with ventricular arrhythmias. In this paper we present a case of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) in a 77-year-old woman who had been taking astemizole (10 mg/day) for 6 months because of allergic skin disease. At the time of admission, the serum concentration of astemizole and its metabolites was markedly elevated at 15.85 ng/ml, approximately 3 times the normal level. The patient was also taking cimetidine, a known inhibitor of cytochrome P-450 enzymatic activity, and during her admission was diagnosed as having vasospastic angina. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of astemizole-induced QT prolongation and TdP in Japan.
Abstract: UNLABELLED: M: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of St John's wort and ginseng on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin. METHODS: This was an open-label, three-way crossover randomized study in 12 healthy male subjects, who received a single 25-mg dose of warfarin alone or after 14 days' pretreatment with St John's wort, or 7 days' pretreatment with ginseng. Dosing with St John's wort or ginseng was continued for 7 days after administration of the warfarin dose. Platelet aggregation, international normalized ratio (INR) of prothrombin time, warfarin enantiomer protein binding, warfarin enantiomer concentrations in plasma and S-7-hydroxywarfarin concentration in urine were measured. Statistical comparisons were made using anova and 90% confidence intervals are reported. RESULTS: INR and platelet aggregation were not affected by treatment with St John's wort or ginseng. The apparent clearances of S-warfarin after warfarin alone or with St John's wort or ginseng were, respectively, 198 +/- 38 ml h(-1), 270 +/- 44 ml h(-1) and 220 +/- 29 ml h(-1). The respective apparent clearances of R-warfarin were 110 +/- 25 ml h(-1), 142 +/- 29 ml h(-1) and 119 +/- 20 ml h(-1) [corrected]. The mean ratio and 90% confidence interval (CI) of apparent clearance for S-warfarin was 1.29 (1.16, 1.46) and for R-warfarin it was 1.23 (1.11, 1.37) when St John's wort was coadministered. The mean ratio and 90% CI of AUC(0-168) of INR was 0.79 (0.70, 0.95) when St John's wort was coadministered. St John's wort and ginseng did not affect the apparent volumes of distribution or protein binding of warfarin enantiomers. CONCLUSIONS: St John's wort significantly induced the apparent clearance of both S-warfarin and R-warfarin, which in turn resulted in a significant reduction in the pharmacological effect of rac-warfarin. Coadministration of warfarin with ginseng did not affect the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of either S-warfarin or R-warfarin.
Abstract: Renal drug interactions can result from competitive inhibition between drugs that undergo extensive renal tubular secretion by transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of itraconazole, a known P-gp inhibitor, on the renal tubular secretion of cimetidine in healthy volunteers who received intravenous cimetidine alone and following 3 days of oral itraconazole (400 mg/day) administration. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured continuously during each study visit using iothalamate clearance. Iothalamate, cimetidine, and itraconazole concentrations in plasma and urine were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet (HPLC/UV) methods. Renal tubular secretion (CL(sec)) of cimetidine was calculated as the difference between renal clearance (CL(r)) and GFR (CL(ioth)) on days 1 and 5. Cimetidine pharmacokinetic estimates were obtained for total clearance (CL(T)), volume of distribution (Vd), elimination rate constant (K(el)), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-240 min)), and average plasma concentration (Cp(ave)) before and after itraconazole administration. Plasma itraconazole concentrations following oral dosing ranged from 0.41 to 0.92 microg/mL. The cimetidine AUC(0-240 min) increased by 25% (p < 0.01) following itraconazole administration. The GFR and Vd remained unchanged, but significant reductions in CL(T) (655 vs. 486 mL/min, p < 0.001) and CL(sec) (410 vs. 311 mL/min, p = 0.001) were observed. The increased systemic exposure of cimetidine during coadministration with itraconazole was likely due to inhibition of P-gp-mediated renal tubular secretion. Further evaluation of renal P-gp-modulating drugs such as itraconazole that may alter the renal excretion of coadministered drugs is warranted.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to elucidate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin enantiomers in relation to cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) genotypes. Fourteen subjects, of whom seven were homozygous extensive metabolizers (hmEMs) and seven were poor metabolizers (PMs) for CYP2C19, were enrolled. After a single oral 10 mg dose of racemic warfarin, the plasma concentrations of the warfarin enantiomers and prothrombin time expressed as international normalized ratio (PT-INR) were measured over the course of 120 h. The mean plasma concentrations and elimination half-life of (R)-warfarin of all the subjects were about 2-fold greater than those of (S)-warfarin. Additionally, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)) and the elimination half-life of (R)-warfarin in PMs were significantly greater than those in hmEMs (P = 0.0005 and P = 0.0101 respectively). The S/R ratios of AUC of warfarin enantiomers were 0.51 in hmEMs and 0.37 in PMs (P = 0.0052). Whereas no difference was found in all pharmacokinetic parameters of (S)-warfarin in hmEMs compared with PMs. No significant difference in PT-INR, used as a measure of anticoagulant effect, was found between the hmEMs and PMs. These results show that CYP2C19 activity is important in the pharmacokinetics of (R)-warfarin. However, when warfarin is administered as a racemate, this difference is not translated into any significant effect in the pharmacodynamics of warfarin.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mirabegron is a potent and selective β3-adrenoceptor agonist in development for treatment of overactive bladder. METHODS: Mirabegron pharmacokinetics after single intravenous (i.v.) and oral doses, absolute bioavailability (F), dose proportionality, sex differences and tolerability were assessed in 2 single-dose, open-label, randomized, parallel-group, cross-over studies in healthy men (exploratory Study 1, n = 12) and men and women (Study 2, n = 91). RESULTS: After oral dosing (25 - 150 mg), peak plasma concentrations were attained after ~ 4 h. Mean half-life was around 40 h for both routes of administration. Volume of distribution at steady state was 1,670 l and total clearance was around 57 l/h for i.v. dosing. Mirabegron pharmacokinetics were linear after i.v. dosing (7.5 - 50 mg), but exposure increased more than proportionally after oral dosing due to increased F (29% for 25 mg to 45% at 150 mg). About 20% of the (absorbed) dose was excreted unchanged into urine. Area under the curve (AUC) was 27% and 64% higher in females than males after i.v. and oral dosing respectively; differences were mostly attributed to body weight, and for oral dosing, also to F. CONCLUSIONS: Mirabegron pharmacokinetics were linear after i.v. dosing (7.5 - 50 mg), but increased more than proportionally after oral dosing (25 - 150 mg) as a result of increased F. Sex differences in exposure could be explained by body weight and for oral dosing, also by F. Mirabegron was in general well tolerated up to the highest doses studied, 50 mg i.v. and 150 mg oral.
Abstract: Potential effects of the selective β(3)-adrenoceptor agonist mirabegron on cardiac repolarization were studied in healthy subjects. The four-arm, parallel, two-way crossover study was double-blind and placebo- and active (moxifloxacin)-controlled. After 2 baseline ECG days, subjects were randomized to one of eight treatment sequences (22 females and 22 males per sequence) of placebo crossed over with once-daily (10 days) 50, 100, or 200 mg mirabegron or a single 400-mg moxifloxacin dose on day 10. In each period, continuous ECGs were recorded at two baselines and on the last drug administration day. The lower one-sided 95% confidence interval for moxifloxacin effect on QTcI was >5 ms, demonstrating assay sensitivity. According to ICH E14 criteria, mirabegron did not cause QTcI prolongation at the 50-mg therapeutic and 100-mg supratherapeutic doses in either sex. Mirabegron prolonged QTcI interval at the 200-mg supratherapeutic dose (upper one-sided 95% CI >10 ms) in females, but not in males.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs are often involved in explicit criteria for inappropriate prescribing in older adults. Several scales were developed for screening of anticholinergic drugs and estimation of the anticholinergic burden. However, variation exists in scale development, in the selection of anticholinergic drugs, and the evaluation of their anticholinergic load. This study aims to systematically review existing anticholinergic risk scales, and to develop a uniform list of anticholinergic drugs differentiating for anticholinergic potency. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE. Studies were included if provided (1) a finite list of anticholinergic drugs; (2) a grading score of anticholinergic potency and, (3) a validation in a clinical or experimental setting. We listed anticholinergic drugs for which there was agreement in the different scales. In case of discrepancies between scores we used a reputed reference source (Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference®) to take a final decision about the anticholinergic activity of the drug. RESULTS: We included seven risk scales, and evaluated 225 different drugs. Hundred drugs were listed as having clinically relevant anticholinergic properties (47 high potency and 53 low potency), to be included in screening software for anticholinergic burden. CONCLUSION: Considerable variation exists among anticholinergic risk scales, in terms of selection of specific drugs, as well as of grading of anticholinergic potency. Our selection of 100 drugs with clinically relevant anticholinergic properties needs to be supplemented with validated information on dosing and route of administration for a full estimation of the anticholinergic burden in poly-medicated older adults.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Mirabegron is a β3-adrenoceptor agonist for the treatment of overactive bladder. There has been little information published or presented about the involvement of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes 3A and 2D6 in the metabolism of mirabegron in humans; in vitro data indicate that oxidative metabolism is primarily mediated by CYP3A with a minor role for CYP2D6. OBJECTIVE: To determine to what extent CYP3A and CYP2D6 isoenzymes are involved in mirabegron metabolism. METHODS: Two open-label, randomized, one-sequence crossover drug-drug interaction studies in healthy subjects were conducted to assess the effect of ketoconazole and rifampicin on the pharmacokinetics of mirabegron and two parallel-group studies in healthy subjects with either known confirmed or predicted CYP2D6 phenotype. RESULTS: Co-administration of multiple dosages of 400 mg/day ketoconazole with a single 100 mg mirabegron oral controlled absorption system (OCAS) dose increased mirabegron maximum concentration (C(max)) and area under the curve extrapolated to infinity (AUC∞) to 145 % (90 % confidence interval [CI] 123-172 %] and 181 % (90 % CI 163-201 %), respectively. Co-administration of multiple dosages of 600 mg/day rifampicin with a single 100 mg mirabegron OCAS dose decreased mirabegron C max and AUC∞ to 65 % (90 % CI 50-86 %) and 56 % (90 % CI 49-65 %), respectively, without an effect on terminal elimination half-life (t(½)). The urinary excretion of mirabegron was increased by ketoconazole and decreased by rifampicin, reflecting the AUC changes, whereas renal clearance was not affected. Ketoconazole decreased mirabegron t ½ from 50.9 to 37.6 h suggesting that volume of distribution as well as first-pass effect decreased. Rifampicin did not affect mirabegron t ½, suggesting that it affects first pass through the intestinal wall or liver. Rifampicin greatly increased the ratio to parent drug of the presumed CYP-mediated mirabegron metabolites M8 and M15 by 777 and 646 %. Steady-state mirabegron pharmacokinetic parameters (50 and 100 mg mirabegron OCAS) were similar in 13 CYP2D6 poor, 40 intermediate, and 99 extensive metabolizers, whereas C max and AUC under the dosing interval τ of 24 h (AUCτ) were 30-47 % lower in 10 ultrarapid metabolizers. After administration of 160 mg mirabegron immediate release, C(max) was 14 % and AUC∞ 19 % higher in eight poor metabolizers than in eight extensive metabolizers (phenotyped) with similar t ½. All treatments were well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: Mirabegron is metabolized by CYP3A and to a minor extent by CYP2D6 in humans. Mirabegron is not considered a sensitive substrate of CYP3A in vivo, as ketoconazole increased mirabegron exposure by less than 2-fold. The effect of CYP2D6 phenotype on mirabegron exposure is small and likely of limited clinical importance.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The Holter bin method evaluates QT interval changes in the presence of heart rate changes without correcting the QT interval. However, the method does not allow time-matched comparisons, thus contradicting available guidance and good practice. We report a modification of the methods that allows time-matched comparisons without any heart rate correction. METHODS AND RESULTS: The modified Holter bin method (a) finds matching baseline heart rates for each QT reading on treatment and (b) calculates ΔQT values from the QT intervals on baseline and on treatment that match in heart rates. The difference between ΔQT values on active treatment and placebo provides the ΔΔQT value. The method was compared with the individual correction method in the data of the mirabegron thorough QT study in which supratherapeutic doses of this β3-adrenoceptor agonist led to substantial heart rate changes. The modified Holter bin method reproduced closely the results obtained with the individual heart rate correction. At all time points of the mirabegron study, the differences between the mean ΔΔQT values by the Holter bin method and the individual correction method were below 1 millisecond. Compared to the individual correction, the Holter bin method led to slight increases in the standard deviations of ΔΔQT values, but these were on average below 0.25 millisecond. CONCLUSIONS: The Holter bin methodology can be modified to make it compatible with the available guidance and with good practice of clinical investigations. The results obtained with the modified Holter bin method are practically the same as with individualized heart rate corrected QT intervals. The close correspondence between the 2 methods demonstrates that the present possibilities of comparing QT interval duration in the presence of experiment-induced heart rate differences are not influenced by methodological artifacts.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: Interindividual variability in warfarin dose requirement demands personalized medicine approaches to balance its therapeutic benefits (anticoagulation) and bleeding risk. Cytochrome P450 2C9 ( CYP2C9) genotype-guided warfarin dosing is recommended in the clinic, given the more potent S-warfarin is primarily metabolized by CYP2C9. However, only about 20-30% of interpatient variability in S-warfarin clearance is associated with CYP2C9 genotype. We evaluated the role of hepatic uptake in the clearance of R- and S-warfarin. Using stably transfected HEK293 cells, both enantiomers were found to be substrates of organic anion transporter (OAT)2 with a Michaelis-Menten constant ( K) of ∼7-12 μM but did not show substrate affinity for other major hepatic uptake transporters. Uptake of both enantiomers by primary human hepatocytes was saturable ( K≈ 7-10 μM) and inhibitable by OAT2 inhibitors (e.g., ketoprofen) but not by OATP1B1/1B3 inhibitors (e.g., cyclosporine). To further evaluate the potential role of hepatic uptake in R- and S-warfarin pharmacokinetics, mechanistic modeling and simulations were conducted. A "bottom-up" PBPK model, developed assuming that OAT2-CYPs interplay, well recovered clinical pharmacokinetics, drug-drug interactions, and CYP2C9 pharmacogenomics of R- and S-warfarin. Clinical data were not available to directly verify the impact of OAT2 modulation on warfarin pharmacokinetics; however, the bottom-up PBPK model simulations suggested a proportional change in clearance of both warfarin enantiomers with inhibition of OAT2 activity. These results suggest that variable hepatic OAT2 function, in conjunction with CYP2C, may contribute to the high population variability in warfarin pharmacokinetics and possibly anticoagulation end points and thus warrant further clinical investigation.
Abstract: This was the first study to construct a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for mirabegron which incorporates the overall elimination pathways of metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7, and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and renal excretion. The objective was to assess the risk of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) by estimating the contribution of each elimination pathway and simulating the magnitude of the DDIs with UGT2B7 inhibitors. A PBPK model for mirabegron was constructed to reproduce the plasma concentration-time curves from a phase 1 study and the magnitude of the DDI with ketoconazole taking into account the overall elimination pathways. The PBPK model was subsequently verified using data from other DDI studies. The constructed PBPK model estimated the contribution for each elimination pathway: 44% and 29% for CYP3A4 and UGT2B7 in the liver, 1.6% for UGT2B7 in the kidney, 3.2% for BChE in plasma, and 22% for renal excretion. Co-administration of probenecid (an UGT2B7 inhibitor) or fluconazole (an UGT2B7 and CYP3A4 inhibitor) was predicted to increase area under the curve for mirabegron to 115% or 174%, respectively. In conclusion, PBPK modeling and simulation revealed a low DDI risk for mirabegron following co-administration with BChE or UGT2B7 inhibitors.