QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
|Elevated alkaline phosphatase|
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Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of propranolol, cimetidine and rifampicin. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
|Propranolol||0.56 [0.36,0.7] 1||1.62||0.46|
The changes in exposure mentioned relate to changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC]. Propranolol exposure is reduced to 56%, when combined with cimetidine (162%) and rifampicin (46%). The AUC is between 36% and 70% depending on the CYP2D6
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Propranolol has a low oral bioavailability [ F ] of 27%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change strongly with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather short at 3.7 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached quickly. The protein binding [ Pb ] is moderately strong at 90.5% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 296 liters, However, since the substance has a high hepatic extraction rate of 0.72, only changes in the liver blood flow [Q] are relevant. The metabolism takes place via CYP1A2, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6, among others.
Cimetidine has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 65%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather short at 1.6333333 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached quickly. The protein binding [ Pb ] is very weak at 19% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 91 liters. The metabolism does not take place via the common cytochromes and the active transport takes place partly via BCRP and PGP.
Rifampicin has a high oral bioavailability [ F ] of 90%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change little during an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather short at 3.5 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached quickly. The protein binding [ Pb ] is moderately strong at 75% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 101 liters. The metabolism does not take place via the common cytochromes and the active transport takes place partly via OATP1B1, OATP1B3 and PGP.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither propranolol, cimetidine nor rifampicin increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||Ø||+||Ø|
Recommendation: As a precaution, attention should be paid to anticholinergic symptoms, especially after increasing the dose and at doses in the upper therapeutic range.
Rating: Cimetidine only has a mild effect on the anticholinergic system. The risk of anticholinergic syndrome with this medication is rather low if the dosage is in the usual range. According to our findings, neither propranolol nor rifampicin increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Recommendation: Please make sure that influenceable risk factors are minimized. Electrolyte disturbances such as low levels of calcium, potassium and magnesium should be compensated for. The lowest effective dose of cimetidine should be used.
Rating: Cimetidine can potentially prolong the QT time and if there are risk factors, arrhythmias of the type torsades de pointes can be favored. We do not know of any QT-prolonging potential for propranolol and rifampicin.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||pro||cim||rif|
|Elevated alkaline phosphatase||10.0 %||n.a.||n.a.||10.0|
|Elevated GGT||10.0 %||n.a.||n.a.||10.0|
|Elevated transaminases||10.0 %||n.a.||n.a.||10.0|
Loss of appetite: rifampicin
Pancreatitis: cimetidine, rifampicin
Allergic skin reactions like pruritus and rash: propranolol
Anaphylactic reaction: rifampicin
Feeling nervous: propranolol
Raynaud disease: propranolol
Angina pectoris: propranolol
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: propranolol, rifampicin
Diabetes mellitus: propranolol
Optic neuritis: rifampicin
Liver failure: rifampicin
Based on your
Abstract: Propranolol is completely absorbed after oral administration and widely distributed throughout tissues. Elimination occurs almost wholly by metabolic transformation in the liver and excretion of the resultant products in the urine. An active metabolite, 4-hydroxypropranolol and possibly other active compounds have been identified; the former only after oral administration. After intravenous administration, hepatic extraction is so efficient that drug clearance is dependent on liver blood flow. After oral administration, propranolol kinetics depend on both dose and duration of therapy, but hepatic extraction remains relatively high and leads in presystemic ('first-pass') elimination and low systemic availability. During continued administration, plasma concentrations vary quite widely due to genetic differences superimposed on which are certain constitutional factors, such as age, and environmental factors such as smoking, other drugs, and perhaps diet. Hepatic, renal, thyroid and some gastrointestinal diseases as well as hypertension, malnutrition and hypothermia may be associated with alterations in propranolol disposition, all of which are consistent with the pathophysiology of these diseases.
Abstract: A recent study, identifying several sulfate conjugates, appears to have led to a full qualitative account of propranolol metabolism in man. The objective of the present investigation was to determine the quantitative fate of propranolol, including the relationship between the primary metabolic pathways, i.e. glucuronidation, side-chain oxidation and ring oxidation. Single 80-mg oral doses of propranolol together with [3H]propranolol were administered to seven normal subjects. Urinary metabolites were determined by HPLC with radiometric detection after hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and fractionation by solvent extraction. About 90% of the dose was recovered in urine. Twelve metabolites accounted for 91% of the recovered dose. When examining the metabolites based on the primary metabolic pathways, 17% of the dose (range, 10-25%) was going through glucuronidation, 41% (range, 32-50%) through side-chain oxidation, and 42% (range, 27-59%) through ring oxidation. These data show that the net elimination of propranolol is largely due to oxidative metabolism. The relative contribution of the primary pathways is well reflected by the four major propranolol metabolites, i.e. propranolol glucuronide, naphthoxylactic acid, and the glucuronic acid and sulfate conjugates of 4'-hydroxypropranolol. These observations should greatly facilitate future studies of the biochemical mechanisms of propranolol disposition.
Abstract: We investigated the pharmacokinetics of rifampicin and its major metabolites, 25-desacetylrifampicin and 3-formylrifampicin, in two groups of six patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis, who received either multiple oral or intravenous rifampicin therapy in combination with intravenous isoniazid and ethambutol. Serum concentrations of rifampicin were each determined after a single oral and intravenous test dose of 600 mg rifampicin at the beginning and after 1 and 3 weeks of tuberculostatic treatment. Analysis of rifampicin and its metabolites was performed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. It was found that, due to autoinduction of its metabolizing hepatic enzymes, the systemic clearance of rifampicin increased from 5.69 to 9.03 l/h after 3 weeks of multiple dosing. The volume of distribution of the drug was constant over the period of this study. The bioavailability of the active, orally administered rifampicin decreased from 93% after the first single oral dose to 68% after 3 weeks of oral and intravenous rifampicin therapy. Relating to the increase in systemic (hepatic) clearance, a bioavailability no lower than 90% can be predicted. The reduction to 68% indicates that, in addition to an increase of hepatic metabolism, an induction of a prehepatic "first-pass" effect resulted from multiple rifampicin doses. Our study of rifampicin metabolites confirm that prehepatic metabolism was induced, since a higher metabolic ratio resulted after the oral doses than after the intravenous rifampicin test doses. A preabsorptive process can therefore be excluded as a cause of reduced bioavailability.
Abstract: 1 This study aimed (1) to measure the whole blood to plasma (WB:P) and red blood cell to plasma (RBC:P) concentration ratios of propranolol in healthy volunteers and two types of patients, and (2) to compare the concentration ratios of the lipophilic drug propranolol with moderately lipophilic pindolol and hydrophilic atenolol. 2 There was no significant difference between the WB:P and RBC:P ratios of propranolol concentration in healthy volunteers and neurological patients compared with hypertensive patients. The mean +/- s.d. WB:P ratios of propranolol concentration in the three groups were 0.74 +/- 0.03, 0.71 +/- 0.05, and 0.76 +/- 0.08 respectively. The mean RBC:P ratios were 0.39 +/- 0.08, 0.36 +/- 0.11, and 0.47 +/- 0.15 respectively. WB:P and RBC:P concentration ratios of propranolol were linearly correlated with the free fraction of drug in plasma. Propranolol was 90% bound in plasma. 3 The mean WB:P and RBC:P ratios of pindolol in seven volunteers were 0.69 +/- 0.08 and 0.37 +/- 0.14 respectively. Pindolol was 71.4 +/- 8.6% bound to plasma proteins. The concentration of pindolol in the RBC was linearly correlated with that unbound in plasma. 4 In four healthy volunteers, the mean WB:P concentration ratio of atenolol was 1.07 +/- 0.25 and the mean RBC:P ratio was 1.15 +/- 0.55. 5 The similarity of the RBC:free plasma drug concentration ratios for all three drugs suggests that the use of organic solvent partition coefficients for the prediction of in vivo distribution may be unreliable.
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of propranolol after the administration of 40, 80, and 120 mg p.o. and 10 mg i.v. was studied in nine healthy male volunteers. Propranolol was analyzed after extraction and derivatization by gas-liquid chromatography. A multiexponential curve-stripping program was used for the pharmacokinetic analysis. The volume of distribution was about 6 liters . kg-1, bioavailability around 25%, with a mean terminal half-life of 6 hr. There was no evidence of either dose dependent disposition kinetics or an oral threshold dose. A slight increase in urine volume was observed after propranolol administration.
Abstract: Oxidative metabolic pathways of propranolol consist of naphthalene ring-hydroxylations (at the 4-, 5-, and 7-positions) and side-chain N-desisopropylation in mammals. We characterized cytochrome P450 isozymes responsible for propranolol metabolism, especially N-desisopropylation and 5-hydroxylation, in human liver microsomes. 4-Hydroxy, 5-hydroxy-, and N-desisopropylpropranolol were detected as primary metabolites, whereas 7-hydroxypropranolol was in trace amounts. Good correlations were obtained for activities of propranolol 4- and 5-hydroxylases with immunochemically determined CYP2D6 content, whereas correlations of these activities with CYP1A2, CYP2C, or CYP3A4 content were relatively low. The activities also correlated highly with debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase, compared with other metabolic activities such as phenacetin O-deethylase, hexobarbital 3'-hydroxylase, and testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylase, which are typical reactions for CYP1A2, CYP2C, and CYP3A4, respectively. Propranolol N-desisopropylase activity in the samples highly correlated with CYP1A2 content and phenacetin O-deethylase activity, but not with the other P450 isozyme contents or metabolic activities. Quinidine, a specific inhibitor of CYP2D6, inhibited propranolol 4- and 5-hydroxylase activities selectively and in a concentration-dependent manner. alpha-Naphthoflavone, a potent inhibitor of CYP1A2, inhibited all of the propranolol oxidation activities, and the IC50 value for N-desisopropylase activity was much smaller than the values for ring-hydroxylase activities. Antibody directed to CYP2D inhibited propranolol 4- and 5-hydroxylase activities by 70% at an antibody/microsomal protein ratio of 1.0. Anti-CYP2C9 antibody did not inhibit any activity determined. These results indicate that propranolol 5-hydroxylation, as well as 4-hydroxylation, is mainly catalyzed by CYP2D6 in human liver microsomes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Abstract: Recently, the use of astemizole and terfenadine, both non-sedating H1-antihistamines, caused considerable concern. Several case reports suggested an association of both drugs with an increased risk of torsades de pointes, a special form of ventricular tachycardia. The increased risk of both H1-antihistamines was associated with exposure to supratherapeutic doses; for terfenadine the risk was also associated with concomitant exposure to the cytochrome P-450 inhibitors ketoconazole, erythromycin and cimetidine. To predict the size of the population that runs the risk of developing this potentially fatal adverse reaction in the Netherlands, the prevalence of prescribing supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was studied. Data were obtained from the PHARMO data base in 1990, a pharmacy-based record linkage system encompassing a catchment population of 300,000 individuals. The results of the study showed that the prescribing of supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was low. Furthermore, the results of a sensitivity analysis showed that the risk of fatal torsades de pointes has to be as high as 1 in 10,000 to cause one death in the Netherlands in one year.
Abstract: We conducted an open-label study to determine the impact of cytochrome P-4502D6 (CYP2D6) on propranolol pharmacokinetics and response in 12 healthy men with CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer (EM) phenotype and 3 healthy men with CYP2D6 poor metabolizer (PM) phenotype. Subjects received R,S-propranolol hydrochloride 80 mg every 8 hours for 16 doses. After the sixteenth dose, blood and urine samples were collected for 24 hours, and serum propranolol and urine metabolite concentrations were determined by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography. Heart rate response to treadmill exercise was measured serially over 24 hours. Apparent oral clearance of propranolol and partial metabolic clearance values of propranolol to 4-hydroxypropranolol (HOP), propranolol glucuronide, and naphloxylactic acid (NLA) were estimated. Apparent oral clearance and elimination half-life of propranolol were not different between EMs and PMs. Partial metabolic clearance of propranolol to HOP was significantly higher and to NLA was significantly lower in EMs than in PMs. No differences in percentage reductions in exercise heart rate were observed between EMs and PMs. The CYP2D6 PM phenotype has no effect on propranolol blood concentrations and does not alter response to propranolol. Our data also suggest that CYP2D6 mediates approximately 65% and 70% of S- and R-propranolol's 4-hydroxylation, respectively.
Abstract: Astemizole (Hismanal), an antihistamine agent, has been reported to be associated with ventricular arrhythmias. In this paper we present a case of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) in a 77-year-old woman who had been taking astemizole (10 mg/day) for 6 months because of allergic skin disease. At the time of admission, the serum concentration of astemizole and its metabolites was markedly elevated at 15.85 ng/ml, approximately 3 times the normal level. The patient was also taking cimetidine, a known inhibitor of cytochrome P-450 enzymatic activity, and during her admission was diagnosed as having vasospastic angina. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of astemizole-induced QT prolongation and TdP in Japan.
Abstract: The bioavailability of propranolol depends on the degree of liver metabolism. Orally but not intravenously administered propranolol is heavily metabolized. In the present study we assessed the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sublingual propranolol. Fourteen severely hypertensive patients (diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > or = 115 mmHg), aged 40 to 66 years, were randomly chosen to receive a single dose of 40 mg propranolol hydrochloride by sublingual or peroral administration. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures, heart rate (HR) for pharmacodynamics and blood samples for noncompartmental pharmacokinetics were obtained at baseline and at 10, 20, 30, 60 and 120 min after the single dose. Significant reductions in BP and HR were obtained, but differences in these parameters were not observed when sublingual and peroral administrations were compared as follows: SBP (17 vs 18%, P = NS), DBP (14 vs 8%, P = NS) and HR (22 vs 28%, P = NS), respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters obtained after sublingual or peroral drug administration were: peak plasma concentration (CMAX): 147 +/- 72 vs 41 +/- 12 ng/ml, P < 0.05; time to reach CMAX (TMAX): 34 +/- 18 vs 52 +/- 11 min, P < 0.05; biological half-life (t1/2b): 0.91 +/- 0.54 vs 2.41 +/- 1.16 h, P < 0.05; area under the curve (AUCT): 245 +/- 134 vs 79 +/- 54 ng h-1 ml-1, P < 0.05; total body clearance (CLT/F): 44 +/- 23 vs 26 +/- 12 ml min-1 kg-1, P = NS. Systemic availability measured by the AUCT ratio indicates that extension of bioavailability was increased 3 times by the sublingual route. Mouth paresthesia was the main adverse effect observed after sublingual administration. Sublingual propranolol administration showed a better pharmacokinetic profile and this route of administration may be an alternative for intravenous or oral administration.
Abstract: Previous studies have shown that beta-adrenoceptor antagonists may be substrates of organic cation transporters in kidney and lung. In this study we examined the transport of the beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists propranolol and metoprolol, in renal LLC-PK(1) cell monolayers. Experiments with BCECF (2', 7'-bis(2carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein) loaded LLC-PK(1) cell monolayers demonstrated that metoprolol and propranolol flux across the basolateral membrane was consistent with non-ionic diffusion. Flux across the apical membrane consisted of both non-ionic diffusion and the uptake of the cationic form of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. Uptake of the cationic form of metoprolol across the apical membrane was Na(+)-independent, electrogenic and sensitive to external pH. Furthermore, uptake was sensitive to inhibition by Decynium-22 and the organic cations TEA (tetraethylammonium) and MPP(+) (1-methyl 4-phenylpyridinium). These results, allied with the apical location of the uptake mechanism suggest that beta-adrenoceptor antagonists may be substrates for the organic cation transporter, OCT2. To confirm beta-adrenoceptor antagonists as substrates for OCT2, we demonstrate, in cells transiently transfected with an epitope tagged version of hOCT2 (hOCT2-V5):(1) Decynium-22 sensitive [(14)C]-propranolol uptake, (2) cis-inhibition of OCT2 by a range of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists and (3) metoprolol induced intracellular acidification.
Abstract: The antibiotics rifamycin SV and rifampicin substantially reduce sulfobromophthalein (BSP) elimination in humans. In rats, rifamycin SV and rifampicin were shown to interfere with hepatic organic anion uptake by inhibition of the organic anion transporting polypeptides Oatp1 and Oatp2. Therefore, we investigated the effects of rifamycin SV and rifampicin on the OATPs of human liver and determined whether rifampicin is a substrate of 1 or several of these carriers. In complementary RNA (cRNA)-injected Xenopus laevis oocytes, rifamycin SV (10 micromol/L) cis-inhibited human organic anion transporting polypeptide C (SLC21A6) (OATP-C), human organic anion transporting polypeptide 8 (SLC21A8) (OATP8), human organic anion transporting polypeptide B (SLC21A9) (OATP-B), and human organic anion transporting polypeptide A (SLC21A3) (OATP-A) mediated BSP uptake by 69%, 79%, 89%, and 57%, respectively, as compared with uptake into control oocytes. In the presence of 100 micromol/L rifamycin SV, BSP uptake was almost completely abolished. Approximate K(i) values were 2 micromol/L for OATP-C, 3 micromol/L for OATP8, 3 micromol/L for OATP-B and 11 micromol/L for OATP-A. Rifampicin (10 micromol/L) inhibited OATP8-mediated BSP uptake by 50%, whereas inhibition of OATP-C-, OATP-B-, and OATP-A-mediated BSP transport was below 15%. 100 micromol/L rifampicin inhibited OATP-C- and OATP8-, OATP-B- and OATP-A-mediated BSP uptake by 66%, 96%, 25%, and 49%, respectively. The corresponding K(i) values were 17 micromol/L for OATP-C, 5 micromol/L for OATP8, and 51 micromol/L for OATP-A. Direct transport of rifampicin could be shown for OATP-C (apparent K(m) value 13 micromol/L) and OATP8 (2.3 micromol/L). In conclusion, these results show that rifamycin SV and rifampicin interact with OATP-mediated substrate transport to different extents. Inhibition of human liver OATPs can explain the previously observed effects of rifamycin SV and rifampicin on hepatic organic anion elimination.
Abstract: Rifampin, a member of the rifamycin class of antibiotics, is well known for its ability to induce drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters, through activation of the pregnane X receptor. Available data suggest rifampin entry into hepatocytes may be transporter-mediated. Accordingly, it is therefore plausible that modulation of the achievable intracellular concentration of rifampin by drug uptake transporters would influence the degree of induction. In this study, we expressed an array of known hepatic uptake transporters to show the key hepatic rifampin uptake transporters are liver-specific members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family (OATP). Indeed, both OATP-C and OATP8 seemed capable of mediating rifampin uptake into HeLa cells. OATP-C, however, seemed to have far greater affinity and capacity for rifampin transport. In addition, several allelic variants of OATP-C known to be present among European and African Americans were found to have markedly decreased rifampin transport activity. In cell-based, transactivation assays, OATP-C expression was associated with increased cellular rifampin retention as well as potentiation of PXR reporter gene activity. This is the first demonstration of an uptake transporter such as OATP-C, in modulating PXR function, and sheds important new insight into our understanding of the molecular determinants of PXR-mediated inductive processes.
Abstract: Renal drug interactions can result from competitive inhibition between drugs that undergo extensive renal tubular secretion by transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of itraconazole, a known P-gp inhibitor, on the renal tubular secretion of cimetidine in healthy volunteers who received intravenous cimetidine alone and following 3 days of oral itraconazole (400 mg/day) administration. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured continuously during each study visit using iothalamate clearance. Iothalamate, cimetidine, and itraconazole concentrations in plasma and urine were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet (HPLC/UV) methods. Renal tubular secretion (CL(sec)) of cimetidine was calculated as the difference between renal clearance (CL(r)) and GFR (CL(ioth)) on days 1 and 5. Cimetidine pharmacokinetic estimates were obtained for total clearance (CL(T)), volume of distribution (Vd), elimination rate constant (K(el)), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-240 min)), and average plasma concentration (Cp(ave)) before and after itraconazole administration. Plasma itraconazole concentrations following oral dosing ranged from 0.41 to 0.92 microg/mL. The cimetidine AUC(0-240 min) increased by 25% (p < 0.01) following itraconazole administration. The GFR and Vd remained unchanged, but significant reductions in CL(T) (655 vs. 486 mL/min, p < 0.001) and CL(sec) (410 vs. 311 mL/min, p = 0.001) were observed. The increased systemic exposure of cimetidine during coadministration with itraconazole was likely due to inhibition of P-gp-mediated renal tubular secretion. Further evaluation of renal P-gp-modulating drugs such as itraconazole that may alter the renal excretion of coadministered drugs is warranted.
Abstract: Propranolol is a nonselective beta-adrenergic blocker used as a racemic mixture in the treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, and angina pectoris. For study of the stereoselective glucuronidation of this drug, the two propranolol glucuronide diastereomers were biosynthesized, purified, and characterized. A screen of 15 recombinant human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) indicated that only a few isoforms catalyze propranolol glucuronidation. Analysis of UGT2B4 and UGT2B7 revealed no significant stereoselectivity, but these two enzymes differed in glucuronidation kinetics. The glucuronidation kinetics of R-propranolol by UGT2B4 exhibited a sigmoid curve, whereas the glucuronidation of the same substrate by UGT2B7 was inhibited by substrate concentrations above 1 mM. Among the UGTs of subfamily 1A, UGT1A9 and UGT1A10 displayed high and, surprisingly, opposite stereoselectivity in the glucuronidation of propranolol enantiomers. UGT1A9 glucuronidated S-propranolol much faster than R-propranolol, whereas UGT1A10 exhibited the opposite enantiomer preference. Nonetheless, the Km values for the two enantiomers, both for UGT1A9 and for UGT1A10, were in the same range, suggesting similar affinities for the two enantiomers. Unlike UGT1A9, the expression of UGT1A10 is extrahepatic. Hence, the reverse stereoselectivity of these two UGTs may signify specific differences in the glucuronidation of propranolol enantiomers between intestine and liver microsomes. Subsequent experiments confirmed this hypothesis: human liver microsomes glucuronidated S-propranolol faster than R-propranolol, whereas human intestine microsomes glucuronidated S-propranolol faster. These findings suggest a contribution of intestinal UGTs to drug metabolism, at least for UGT1A10 substrates.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: If tuberculosis therapy is to be shortened it is imperative that the sterilising activity of current and future anti-tuberculosis drugs is enhanced. Intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) phagocytosed by macrophages may be a key subpopulation of bacteria that are less readily eliminated by therapy. Here we investigate whether macrophages provide MTB with a pharmacological sanctuary site, making them less susceptible to chemotherapy than extracellular bacilli. Intracellular drug activity was determined by a novel colorimetric method that measures the ability of a drug to protect A-THP1 cells from infection-mediated cell death by H37Rv. Extracellular bactericidal activity was determined by the microplate alamar blue assay (MABA). Further, the effect of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expressed on macrophages on the intracellular kill of H37Rv was assessed. To screen the anti-tuberculosis drugs for P-gp substrate specificity, their toxicity and cellular accumulation were determined in CEM and CEM(VBL100) cells. Intracellular and extracellular anti-tuberculosis drug activity following 7-day treatment with isoniazid (mean EC(50)+/-SD: 36.7+/-2.2 and 57.2+/-2.5 ng/mL, respectively) and ethambutol (243+/-95 and 263+/-12 ng/mL, respectively) were similar. However, for rifampicin a higher concentration was required to kill intracellular (148+/-32 ng/mL) versus extracellular (1.27+/-0.02 ng/mL) bacilli. The P-gp inhibitor tariquidar, significantly increased intracellular kill of H37Rv by ethambutol and rifampicin and both of these drugs were shown to be substrates for P-gp using the P-gp overexpressing CEM(VBL100) cells. We observed a large discrepancy between intracellular and extracellular activity of rifampicin (but not with isoniazid or ethambutol). Several factors could have accounted for this including inoculum size, media and cell-mediated metabolism. These factors make the comparison of intracellular and extracellular drug activity complex. However, the intracellular assay described here has potential for studying the impact of host proteins (such as drug transporters) on the intracellular activity of drugs, and has been used successfully here to demonstrate that both rifampicin and ethambutol are substrates for P-gp.
Abstract: We examined the metabolic kinetics of propranolol, constructed from saturable and non-saturable components, using liver microsomes. The metabolic activity in rat microsomes was much higher than that in human microsomes within the clinically observed plasma range. Using the physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model incorporating the obtained metabolic parameters, the plasma kinetics of propranolol was well correlated with reported values, and then used to analyze the effect of hepatic first-pass metabolism on propranolol plasma pharmacokinetics in clinical doses. The simulated plasma concentrations and AUC values of propranolol increased proportionally to its dose; these levels were almost equivalent to intrinsic clearance (CLint1), presumed to be non-saturable. When Michaelis-Menten parameters were decreased to one twentieth, plasma concentrations slightly increased after 160 mg dosing. A similar result was obtained with steady-state plasma levels after repeated administration. On the other hand, the first-order absorption rate constant of propranolol did not affect AUC values. The dose-normalized AUC value started to increase about 10(3)mg dosing. When the dose exceed 10(6)mg dose, the CLint1 component hardly contributed to propranolol pharmacokinetics. Accordingly, under the conditions of the PBPK model, propranolol pharmacokinetics was considered to be dose-independent within the clinical dose range.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.
Abstract: The human organic anion and cation transporters are classified within two SLC superfamilies. Superfamily SLCO (formerly SLC21A) consists of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), while the organic anion transporters (OATs) and the organic cation transporters (OCTs) are classified in the SLC22A superfamily. Individual members of each superfamily are expressed in essentially every epithelium throughout the body, where they play a significant role in drug absorption, distribution and elimination. Substrates of OATPs are mainly large hydrophobic organic anions, while OATs transport smaller and more hydrophilic organic anions and OCTs transport organic cations. In addition to endogenous substrates, such as steroids, hormones and neurotransmitters, numerous drugs and other xenobiotics are transported by these proteins, including statins, antivirals, antibiotics and anticancer drugs. Expression of OATPs, OATs and OCTs can be regulated at the protein or transcriptional level and appears to vary within each family by both protein and tissue type. All three superfamilies consist of 12 transmembrane domain proteins that have intracellular termini. Although no crystal structures have yet been determined, combinations of homology modelling and mutation experiments have been used to explore the mechanism of substrate recognition and transport. Several polymorphisms identified in members of these superfamilies have been shown to affect pharmacokinetics of their drug substrates, confirming the importance of these drug transporters for efficient pharmacological therapy. This review, unlike other reviews that focus on a single transporter family, briefly summarizes the current knowledge of all the functionally characterized human organic anion and cation drug uptake transporters of the SLCO and the SLC22A superfamilies.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs are often involved in explicit criteria for inappropriate prescribing in older adults. Several scales were developed for screening of anticholinergic drugs and estimation of the anticholinergic burden. However, variation exists in scale development, in the selection of anticholinergic drugs, and the evaluation of their anticholinergic load. This study aims to systematically review existing anticholinergic risk scales, and to develop a uniform list of anticholinergic drugs differentiating for anticholinergic potency. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE. Studies were included if provided (1) a finite list of anticholinergic drugs; (2) a grading score of anticholinergic potency and, (3) a validation in a clinical or experimental setting. We listed anticholinergic drugs for which there was agreement in the different scales. In case of discrepancies between scores we used a reputed reference source (Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference®) to take a final decision about the anticholinergic activity of the drug. RESULTS: We included seven risk scales, and evaluated 225 different drugs. Hundred drugs were listed as having clinically relevant anticholinergic properties (47 high potency and 53 low potency), to be included in screening software for anticholinergic burden. CONCLUSION: Considerable variation exists among anticholinergic risk scales, in terms of selection of specific drugs, as well as of grading of anticholinergic potency. Our selection of 100 drugs with clinically relevant anticholinergic properties needs to be supplemented with validated information on dosing and route of administration for a full estimation of the anticholinergic burden in poly-medicated older adults.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: This study aimed to construct a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of rifampicin that can accurately and quantitatively predict complex drug-drug interactions (DDIs) involving its saturable hepatic uptake and auto-induction. Using in silico and in vitro parameters, and reported clinical pharmacokinetic data, rifampicin PBPK model was built and relevant parameters for saturable hepatic uptake and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) auto-induction were optimized by fitting. The parameters for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and CYP2C9 induction by rifampicin were similarly optimized using clinical DDI data with midazolam and tolbutamide as probe substrates, respectively. For validation, our current PBPK model was applied to simulate complex DDIs with glibenclamide (a substrate of CYP3A/2C9 and hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs)). Simulated results were in quite good accordance with the observed data. Altogether, our constructed PBPK model of rifampicin demonstrates the robustness and utility in quantitatively predicting CYP3A/2C9 induction-mediated and/or OATP inhibition-mediated DDIs with victim drugs.
Abstract: The introduction of rifampicin (rifampin) into tuberculosis (TB) treatment five decades ago was critical for shortening the treatment duration for patients with pulmonary TB to 6 months when combined with pyrazinamide in the first 2 months. Resistance or hypersensitivity to rifampicin effectively condemns a patient to prolonged, less effective, more toxic, and expensive regimens. Because of cost and fears of toxicity, rifampicin was introduced at an oral daily dose of 600 mg (8-12 mg/kg body weight). At this dose, clinical trials in 1970s found cure rates of ≥ 95% and relapse rates of < 5%. However, recent papers report lower cure rates that might be the consequence of increased emergence of resistance. Several lines of evidence suggest that higher rifampicin doses, if tolerated and safe, could shorten treatment duration even further. We conducted a narrative review of rifampicin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in adults across a range of doses and highlight variables that influence its pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics. Rifampicin exposure has considerable inter- and intra-individual variability that could be reduced by administration during fasting. Several factors including malnutrition, HIV infection, diabetes mellitus, dose size, pharmacogenetic polymorphisms, hepatic cirrhosis, and substandard medicinal products alter rifampicin exposure and/or efficacy. Renal impairment has no influence on rifampicin pharmacokinetics when dosed at 600 mg. Rifampicin maximum (peak) concentration (C) > 8.2 μg/mL is an independent predictor of sterilizing activity and therapeutic drug monitoring at 2, 4, and 6 h post-dose may aid in optimizing dosing to achieve the recommended rifampicin concentration of ≥ 8 µg/mL. A higher rifampicin Cis required for severe forms TB such as TB meningitis, with C≥ 22 μg/mL and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to 6 h (AUC) ≥ 70 μg·h/mL associated with reduced mortality. More studies are needed to confirm whether doses achieving exposures higher than the current standard dosage could translate into faster sputum conversion, higher cure rates, lower relapse rates, and less mortality. It is encouraging that daily rifampicin doses up to 35 mg/kg were found to be safe and well-tolerated over a period of 12 weeks. High-dose rifampicin should thus be considered in future studies when constructing potentially shorter regimens. The studies should be adequately powered to determine treatment outcomes and should include surrogate markers of efficacy such as C/MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and AUC/MIC.