QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
|Loss of appetite|
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Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of terbinafine and cimetidine. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
|Terbinafine||1.33 [1.33,3.39] 1||1.33|
The changes in exposure mentioned relate to changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC]. Terbinafine exposure increases to 133%, when combined with cimetidine (133%). The AUC is between 133% and 339% depending on the CYP2C9
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Terbinafine has a low oral bioavailability [ F ] of 40%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change strongly with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is 24 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached after approximately 96 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is very strong at 99%. Since the substance has a low hepatic extraction rate of 0.24, displacement from protein binding [Pb] in the context of an interaction can increase exposure. The metabolism takes place via CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4, among others.
Cimetidine has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 65%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather short at 1.6333333 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached quickly. The protein binding [ Pb ] is very weak at 19% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 91 liters. The metabolism does not take place via the common cytochromes and the active transport takes place partly via BCRP and PGP.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither terbinafine nor cimetidine increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||Ø||+|
Recommendation: As a precaution, attention should be paid to anticholinergic symptoms, especially after increasing the dose and at doses in the upper therapeutic range.
Rating: Cimetidine only has a mild effect on the anticholinergic system. The risk of anticholinergic syndrome with this medication is rather low if the dosage is in the usual range. According to our findings, terbinafine does not increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Recommendation: Please make sure that influenceable risk factors are minimized. Electrolyte disturbances such as low levels of calcium, potassium and magnesium should be compensated for. The lowest effective dose of cimetidine should be used.
Rating: Cimetidine can potentially prolong the QT time and if there are risk factors, arrhythmias of the type torsades de pointes can be favored. We do not know of any QT-prolonging potential for terbinafine.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||ter||cim|
|Loss of appetite||10.0 %||10.0||n.a.|
|Disorder of taste||2.8 %||2.8||n.a.|
|Blurred vision||1.0 %||+||n.a.|
Upper respiratory infection: terbinafine
Hearing loss: terbinafine
Cutaneous lupus erythematosus: terbinafine
Erythema multiforme: terbinafine
Generalized exanthematous pustulosis: terbinafine
Stevens johnson syndrome: terbinafine
Toxic epidermal necrolysis: terbinafine
Cholestatic hepatitis: terbinafine
Liver failure: terbinafine
Anaphylactic reaction: terbinafine
Lupus erythematosus: terbinafine
Based on your
Abstract: Recently, the use of astemizole and terfenadine, both non-sedating H1-antihistamines, caused considerable concern. Several case reports suggested an association of both drugs with an increased risk of torsades de pointes, a special form of ventricular tachycardia. The increased risk of both H1-antihistamines was associated with exposure to supratherapeutic doses; for terfenadine the risk was also associated with concomitant exposure to the cytochrome P-450 inhibitors ketoconazole, erythromycin and cimetidine. To predict the size of the population that runs the risk of developing this potentially fatal adverse reaction in the Netherlands, the prevalence of prescribing supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was studied. Data were obtained from the PHARMO data base in 1990, a pharmacy-based record linkage system encompassing a catchment population of 300,000 individuals. The results of the study showed that the prescribing of supratherapeutic doses and the concomitant exposure to terfenadine and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors was low. Furthermore, the results of a sensitivity analysis showed that the risk of fatal torsades de pointes has to be as high as 1 in 10,000 to cause one death in the Netherlands in one year.
Abstract: The plasma pharmacokinetics, and the urinary excretion, of terbinafine and its five main metabolites have been investigated after a single oral dose administration of 125 mg to 16 healthy subjects. In plasma, the highest concentrations are observed for the two carboxybutyl metabolites, with a predominance for the carboxybutylterbinafine. For this metabolite, as compared to terbinafine, the Cmax and AUC are 2.4 and 13 times higher respectively. The demethylterbinafine presents a plasma profile close to that of terbinafine. The two hydroxy metabolites are only found as glucuronide and are of minor importance. The apparent terminal half-lives of terbinafine, demethylterbinafine, and the two carboxy metabolites appear to be similar (approximately 25 h). As compared to the plasma concentration of total radioactivity observed after a single oral administration of the same dose of 14C-terbinafine, the parent drug and these five metabolites, account for more than 80% of the total radioactivity in plasma over the 0-48 h interval following administration. In urine, the major metabolite is demethylcarboxybutylterbinafine, which amounted to about 10% of the administered dose. Terbinafine and demethylterbinafine are only excreted as trace amounts in urine. Carboxybutylterbinafine and the two hydroxy metabolites are excreted in the range of 0.5-2% either as glucuronides or free. Urinary excretion over the 0-48 h interval of terbinafine and of the five metabolites amounted to about 14% of the administered dose. This is far below the level of total radioactivity measured in urine over the same interval (approximately 57%), after administration of 14C-terbinafine. This shows in contrast to plasma, that numerous other metabolites are present in urine.
Abstract: Astemizole (Hismanal), an antihistamine agent, has been reported to be associated with ventricular arrhythmias. In this paper we present a case of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP) in a 77-year-old woman who had been taking astemizole (10 mg/day) for 6 months because of allergic skin disease. At the time of admission, the serum concentration of astemizole and its metabolites was markedly elevated at 15.85 ng/ml, approximately 3 times the normal level. The patient was also taking cimetidine, a known inhibitor of cytochrome P-450 enzymatic activity, and during her admission was diagnosed as having vasospastic angina. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of astemizole-induced QT prolongation and TdP in Japan.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Two new systemic antifungal agents, terbinafine and itraconazole, have expanded the choices for treatment of onychomycosis. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacologic properties provide the basis of their activity and are related to their efficacy and safety in dermatophyte infections. OBJECTIVE: We describe the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacology of terbinafine and itraconazole and the features that form a framework for comparing their efficacy. PHARMACODYNAMICS: Both terbinafine and itraconazole ultimately block ergosterol synthesis; terbinafine disrupts fungal cell wall synthesis earlier (squalene to squalene epoxide) than does itraconazole (lanosterol to ergosterol). In vitro, terbinafine exposure results in a toxic accumulation of squalene and decreased production of ergosterol. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of terbinafine for dermatophytes are essentially equal to minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). However, the MFCs of itraconazole are much higher than the MICs. PHARMACOLOGIC PROFILE: Both itraconazole and terbinafine penetrate keratinizing tissue; levels reached in nail plate exceed those in plasma. Therapeutic levels of the itraconazole persist in nails for up to 6 months after discontinuation of 3 months of therapy (200 mg/day) and during various pulsed cycles. After discontinuation of 1 month of therapy, terbinafine persists at therapeutic levels in the nail. Itraconazole has an affinity for mammalian cytochrome P-450 enzymes as well as for fungal P-450-dependent enzyme, and thus has the potential for clinically important interactions (e.g., astemizole, terfenadine, rifampin, oral contraceptives, H2 receptor antagonists, warfarin, cyclosporine). Terbinafine is not metabolized through this system and has little potential for drug-drug interactions. CONCLUSION: The low MFCs exhibited by terbinafine for dermatophytes may be important in its clinical efficacy and low relapse rates. The safety profile of terbinafine directly reflects its mechanism of action.
Abstract: Biotransformation pathways and the potential for drug-drug interactions of the orally active antifungal terbinafine were characterized using human liver microsomes and recombinant human cytochrome P-450s (CYPs). The terbinafine metabolites represented four major pathways: 1) N-demethylation, 2) deamination, 3) alkyl side chain oxidation, and 4) dihydrodiol formation. Michaelis-Menten kinetics for the pathways revealed mean K(m) values ranging from 4.4 to 27.8 microM, and V(max) values of 9.8 to 82 nmol/h/mg protein. At least seven CYP enzymes are involved in terbinafine metabolism. Recombinant human CYPs predict that CYP2C9, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4 are the most important for total metabolism. N-demethylation is primarily mediated by CYP2C9, CYP2C8, and CYP1A2; dihydrodiol formation by CYP2C9 and CYP1A2; deamination by CYP3A4; and side chain oxidation equally by CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19. Additionally, characteristic CYP substrates inhibited pathways of terbinafine metabolite formation, confirming the involvement of multiple enzymes. The deamination pathway was mainly inhibited by CYP3A inhibitors, including troleandomycin and azole antifungals. Dihydrodiol formation was inhibited by the CYP1A2 inhibitor furafylline. Terbinafine had little or no effect on the metabolism of many characteristic CYP substrates. Terbinafine, however, is a competitive inhibitor of the CYP2D6 reaction, dextromethorphan O-demethylation (K(i) = 0.03 microM). In summary, terbinafine is metabolized by at least seven CYPs. The potential for terbinafine interaction with other drugs is predicted to be insignificant with the exception that it may inhibit the metabolism of CYP2D6 substrates. Clinical trials are needed to assess the relevance of these findings.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) model capable of describing and predicting terbinafine concentrations in plasma and tissues in rats and humans. A PB-PK model consisting of 12 tissue and 2 blood compartments was developed using concentration-time data for tissues from rats (n = 33) after intravenous bolus administration of terbinafine (6 mg/kg of body weight). It was assumed that all tissues except skin and testis tissues were well-stirred compartments with perfusion rate limitations. The uptake of terbinafine into skin and testis tissues was described by a PB-PK model which incorporates a membrane permeability rate limitation. The concentration-time data for terbinafine in human plasma and tissues were predicted by use of a scaled-up PB-PK model, which took oral absorption into consideration. The predictions obtained from the global PB-PK model for the concentration-time profile of terbinafine in human plasma and tissues were in close agreement with the observed concentration data for rats. The scaled-up PB-PK model provided an excellent prediction of published terbinafine concentration-time data obtained after the administration of single and multiple oral doses in humans. The estimated volume of distribution at steady state (V(ss)) obtained from the PB-PK model agreed with the reported value of 11 liters/kg. The apparent volume of distribution of terbinafine in skin and adipose tissues accounted for 41 and 52%, respectively, of the V(ss) for humans, indicating that uptake into and redistribution from these tissues dominate the pharmacokinetic profile of terbinafine. The PB-PK model developed in this study was capable of accurately predicting the plasma and tissue terbinafine concentrations in both rats and humans and provides insight into the physiological factors that determine terbinafine disposition.
Abstract: Renal drug interactions can result from competitive inhibition between drugs that undergo extensive renal tubular secretion by transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of itraconazole, a known P-gp inhibitor, on the renal tubular secretion of cimetidine in healthy volunteers who received intravenous cimetidine alone and following 3 days of oral itraconazole (400 mg/day) administration. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured continuously during each study visit using iothalamate clearance. Iothalamate, cimetidine, and itraconazole concentrations in plasma and urine were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet (HPLC/UV) methods. Renal tubular secretion (CL(sec)) of cimetidine was calculated as the difference between renal clearance (CL(r)) and GFR (CL(ioth)) on days 1 and 5. Cimetidine pharmacokinetic estimates were obtained for total clearance (CL(T)), volume of distribution (Vd), elimination rate constant (K(el)), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-240 min)), and average plasma concentration (Cp(ave)) before and after itraconazole administration. Plasma itraconazole concentrations following oral dosing ranged from 0.41 to 0.92 microg/mL. The cimetidine AUC(0-240 min) increased by 25% (p < 0.01) following itraconazole administration. The GFR and Vd remained unchanged, but significant reductions in CL(T) (655 vs. 486 mL/min, p < 0.001) and CL(sec) (410 vs. 311 mL/min, p = 0.001) were observed. The increased systemic exposure of cimetidine during coadministration with itraconazole was likely due to inhibition of P-gp-mediated renal tubular secretion. Further evaluation of renal P-gp-modulating drugs such as itraconazole that may alter the renal excretion of coadministered drugs is warranted.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Tramadol is widely used for acute, chronic, and neuropathic pain. Its primary active metabolite is O-desmethyltramadol (M1), which is mainly accountable for the μ-opioid receptor-related analgesic effect. Tramadol is metabolized to M1 mainly by cytochrome P450 (CYP)2D6 enzyme and to other metabolites by CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. We investigated the possible interaction of tramadol with the antifungal agents terbinafine (CYP2D6 inhibitor) and itraconazole (CYP3A4 inhibitor). METHODS: We used a randomized placebo-controlled crossover study design with 12 healthy subjects, of which 8 were extensive and 4 were ultrarapid CYP2D6 metabolizers. On the pretreatment day 4 with terbinafine (250 mg once daily), itraconazole (200 mg once daily) or placebo, subjects were given tramadol 50 mg orally. Plasma concentrations of tramadol and M1 were determined over 48 h and some pharmacodynamic effects over 12 h. Pharmacokinetic variables were calculated using standard non-compartmental methods. RESULTS: Terbinafine increased the area under plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞) of tramadol by 115 % and decreased the AUC0-∞ of M1 by 64 % (P < 0.001). Terbinafine increased the peak concentration (C max) of tramadol by 53 % (P < 0.001) and decreased the C max of M1 by 79 % (P < 0.001). After terbinafine pretreatment the elimination half-life of tramadol and M1 were increased by 48 and 50 %, respectively (P < 0.001). Terbinafine reduced subjective drug effect of tramadol (P < 0.001). Itraconazole had minor effects on tramadol pharmacokinetics. CONCLUSIONS: Terbinafine may reduce the opioid effect of tramadol and increase the risk of its monoaminergic adverse effects. Itraconazole has no meaningful interaction with tramadol in subjects who have functional CYP2D6 enzyme.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.