QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
|Elevated serum creatinine|
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Explanations of the substances for patients
The administration of ciprofloxacin and dronedarone is contraindicated.
QTc time prolongation and increased levels of dronedaroneMechanism: Fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin can increase the QTc time. Both drugs have been associated with torsades de pointes. Ciprofloxacin is also a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4, via which dronedarone is broken down.
Effect: Due to the additive QTc time-prolonging effect of the combination, the risk of ventricular arrhythmias (torsades de pointes) can increase. Due to the pharmacokinetic interaction, the concentration of dronedarone may be increased; this increases the risk of ventricular arrhythmias and increased dronedarone effects.
Measures: According to the Swiss specialist information, the combination of dronedarone with drugs that can cause torsades de pointes is contraindicated.
The changes in exposure mentioned relate to changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC]. We did not detect any change in exposure to ciprofloxacin. We cannot currently estimate the influence of dronedarone. Dronedarone exposure increases to 144%, when combined with ciprofloxacin (144%).
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Ciprofloxacin has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 70%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather short at 3.5 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached quickly. The protein binding [ Pb ] is very weak at 30%. About 55.0% of an administered dose is excreted unchanged via the kidneys and this proportion is seldom changed by interactions. The metabolism mainly takes place via CYP1A2 and the active transport takes place partly via BCRP, OATP1A2 and PGP.
Dronedarone has a low oral bioavailability [ F ] of 13%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change strongly with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is 16 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached after approximately 64 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is very strong at 98.1% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 1400 liters. The metabolism mainly takes place via CYP3A4 and the active transport takes place in particular via PGP.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither ciprofloxacin nor dronedarone increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our findings, neither ciprofloxacin nor dronedarone increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: In combination, ciprofloxacin and dronedarone can potentially trigger ventricular arrhythmias of the torsades de pointes type.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||cip||dro|
|Elevated serum creatinine||51.0 %||n.a.||51.0|
|Abdominal pain||4.0 %||n.a.||4.0|
|Nasal discharge||3.0 %||3.0||n.a.|
Dyspepsis (2%): dronedarone
Clostridium difficile diarrhea: ciprofloxacin
Gastrointestinal hemorrhage: ciprofloxacin
Rash (1.8%): ciprofloxacin
Toxic epidermal necrolysis: ciprofloxacin
Stevens johnson syndrome: ciprofloxacin
Myocardial infarction: ciprofloxacin
Heart failure: dronedarone
Hepatotoxicity: ciprofloxacin, dronedarone
Liver failure: ciprofloxacin, dronedarone
Hypersensitivity reaction: ciprofloxacin
Allergic skin reactions like pruritus and rash: dronedarone
Hemorrhagic cystitis: ciprofloxacin
Renal failure: ciprofloxacin, dronedarone
Tubulointerstitial nephritis: ciprofloxacin
Disturbance of attention: ciprofloxacin
Memory impairment: ciprofloxacin
Peripheral neuropathy: ciprofloxacin
Pseudotumor cerebri: ciprofloxacin
Raised intracranial pressure: ciprofloxacin
Aplastic anemia: ciprofloxacin
Hemolytic anemia: ciprofloxacin
Myasthenia gravis: ciprofloxacin
Rupture of tendon: ciprofloxacin
Aortic aneurysm: ciprofloxacin
Interstitial lung disease: dronedarone
Based on your
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of intravenous ciprofloxacin and its metabolites were characterized in 42 subjects with various degrees of renal function (group 1, Clcr (mL/min/1.73 m2) > 90, n = 10; group 2, Clcr 61-90, n = 11; group 3, Clcr 31-60, n = 11; group 4, Clcr < or = 30, n = 10). The dosage regimens were-groups 1 and 2: 400 mg i.v. at 8 hourly intervals; group 3: 400 mg i.v. at 12 hourly intervals and group 4: 300 mg i.v. at 12 hourly intervals. Subjects received a single dose on days 1 and 5 and multiple doses on days 2-4. Multiple plasma and urine samples were collected on days 1 and 5 for the analysis of ciprofloxacin and its metabolites (M1, M2 and M3). Plasma concentrations (Cmax and AUC) of ciprofloxacin and its M1 and M2 metabolites were significantly increased in subjects with reduced Clcr values (Clcr < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) compared with normal subjects (Clcr > 90 mL/min/1.73 m2). A positive correlation was observed between ciprofloxacin clearance (Cl) and Clcr with a slope of 0.29 (r2 = 0.78) and between renal clearance (Clr) and Clcr with a slope of 0.19 (r2 = 0.84). For patients with severe infections a dosage regimen of 400 mg iv 8 hourly is appropriate in patients with Clcr > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. In patients with Clcr values of 31-60 mL/min/1.73 m2 a dosage regimen of 400 mg 12 hourly provides similar plasma concentrations to those observed for subjects with Clcr 61-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 receiving 400 mg 8 hourly. Based on modeling of the plasma concentrations in subjects with Clcr < or = 30 ml/min/1.73 m2, a dosage regimen of 400 mg every 24 h will provide plasma concentrations similar to those observed in subjects with Clcr between 61-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 given 400 mg every 8 h.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Amiodarone is an effective antiarrhythmic drug rarely associated with torsade de pointes arrhythmias (TdP). The noniodinated compound dronedarone could resemble amiodarone and be devoid of the adverse effects. In the dog with chronic complete atrioventricular (AV) block (CAVB) and acquired long-QT syndrome, the electrophysiological and proarrhythmic properties of the drugs were compared after 4 weeks of oral treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Amiodarone (n=7, 40 mg. kg(-1). d(-1)) and dronedarone (n=8, 20 mg/kg BID) were started at 6 weeks of CAVB (baseline). Six dogs served as controls. Surface ECGs and endocardially placed monophasic action potential catheters in the left (LV) and right (RV) ventricles were recorded to assess QTc time, action potential duration (APD), interventricular dispersion (DeltaAPD=LV APD minus RV APD), early afterdepolarizations (EADs), ectopic beats, and TdP. Both amiodarone (+21%) and dronedarone (+31%) increased QTc time. Amiodarone showed no increase in DeltaAPD in 4 of 7 dogs, whereas dronedarone augmented DeltaAPD in 7 of 8 animals. After dronedarone, TdP occurred in 4 of 8 dogs with the highest DeltaAPD (105+/-20 ms). TdP was never seen with amiodarone, not even in the dogs that had DeltaAPD values comparable to those with dronedarone. Furthermore, a difference existed in EADs and ectopic activity incidence (dronedarone 3 of 8; amiodarone 0 of 7), which was also seen during an epinephrine challenge. CONCLUSIONS: In the CAVB dog model, both amiodarone and dronedarone prolong QT time (class III effect). The absence of TdP with amiodarone seems to be related to homogeneous APD lengthening in the majority of dogs and the lack of EADs and/or ventricular ectopic beats in all.
Abstract: STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the rates of torsades de pointes associated with ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin administration. DESIGN: Retrospective database analysis. INTERVENTION: Evaluation of reported rates of torsades de pointes in patients who received these quinolones between January 1, 1996, and May 2, 2001. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In the United States, 25 cases of torsades de pointes associated with these quinolones (ciprofloxacin 2, ofloxacin 2, levofloxacin 13, gatifloxacin 8, moxifloxacin 0) were identified. Ciprofloxacin was associated with a significantly lower rate of torsades de pointes (0.3 cases/10 million prescriptions, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0-1.1) than levofloxacin (5.4/10 million, 95% CI 2.9-9.3, p<0.001) or gatifloxacin (27/10 million, 95% CI 12-53, p<0.001 for comparison with ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin). When the analysis was limited to the first 16 months after initial U.S. approval of the agent, the rates for levofloxacin (16/10 million) and gatifloxacin (27/10 million) were similar (p>0.5). CONCLUSION: Levofloxacin should be administered with caution in patients with risk factors for QT prolongation. Gatifloxacin should be avoided in the same patient population, and the recommended dosage of 400 mg/day should not be exceeded.
Abstract: Ciprofloxacin has been widely used for treating infections and has been found to have very low cardiovascular side effects. QTc prolongation with the use of ciprofloxacin is yet to be reported in literature. A case report highlighting QTc prolongation by use of ciprofloxacin is being presented.
Abstract: Dronedarone, a non-iodinated benzofuran derivative, was developed as a potentially less toxic alternative to amiodarone. This study describes Holter data of dronedarone in humans. Five groups of healthy subjects were given 1 of 5 oral doses of dronedarone in a twice-daily regimen or placebo. Holter recordings of circadian rhythmicity of RR and QT intervals were evaluated. Dronedarone prolonged RR and QT intervals as a function of dose, without effect on circadian patterns. The relative prolongation of QT, QTc, and RR by dronedarone was significant. The QTc interval did not exhibit a clearly recognizable circadian pattern, suggesting that the circadian pattern of the QT interval was mostly a reflection of circadian changes in the RR interval in the study population. Dronedarone resembled amiodarone in class III and sympatholytic effects, indicating its potential as a unique antiarrhythmic compound seemingly devoid of the side effects mediated by iodine in amiodarone.
Abstract: The new respiratory fluoroquinolones (gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and on the horizon, garenoxacin) offer many improved qualities over older agents such as ciprofloxacin. These include retaining excellent activity against Gram-negative bacilli, with improved Gram-positive activity (including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus). In addition, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and garenoxacin all demonstrate increased anaerobic activity (including activity against Bacteroides fragilis). The new fluoroquinolones possess greater bioavailability and longer serum half-lives compared with ciprofloxacin. The new fluoroquinolones allow for once-daily administration, which may improve patient adherence. The high bioavailability allows for rapid step down from intravenous administration to oral therapy, minimizing unnecessary hospitalization, which may decrease costs and improve quality of life of patients. Clinical trials involving the treatment of community-acquired respiratory infections (acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, acute sinusitis, and community-acquired pneumonia) demonstrate high bacterial eradication rates and clinical cure rates. In the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, the various new fluoroquinolones appear to be comparable to each other, but may be more effective than macrolide or cephalosporin-based regimens. However, additional data are required before it can be emphatically stated that the new fluoroquinolones as a class are responsible for better outcomes than comparators in community-acquired respiratory infections. Gemifloxacin (except for higher rates of hypersensitivity), levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin have relatively mild adverse effects that are more or less comparable to ciprofloxacin. In our opinion, gatifloxacin should not be used, due to glucose alterations which may be serious. Although all new fluoroquinolones react with metal ion-containing drugs (antacids), other drug interactions are relatively mild compared with ciprofloxacin. The new fluoroquinolones gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin have much to offer in terms of bacterial eradication, including activity against resistant respiratory pathogens such as penicillin-resistant, macrolide-resistant, and multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae. However, ciprofloxacin-resistant organisms, including ciprofloxacin-resistant S. pneumoniae, are becoming more prevalent, thus prudent use must be exercised when prescribing these valuable agents.
Abstract: Class III drugs prolong the QT interval by blocking mainly the delayed rectifier rapid potassium outward current (IKr), with little effect on depolarization. This K(+) channel in encoded by the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG). Inhibition of hERG potassium currents by class III antiarrhythmic drugs causes lengthening of cardiac action potential, which produces a beneficial antiarrhythmic effect. Excessive prolongation of the action potential may lead to acquired long QT syndrome, which is associated with a risk of "torsade de pointes". Class III agents can block all types of potassium channels: IKs, IKr, IKur and IK1. The main representing class III agent is amiodarone. It is the gold standard in the prevention of recurrence of atrial fibrillation. Although it is highly effective in treating many arrhythmias, large number of adverse effects limits its clinical use. Dronedarone is a synthetic amiodarone analogue, iodine-free compound, with fewer adverse effects, and shares amiodarone's multichannel blocking effects, inhibiting transmembrane Na+, IKs, IKur, IK1, and slow Ca(++)L-type calcium currents. The main new generation class III drugs are: dofetilide, dronedarone, azimilide, and ibutilide. Oral dofetilide did not increase mortality in patients with a recent myocardial infarction or congestive heart failure. It is an alternative for the pharmacological conversion of atrial fibrillation and flutter. Azimilide blocks both rapid and slow potassium channels components. Azimilide is not a methanesulfonanilide compound. Trecitilide, tedisamil, ersentilide, ambasilide, chromanol and sematilide are class III miscellaneous agents. Old mixed agents are sotalol and bretylium. The present article reviews the main trials accomplished with these drugs.
Abstract: Although very useful agents, fluoroquinolones are associated with a number of adverse events, some with considerable clinical significance. Prolongation of the QT interval, for example, is an adverse effect associated with the use of fluoroquinolones. Fluoroquinolones prolong the QT interval by blocking voltage-gated potassium channels, especially the rapid component of the delayed rectifier potassium current I(Kr), expressed by HERG (the human ether-a-go-go-related gene). According to the available case reports and clinical studies, moxifloxacin carries the greatest risk of QT prolongation from all available quinolones in clinical practice and it should be used with caution in patients with predisposing factors for Torsades de pointes (TdP). Although gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, and ofloxacin are associated with a lower risk of QT prolongation compared with moxifloxacin, they should also be used with caution in patients at risk for QT prolongation. Ciprofloxacin appears to be associated with the lowest risk for QT prolongation and the lowest TdP rate. The overall risk of TdP is small with the use of fluoroquinolones. Clinicians can minimize that risk by avoiding prescriptions of multiple medications associated with QT-interval prolongation, especially in high-risk patients.
Abstract: STUDY OBJECTIVE: To characterize the frequency and type of cardiac events, including torsade de pointes, associated with dronedarone and its structural analog, amiodarone, outside of the clinical trial setting. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. DATA SOURCE: Spontaneous reports in the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) database generated between July 1, 2009, and June 30, 2011. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: All reports of adverse events during the study period were reviewed to identify cardiac events associated with any approved drug in the United States. The type and number of cardiac events associated with dronedarone and amiodarone were determined. Active ingredients were identified using the Drugs@FDA database, and the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) was used to aggregate related adverse events. To avoid redundant reporting, all statistics were generated in reference to unique case identifiers. Dronedarone was associated with more adverse cardiovascular event reports than amiodarone (810 vs 493 reports) during the study period. Dronedarone was also associated with the most reports of torsade de pointes of any approved drug in the United States (37 reports), followed by amiodarone (29 reports). Reports of ventricular arrhythmias and cardiac arrest (138 vs 113 reports) as well as heart failure (179 vs 126 reports) were more common with dronedarone than amiodarone. CONCLUSION: Dronedarone was associated with reports of ventricular arrhythmia, cardiac arrest, and torsade de pointes in clinical practice. Whether this observation accounts for the increased risk of fatal arrhythmia observed in a recent prospective trial requires further investigation.
Abstract: Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drugs are absorbed efficiently after oral administration despite of their hydrophilic nature, implying an involvement of carrier-mediated transport in their membrane transport process. It has been that several fluoroquinolones are substrates of organic anion transporter polypeptides OATP1A2 expressed in human intestine derived Caco-2 cells. In the present study, to clarify the involvement of OATP in intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin, the contribution of Oatp1a5, which is expressed at the apical membranes of rat enterocytes, to intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin was investigated in rats. The intestinal membrane permeability of ciprofloxacin was measured by in situ and the vascular perfused closed loop methods. The disappeared and absorbed amount of ciprofloxacin from the intestinal lumen were increased markedly in the presence of 7,8-benzoflavone, a breast cancer resistance protein inhibitor, and ivermectin, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, while it was decreased significantly in the presence of these inhibitors in combination with naringin, an Oatp1a5 inhibitor. Furthermore, the Oatp1a5-mediated uptake of ciprofloxacin was saturable with a K(m) value of 140 µm, and naringin inhibited the uptake with an IC(50) value of 18 µm by Xenopus oocytes expressing Oatp1a5. Naringin reduced the permeation of ciprofloxacin from the mucosal-to-serosal side, with an IC(50) value of 7.5 µm by the Ussing-type chamber method. The estimated IC(50) values were comparable to that of Oatp1a5. These data suggest that Oatp1a5 is partially responsible for the intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin. In conclusion, the intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin could be affected by influx transporters such as Oatp1a5 as well as the efflux transporters such as P-gp and Bcrp.
Abstract: Amiodarone is an effective treatment for atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, but its use is limited by a toxic adverse-effect profile. Although dronedarone has been touted as an antiarrhythmic agent devoid of both solid organ toxicity and proarrhythmic properties, its potential for prolonging ventricular repolarization may augment triggered ectopy. We describe a 66-year-old man who began dronedarone 400 mg twice/day for new-onset paroxysmal atrial fibrillation; he had no left ventricular dysfunction or clinical heart failure. Three months after starting the drug, he complained of malaise, fatigue, and rare palpitations. Twenty four-hour Holter monitoring revealed increased premature ventricular complexes, and the rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval was prolonged (range 525-760 msec). Dronedarone was discontinued and the patient's symptoms gradually resolved over the next 3 weeks. Holter monitoring revealed a marked reduction in ventricular ectopy burden, and the QTc interval decreased to his baseline values. Even in the absence of documented symptomatic torsade de pointes, this case suggests that caution should be exercised when prescribing dronedarone and that serial QTc interval monitoring may be appropriate. In addition, clinicians should have a low threshold to perform Holter monitoring if symptoms develop during dronedarone therapy.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.