QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of ciprofloxacin and efavirenz. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
|Efavirenz||1.05 [1.05,1.91] 1||1.05|
The changes in exposure mentioned relate to changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC]. Efavirenz exposure increases to 105%, when combined with ciprofloxacin (105%). The AUC is between 105% and 191% depending on the CYP2B6
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Ciprofloxacin has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 70%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather short at 3.5 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached quickly. The protein binding [ Pb ] is very weak at 30%. About 55.0% of an administered dose is excreted unchanged via the kidneys and this proportion is seldom changed by interactions. The metabolism mainly takes place via CYP1A2 and the active transport takes place partly via BCRP, OATP1A2 and PGP.
Efavirenz has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 73%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 47.5 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 190 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is very strong at 99.6% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 184 liters, The metabolism takes place via CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4, among others and the active transport takes place partly via BCRP and UGT2B7.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither ciprofloxacin nor efavirenz increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our findings, neither ciprofloxacin nor efavirenz increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: In combination, ciprofloxacin and efavirenz can potentially trigger ventricular arrhythmias of the torsades de pointes type.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||cip||efa|
Nasopharyngitis (5%): ciprofloxacin
Nasal discharge (3%): ciprofloxacin
Depression (2.6%): efavirenz, ciprofloxacin
Suicidal: efavirenz, ciprofloxacin
Elevated ALT: efavirenz
Elevated AST: efavirenz
Elevated GGT: efavirenz
Liver failure: efavirenz, ciprofloxacin
Dream disorder: efavirenz
Disturbance of attention: ciprofloxacin
Memory impairment: ciprofloxacin
Peripheral neuropathy: ciprofloxacin
Pseudotumor cerebri: ciprofloxacin
Raised intracranial pressure: ciprofloxacin
Myocardial infarction: ciprofloxacin
Toxic epidermal necrolysis: ciprofloxacin
Erythema multiforme: efavirenz
Stevens johnson syndrome: efavirenz, ciprofloxacin
Clostridium difficile diarrhea: ciprofloxacin
Gastrointestinal hemorrhage: ciprofloxacin
Hypersensitivity reaction: ciprofloxacin
Hemorrhagic cystitis: ciprofloxacin
Renal failure: ciprofloxacin
Tubulointerstitial nephritis: ciprofloxacin
Aplastic anemia: ciprofloxacin
Hemolytic anemia: ciprofloxacin
Myasthenia gravis: ciprofloxacin
Rupture of tendon: ciprofloxacin
Aortic aneurysm: ciprofloxacin
Based on your
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of intravenous ciprofloxacin and its metabolites were characterized in 42 subjects with various degrees of renal function (group 1, Clcr (mL/min/1.73 m2) > 90, n = 10; group 2, Clcr 61-90, n = 11; group 3, Clcr 31-60, n = 11; group 4, Clcr < or = 30, n = 10). The dosage regimens were-groups 1 and 2: 400 mg i.v. at 8 hourly intervals; group 3: 400 mg i.v. at 12 hourly intervals and group 4: 300 mg i.v. at 12 hourly intervals. Subjects received a single dose on days 1 and 5 and multiple doses on days 2-4. Multiple plasma and urine samples were collected on days 1 and 5 for the analysis of ciprofloxacin and its metabolites (M1, M2 and M3). Plasma concentrations (Cmax and AUC) of ciprofloxacin and its M1 and M2 metabolites were significantly increased in subjects with reduced Clcr values (Clcr < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) compared with normal subjects (Clcr > 90 mL/min/1.73 m2). A positive correlation was observed between ciprofloxacin clearance (Cl) and Clcr with a slope of 0.29 (r2 = 0.78) and between renal clearance (Clr) and Clcr with a slope of 0.19 (r2 = 0.84). For patients with severe infections a dosage regimen of 400 mg iv 8 hourly is appropriate in patients with Clcr > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. In patients with Clcr values of 31-60 mL/min/1.73 m2 a dosage regimen of 400 mg 12 hourly provides similar plasma concentrations to those observed for subjects with Clcr 61-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 receiving 400 mg 8 hourly. Based on modeling of the plasma concentrations in subjects with Clcr < or = 30 ml/min/1.73 m2, a dosage regimen of 400 mg every 24 h will provide plasma concentrations similar to those observed in subjects with Clcr between 61-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 given 400 mg every 8 h.
Abstract: Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) which shows good inhibitory activity against HIV-1. Reduced susceptibility to efavirenz has been reported with HIV-1 variants containing single and multiple mutations to the reverse transcriptase enzyme. In vitro and in vivo data suggest that the resistance profile of efavirenz overlaps with that of the NNRTIs nevirapine and delavirdine. Clinically significant drug interactions have been reported with efavirenz and indinavir and saquinavir. An increase in dosage of indinavir from 800 to 1000 mg 3 times daily is recommended during coadministration with efavirenz. Use of efavirenz in combination with saquinavir as the sole protease inhibitor is not recommended. Once-daily efavirenz in combination with zidovudine plus lamivudine or indinavir or nelfinavir increased CD4+ cell counts and reduced HIV RNA plasma levels to below quantifiable levels (< 400 copies/ml) in HIV-infected patients. A sustained reduction in viral load was maintained for at least 72 weeks in 1 study. Nervous system symptoms (including headache, dizziness, insomnia and fatigue) and dermatological effects (including maculopapular rash) appear to be the most common adverse events reported with efavirenz-containing antiretroviral regimens.
Abstract: STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the rates of torsades de pointes associated with ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin administration. DESIGN: Retrospective database analysis. INTERVENTION: Evaluation of reported rates of torsades de pointes in patients who received these quinolones between January 1, 1996, and May 2, 2001. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In the United States, 25 cases of torsades de pointes associated with these quinolones (ciprofloxacin 2, ofloxacin 2, levofloxacin 13, gatifloxacin 8, moxifloxacin 0) were identified. Ciprofloxacin was associated with a significantly lower rate of torsades de pointes (0.3 cases/10 million prescriptions, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0-1.1) than levofloxacin (5.4/10 million, 95% CI 2.9-9.3, p<0.001) or gatifloxacin (27/10 million, 95% CI 12-53, p<0.001 for comparison with ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin). When the analysis was limited to the first 16 months after initial U.S. approval of the agent, the rates for levofloxacin (16/10 million) and gatifloxacin (27/10 million) were similar (p>0.5). CONCLUSION: Levofloxacin should be administered with caution in patients with risk factors for QT prolongation. Gatifloxacin should be avoided in the same patient population, and the recommended dosage of 400 mg/day should not be exceeded.
Abstract: Ciprofloxacin has been widely used for treating infections and has been found to have very low cardiovascular side effects. QTc prolongation with the use of ciprofloxacin is yet to be reported in literature. A case report highlighting QTc prolongation by use of ciprofloxacin is being presented.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To report a case of acquired long QT syndrome that, after exclusion of all other possible causes, was probably related to therapy with efavirenz, a novel nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. CASE SUMMARY: This patient presented with recurrent syncope and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, which was treated with overdrive ventricular pacing and was eliminated by discontinuation of the offending drug. DISCUSSION: This is the first reported case of QT prolongation and severe ventricular arrhythmia associated with the use of efavirenz. The temporal relationship between the initiation of treatment and the onset of electrocardiographic abnormalities, the absence of other apparent precipitating factors, as well as the normalization of QT interval and the resolution of the arrhythmia after discontinuation of the drug, strongly suggest a causal relationship between efavirenz and this adverse clinical event. CONCLUSIONS: Our case shows that any new pharmaceutical compound introduced in clinical practice may potentially result in QT prolongation and life-threatening arrhythmia.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz is currently used at a fixed dose of 600 mg/d. However, dosage individualization based on plasma concentration monitoring might be indicated. This study aimed to assess the efavirenz pharmacokinetic profile and interpatient versus intrapatient variability in patients who are positive for human immunodeficiency virus, to explore the relationship between drug exposure, efficacy, and central nervous system toxicity and to build up a Bayesian approach for dosage adaptation. METHODS: The population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by use of NONMEM based on plasma samples from a cohort of unselected patients receiving efavirenz. With the use of a 1-compartment model with first-order absorption, the influence of demographic and clinical characteristics on oral clearance and oral volume of distribution was examined. The average drug exposure during 1 dosing interval was estimated for each patient and correlated with markers of efficacy and toxicity. The population kinetic parameters and the variabilities were integrated into a Bayesian equation for dosage adaptation based on a single plasma sample. RESULTS: Data from 235 patients with a total of 719 efavirenz concentrations were collected. Oral clearance was 9.4 L/h, oral volume of distribution was 252 L, and the absorption rate constant was 0.3 h(-1). Neither the demographic covariates evaluated nor the comedications showed a clinically significant influence on efavirenz pharmacokinetics. A large interpatient variability was found to affect efavirenz relative bioavailability (coefficient of variation, 54.6%), whereas the intrapatient variability was small (coefficient of variation, 26%). An inverse correlation between average drug exposure and viral load and a trend with central nervous system toxicity were detected. This enabled the derivation of a dosing adaptation strategy suitable to bring the average concentration into a therapeutic target from 1000 to 4000 microg/L to optimize viral load suppression and to minimize central nervous system toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: The high interpatient and low intrapatient variability values, as well as the potential relationship with markers of efficacy and toxicity, support the therapeutic drug monitoring of efavirenz. However, further evaluation is needed before individualization of an efavirenz dosage regimen based on routine drug level monitoring should be recommended for optimal patient management.
Abstract: There are few data on the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive patients with end-stage renal disease. We describe the tolerability, safety and efficacy of an efavirenz-containing regimen in one such patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.
Abstract: The new respiratory fluoroquinolones (gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and on the horizon, garenoxacin) offer many improved qualities over older agents such as ciprofloxacin. These include retaining excellent activity against Gram-negative bacilli, with improved Gram-positive activity (including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus). In addition, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and garenoxacin all demonstrate increased anaerobic activity (including activity against Bacteroides fragilis). The new fluoroquinolones possess greater bioavailability and longer serum half-lives compared with ciprofloxacin. The new fluoroquinolones allow for once-daily administration, which may improve patient adherence. The high bioavailability allows for rapid step down from intravenous administration to oral therapy, minimizing unnecessary hospitalization, which may decrease costs and improve quality of life of patients. Clinical trials involving the treatment of community-acquired respiratory infections (acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, acute sinusitis, and community-acquired pneumonia) demonstrate high bacterial eradication rates and clinical cure rates. In the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, the various new fluoroquinolones appear to be comparable to each other, but may be more effective than macrolide or cephalosporin-based regimens. However, additional data are required before it can be emphatically stated that the new fluoroquinolones as a class are responsible for better outcomes than comparators in community-acquired respiratory infections. Gemifloxacin (except for higher rates of hypersensitivity), levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin have relatively mild adverse effects that are more or less comparable to ciprofloxacin. In our opinion, gatifloxacin should not be used, due to glucose alterations which may be serious. Although all new fluoroquinolones react with metal ion-containing drugs (antacids), other drug interactions are relatively mild compared with ciprofloxacin. The new fluoroquinolones gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin have much to offer in terms of bacterial eradication, including activity against resistant respiratory pathogens such as penicillin-resistant, macrolide-resistant, and multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae. However, ciprofloxacin-resistant organisms, including ciprofloxacin-resistant S. pneumoniae, are becoming more prevalent, thus prudent use must be exercised when prescribing these valuable agents.
Abstract: Drug-drug interactions involving efavirenz are of major concern in clinical practice. We evaluated the effects of multiple doses of efavirenz on omeprazole 5-hydroxylation (CYP2C19) and sulfoxidation (CYP3A). Healthy volunteers (n = 57) were administered a single 20 mg oral dose of racemic omeprazole either with a single 600 mg oral dose of efavirenz or after 17 days of administration of 600 mg/day of efavirenz. The concentrations of racemic omeprazole, 5-hydroxyomeoprazole (and their enantiomers), and omeprazole sulfone in plasma were measured using a chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Relative to single-dose treatment, multiple doses of efavirenz significantly decreased (P < 0.0001) the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity (AUC(0-∞)) of racemic-, R- and S-omeprazole (2.01- to 2.15-fold) and the corresponding AUC(0-∞) metabolic ratio (MR) for 5-hydroxyomeprazole (1.36- to 1.44-fold) as well as the MR for omeprazole sulfone (∼2.0) (P < 0.0001). The significant reduction in the AUC of 5-hydroxyomeprazole after repeated efavirenz dosing suggests induction of sequential metabolism and mixed inductive/inhibitory effects of efavirenz on CYP2C19. In conclusion, efavirenz enhances omeprazole metabolism in a nonstereoselective manner through induction of CYP3A and CYP2C19 activity.
Abstract: Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drugs are absorbed efficiently after oral administration despite of their hydrophilic nature, implying an involvement of carrier-mediated transport in their membrane transport process. It has been that several fluoroquinolones are substrates of organic anion transporter polypeptides OATP1A2 expressed in human intestine derived Caco-2 cells. In the present study, to clarify the involvement of OATP in intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin, the contribution of Oatp1a5, which is expressed at the apical membranes of rat enterocytes, to intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin was investigated in rats. The intestinal membrane permeability of ciprofloxacin was measured by in situ and the vascular perfused closed loop methods. The disappeared and absorbed amount of ciprofloxacin from the intestinal lumen were increased markedly in the presence of 7,8-benzoflavone, a breast cancer resistance protein inhibitor, and ivermectin, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, while it was decreased significantly in the presence of these inhibitors in combination with naringin, an Oatp1a5 inhibitor. Furthermore, the Oatp1a5-mediated uptake of ciprofloxacin was saturable with a K(m) value of 140 µm, and naringin inhibited the uptake with an IC(50) value of 18 µm by Xenopus oocytes expressing Oatp1a5. Naringin reduced the permeation of ciprofloxacin from the mucosal-to-serosal side, with an IC(50) value of 7.5 µm by the Ussing-type chamber method. The estimated IC(50) values were comparable to that of Oatp1a5. These data suggest that Oatp1a5 is partially responsible for the intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin. In conclusion, the intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin could be affected by influx transporters such as Oatp1a5 as well as the efflux transporters such as P-gp and Bcrp.
Abstract: In this study, we present efavirenz physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model development as an example of our best practice approach that uses a stepwise approach to verify the different components of the model. First, a PBPK model for efavirenz incorporating in vitro and clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) data was developed to predict exposure following multiple dosing (600 mg q.d.). Alfentanil i.v. and p.o. drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies were utilized to evaluate and refine the CYP3A4 induction component in the liver and gut. Next, independent DDI studies with substrates of CYP3A4 (maraviroc, atazanavir, and clarithromycin) and CYP2B6 (bupropion) verified the induction components of the model (area under the curve [AUC] ratios within 1.0-1.7-fold of observed). Finally, the model was refined to incorporate the fractional contribution of enzymes, including CYP2B6, propagating autoinduction into the model (Racc 1.7 vs. 1.7 observed). This validated mechanistic model can now be applied in clinical pharmacology studies to prospectively assess both the victim and perpetrator DDI potential of efavirenz.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral drugs are among the therapeutic agents with the highest potential for drug-drug interactions (DDIs). In the absence of clinical data, DDIs are mainly predicted based on preclinical data and knowledge of the disposition of individual drugs. Predictions can be challenging, especially when antiretroviral drugs induce and inhibit multiple cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes simultaneously. METHODS: This study predicted the magnitude of the DDI between efavirenz, an inducer of CYP3A4 and inhibitor of CYP2C8, and dual CYP3A4/CYP2C8 substrates (repaglinide, montelukast, pioglitazone, paclitaxel) using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling approach integrating concurrent effects on CYPs. In vitro data describing the physicochemical properties, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of efavirenz and CYP3A4/CYP2C8 substrates as well as the CYP-inducing and -inhibitory potential of efavirenz were obtained from published literature. The data were integrated in a PBPK model developed using mathematical descriptions of molecular, physiological, and anatomical processes defining pharmacokinetics. Plasma drug-concentration profiles were simulated at steady state in virtual individuals for each drug given alone or in combination with efavirenz. The simulated pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs given alone were compared against existing clinical data. The effect of efavirenz on CYP was compared with published DDI data. RESULTS: The predictions indicate that the overall effect of efavirenz on dual CYP3A4/CYP2C8 substrates is induction of metabolism. The magnitude of induction tends to be less pronounced for dual CYP3A4/CYP2C8 substrates with predominant CYP2C8 metabolism. CONCLUSION: PBPK modeling constitutes a useful mechanistic approach for the quantitative prediction of DDI involving simultaneous inducing or inhibitory effects on multiple CYPs as often encountered with antiretroviral drugs.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.