QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
|Loss of appetite|
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Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of ciprofloxacin, erlotinib and rifampicin. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
The changes in exposure mentioned relate to changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC]. We did not detect any change in exposure to ciprofloxacin. We cannot currently estimate the influence of erlotinib and rifampicin. Erlotinib exposure is reduced to 42%, when combined with ciprofloxacin (140%) and rifampicin (35%). This can be associated with reduced effectiveness. We did not detect any change in exposure to rifampicin. We cannot currently estimate the influence of ciprofloxacin and erlotinib.
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Ciprofloxacin has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 70%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather short at 3.5 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached quickly. The protein binding [ Pb ] is very weak at 30%. About 55.0% of an administered dose is excreted unchanged via the kidneys and this proportion is seldom changed by interactions. The metabolism mainly takes place via CYP1A2 and the active transport takes place partly via BCRP, OATP1A2 and PGP.
Erlotinib has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 68%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is 13 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached after approximately 52 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is moderately strong at 95% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is 61 liters, Since the substance has a low hepatic extraction rate of 0.06, displacement from protein binding [Pb] in the context of an interaction can increase exposure. The metabolism takes place via CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, among others and the active transport takes place partly via BCRP and PGP.
Rifampicin has a high oral bioavailability [ F ] of 90%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change little during an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather short at 3.5 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached quickly. The protein binding [ Pb ] is moderately strong at 75% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 101 liters. The metabolism does not take place via the common cytochromes and the active transport takes place partly via OATP1B1, OATP1B3 and PGP.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither ciprofloxacin, erlotinib nor rifampicin increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our findings, neither ciprofloxacin, erlotinib nor rifampicin increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: Ciprofloxacin can trigger potentially torsades de pointes ventricular arrhythmias. We do not know of any QT-prolonging potential for erlotinib and rifampicin.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||cip||erl||rif|
|Loss of appetite||52.5 %||n.a.||52.0↓||+|
Abdominal pain (11%): erlotinib
Gastrointestinal hemorrhage (2%): erlotinib, ciprofloxacin
Clostridium difficile diarrhea: ciprofloxacin
Pancreatitis: ciprofloxacin, rifampicin
Elevated transaminases (10.9%): erlotinib, rifampicin
Elevated alkaline phosphatase (10%): rifampicin
Elevated GGT (10%): rifampicin
Liver failure: erlotinib, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin
Photosensitivity (10%): erlotinib, ciprofloxacin
Toxic epidermal necrolysis: erlotinib, ciprofloxacin
Hand foot syndrome: erlotinib
Stevens johnson syndrome: erlotinib, ciprofloxacin
Irritability (5%): ciprofloxacin
Nasopharyngitis (5%): ciprofloxacin
Nasal discharge (3%): ciprofloxacin
Interstitial lung disease: erlotinib
Headache (3%): ciprofloxacin
Disturbance of attention: ciprofloxacin
Memory impairment: ciprofloxacin
Peripheral neuropathy: ciprofloxacin
Pseudotumor cerebri: ciprofloxacin
Raised intracranial pressure: ciprofloxacin
Optic neuritis: rifampicin
Renal failure: erlotinib, ciprofloxacin
Hemorrhagic cystitis: ciprofloxacin
Tubulointerstitial nephritis: ciprofloxacin
Myocardial infarction: ciprofloxacin
Hypersensitivity reaction: ciprofloxacin
Anaphylactic reaction: rifampicin
Aplastic anemia: ciprofloxacin
Hemolytic anemia: ciprofloxacin
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: rifampicin
Myasthenia gravis: ciprofloxacin
Rupture of tendon: ciprofloxacin
Aortic aneurysm: ciprofloxacin
Based on your
Abstract: We investigated the pharmacokinetics of rifampicin and its major metabolites, 25-desacetylrifampicin and 3-formylrifampicin, in two groups of six patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis, who received either multiple oral or intravenous rifampicin therapy in combination with intravenous isoniazid and ethambutol. Serum concentrations of rifampicin were each determined after a single oral and intravenous test dose of 600 mg rifampicin at the beginning and after 1 and 3 weeks of tuberculostatic treatment. Analysis of rifampicin and its metabolites was performed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. It was found that, due to autoinduction of its metabolizing hepatic enzymes, the systemic clearance of rifampicin increased from 5.69 to 9.03 l/h after 3 weeks of multiple dosing. The volume of distribution of the drug was constant over the period of this study. The bioavailability of the active, orally administered rifampicin decreased from 93% after the first single oral dose to 68% after 3 weeks of oral and intravenous rifampicin therapy. Relating to the increase in systemic (hepatic) clearance, a bioavailability no lower than 90% can be predicted. The reduction to 68% indicates that, in addition to an increase of hepatic metabolism, an induction of a prehepatic "first-pass" effect resulted from multiple rifampicin doses. Our study of rifampicin metabolites confirm that prehepatic metabolism was induced, since a higher metabolic ratio resulted after the oral doses than after the intravenous rifampicin test doses. A preabsorptive process can therefore be excluded as a cause of reduced bioavailability.
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of intravenous ciprofloxacin and its metabolites were characterized in 42 subjects with various degrees of renal function (group 1, Clcr (mL/min/1.73 m2) > 90, n = 10; group 2, Clcr 61-90, n = 11; group 3, Clcr 31-60, n = 11; group 4, Clcr < or = 30, n = 10). The dosage regimens were-groups 1 and 2: 400 mg i.v. at 8 hourly intervals; group 3: 400 mg i.v. at 12 hourly intervals and group 4: 300 mg i.v. at 12 hourly intervals. Subjects received a single dose on days 1 and 5 and multiple doses on days 2-4. Multiple plasma and urine samples were collected on days 1 and 5 for the analysis of ciprofloxacin and its metabolites (M1, M2 and M3). Plasma concentrations (Cmax and AUC) of ciprofloxacin and its M1 and M2 metabolites were significantly increased in subjects with reduced Clcr values (Clcr < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) compared with normal subjects (Clcr > 90 mL/min/1.73 m2). A positive correlation was observed between ciprofloxacin clearance (Cl) and Clcr with a slope of 0.29 (r2 = 0.78) and between renal clearance (Clr) and Clcr with a slope of 0.19 (r2 = 0.84). For patients with severe infections a dosage regimen of 400 mg iv 8 hourly is appropriate in patients with Clcr > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. In patients with Clcr values of 31-60 mL/min/1.73 m2 a dosage regimen of 400 mg 12 hourly provides similar plasma concentrations to those observed for subjects with Clcr 61-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 receiving 400 mg 8 hourly. Based on modeling of the plasma concentrations in subjects with Clcr < or = 30 ml/min/1.73 m2, a dosage regimen of 400 mg every 24 h will provide plasma concentrations similar to those observed in subjects with Clcr between 61-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 given 400 mg every 8 h.
Abstract: STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the rates of torsades de pointes associated with ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin administration. DESIGN: Retrospective database analysis. INTERVENTION: Evaluation of reported rates of torsades de pointes in patients who received these quinolones between January 1, 1996, and May 2, 2001. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In the United States, 25 cases of torsades de pointes associated with these quinolones (ciprofloxacin 2, ofloxacin 2, levofloxacin 13, gatifloxacin 8, moxifloxacin 0) were identified. Ciprofloxacin was associated with a significantly lower rate of torsades de pointes (0.3 cases/10 million prescriptions, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0-1.1) than levofloxacin (5.4/10 million, 95% CI 2.9-9.3, p<0.001) or gatifloxacin (27/10 million, 95% CI 12-53, p<0.001 for comparison with ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin). When the analysis was limited to the first 16 months after initial U.S. approval of the agent, the rates for levofloxacin (16/10 million) and gatifloxacin (27/10 million) were similar (p>0.5). CONCLUSION: Levofloxacin should be administered with caution in patients with risk factors for QT prolongation. Gatifloxacin should be avoided in the same patient population, and the recommended dosage of 400 mg/day should not be exceeded.
Abstract: Ciprofloxacin has been widely used for treating infections and has been found to have very low cardiovascular side effects. QTc prolongation with the use of ciprofloxacin is yet to be reported in literature. A case report highlighting QTc prolongation by use of ciprofloxacin is being presented.
Abstract: The antibiotics rifamycin SV and rifampicin substantially reduce sulfobromophthalein (BSP) elimination in humans. In rats, rifamycin SV and rifampicin were shown to interfere with hepatic organic anion uptake by inhibition of the organic anion transporting polypeptides Oatp1 and Oatp2. Therefore, we investigated the effects of rifamycin SV and rifampicin on the OATPs of human liver and determined whether rifampicin is a substrate of 1 or several of these carriers. In complementary RNA (cRNA)-injected Xenopus laevis oocytes, rifamycin SV (10 micromol/L) cis-inhibited human organic anion transporting polypeptide C (SLC21A6) (OATP-C), human organic anion transporting polypeptide 8 (SLC21A8) (OATP8), human organic anion transporting polypeptide B (SLC21A9) (OATP-B), and human organic anion transporting polypeptide A (SLC21A3) (OATP-A) mediated BSP uptake by 69%, 79%, 89%, and 57%, respectively, as compared with uptake into control oocytes. In the presence of 100 micromol/L rifamycin SV, BSP uptake was almost completely abolished. Approximate K(i) values were 2 micromol/L for OATP-C, 3 micromol/L for OATP8, 3 micromol/L for OATP-B and 11 micromol/L for OATP-A. Rifampicin (10 micromol/L) inhibited OATP8-mediated BSP uptake by 50%, whereas inhibition of OATP-C-, OATP-B-, and OATP-A-mediated BSP transport was below 15%. 100 micromol/L rifampicin inhibited OATP-C- and OATP8-, OATP-B- and OATP-A-mediated BSP uptake by 66%, 96%, 25%, and 49%, respectively. The corresponding K(i) values were 17 micromol/L for OATP-C, 5 micromol/L for OATP8, and 51 micromol/L for OATP-A. Direct transport of rifampicin could be shown for OATP-C (apparent K(m) value 13 micromol/L) and OATP8 (2.3 micromol/L). In conclusion, these results show that rifamycin SV and rifampicin interact with OATP-mediated substrate transport to different extents. Inhibition of human liver OATPs can explain the previously observed effects of rifamycin SV and rifampicin on hepatic organic anion elimination.
Abstract: Rifampin, a member of the rifamycin class of antibiotics, is well known for its ability to induce drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters, through activation of the pregnane X receptor. Available data suggest rifampin entry into hepatocytes may be transporter-mediated. Accordingly, it is therefore plausible that modulation of the achievable intracellular concentration of rifampin by drug uptake transporters would influence the degree of induction. In this study, we expressed an array of known hepatic uptake transporters to show the key hepatic rifampin uptake transporters are liver-specific members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family (OATP). Indeed, both OATP-C and OATP8 seemed capable of mediating rifampin uptake into HeLa cells. OATP-C, however, seemed to have far greater affinity and capacity for rifampin transport. In addition, several allelic variants of OATP-C known to be present among European and African Americans were found to have markedly decreased rifampin transport activity. In cell-based, transactivation assays, OATP-C expression was associated with increased cellular rifampin retention as well as potentiation of PXR reporter gene activity. This is the first demonstration of an uptake transporter such as OATP-C, in modulating PXR function, and sheds important new insight into our understanding of the molecular determinants of PXR-mediated inductive processes.
Abstract: A randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study was conducted to evaluate the bioequivalence of 6 tablets of erlotinib 25 mg and 1 tablet of erlotinib 150 mg (arm A, n = 42) and the oral bioavailability of the 150-mg tablet versus a 25-mg intravenous infusion (arm B, n = 20) in healthy subjects. The washout period was 2 weeks between treatments. Plasma concentrations of erlotinib and its active metabolite, OSI-420, were measured after each dose. The ratios of geometric means for AUC(0-infinity) and Cmax of erlotinib following 6 tablets of erlotinib 25 mg and 1 tablet of erlotinib 150 mg were (1 and 0.95) within the predefined bioequivalence range of 0.80 to 1.25. The mean absolute oral bioavailability, using compartmental analysis, was estimated as 59% (95% confidence interval, 55%-63%). Overall, 6 tablets of erlotinib 25 mg are bioequivalent to a single 150-mg tablet. Both intravenous and oral erlotinib were generally well tolerated with an estimated bioavailability of 59% following oral administration.
Abstract: The new respiratory fluoroquinolones (gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and on the horizon, garenoxacin) offer many improved qualities over older agents such as ciprofloxacin. These include retaining excellent activity against Gram-negative bacilli, with improved Gram-positive activity (including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus). In addition, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and garenoxacin all demonstrate increased anaerobic activity (including activity against Bacteroides fragilis). The new fluoroquinolones possess greater bioavailability and longer serum half-lives compared with ciprofloxacin. The new fluoroquinolones allow for once-daily administration, which may improve patient adherence. The high bioavailability allows for rapid step down from intravenous administration to oral therapy, minimizing unnecessary hospitalization, which may decrease costs and improve quality of life of patients. Clinical trials involving the treatment of community-acquired respiratory infections (acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, acute sinusitis, and community-acquired pneumonia) demonstrate high bacterial eradication rates and clinical cure rates. In the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, the various new fluoroquinolones appear to be comparable to each other, but may be more effective than macrolide or cephalosporin-based regimens. However, additional data are required before it can be emphatically stated that the new fluoroquinolones as a class are responsible for better outcomes than comparators in community-acquired respiratory infections. Gemifloxacin (except for higher rates of hypersensitivity), levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin have relatively mild adverse effects that are more or less comparable to ciprofloxacin. In our opinion, gatifloxacin should not be used, due to glucose alterations which may be serious. Although all new fluoroquinolones react with metal ion-containing drugs (antacids), other drug interactions are relatively mild compared with ciprofloxacin. The new fluoroquinolones gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin have much to offer in terms of bacterial eradication, including activity against resistant respiratory pathogens such as penicillin-resistant, macrolide-resistant, and multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae. However, ciprofloxacin-resistant organisms, including ciprofloxacin-resistant S. pneumoniae, are becoming more prevalent, thus prudent use must be exercised when prescribing these valuable agents.
Abstract: If tuberculosis therapy is to be shortened it is imperative that the sterilising activity of current and future anti-tuberculosis drugs is enhanced. Intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) phagocytosed by macrophages may be a key subpopulation of bacteria that are less readily eliminated by therapy. Here we investigate whether macrophages provide MTB with a pharmacological sanctuary site, making them less susceptible to chemotherapy than extracellular bacilli. Intracellular drug activity was determined by a novel colorimetric method that measures the ability of a drug to protect A-THP1 cells from infection-mediated cell death by H37Rv. Extracellular bactericidal activity was determined by the microplate alamar blue assay (MABA). Further, the effect of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expressed on macrophages on the intracellular kill of H37Rv was assessed. To screen the anti-tuberculosis drugs for P-gp substrate specificity, their toxicity and cellular accumulation were determined in CEM and CEM(VBL100) cells. Intracellular and extracellular anti-tuberculosis drug activity following 7-day treatment with isoniazid (mean EC(50)+/-SD: 36.7+/-2.2 and 57.2+/-2.5 ng/mL, respectively) and ethambutol (243+/-95 and 263+/-12 ng/mL, respectively) were similar. However, for rifampicin a higher concentration was required to kill intracellular (148+/-32 ng/mL) versus extracellular (1.27+/-0.02 ng/mL) bacilli. The P-gp inhibitor tariquidar, significantly increased intracellular kill of H37Rv by ethambutol and rifampicin and both of these drugs were shown to be substrates for P-gp using the P-gp overexpressing CEM(VBL100) cells. We observed a large discrepancy between intracellular and extracellular activity of rifampicin (but not with isoniazid or ethambutol). Several factors could have accounted for this including inoculum size, media and cell-mediated metabolism. These factors make the comparison of intracellular and extracellular drug activity complex. However, the intracellular assay described here has potential for studying the impact of host proteins (such as drug transporters) on the intracellular activity of drugs, and has been used successfully here to demonstrate that both rifampicin and ethambutol are substrates for P-gp.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Erlotinib is an orally active antitumor agent. Analyses in vitro using human liver microsomes and recombinant enzymes showed that erlotinib was metabolized primarily by CYP3A4, with a secondary contribution from CYP1A2. METHODS: A computer-based simulation model, SimCYP, predicted that CYP3A4 contributed to approximately 70% of the metabolic elimination of erlotinib, with CYP1A2 being responsible for the other approximately 30%. A drug-drug interaction study was therefore conducted for erlotinib and a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, ketoconazole, in healthy male volunteers to evaluate the impact of CYP3A4 inhibition on erlotinib exposure. RESULTS: Ketoconazole caused an almost two-fold increase in erlotinib plasma area under the concentration curve and in maximum plasma concentration. This is consistent with the SimCYP prediction of a two-fold increase in erlotinib AUC, further validating a primary (approximately 70%) role of CYP3A4 in erlotinib elimination. CONCLUSION: Prediction of clinically important drug-drug interaction with SimCYP using in vitro human metabolism data can be a powerful tool during early clinical development to ensure safe administration of anticancer drugs, which are often co-administered at maximum tolerated doses with other drugs as part of a palliative treatment regimen.
Abstract: In the recent years, eight tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been approved for cancer treatment and numerous are under investigation. These drugs are rationally designed to target specific tyrosine kinases that are mutated and/or over-expressed in cancer tissues. Post marketing study commitments have been made upon (accelerated) approval such as additional pharmacokinetic studies in patients with renal- or hepatic impairment, in children, additional interactions studies and studies on the relative or absolute bioavailability. Therefore, much information will emerge on the pharmacokinetic behavior of these drugs after their approval. In the present manuscript, the pharmacokinetic characteristics; absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME), of the available TKIs are reviewed. Results from additional studies on the effect of drug transporters and drug-drug interactions have been incorporated. Overall, the TKIs reach their maximum plasma levels relatively fast; have an unknown absolute bioavailability, are extensively distributed and highly protein bound. The drugs are primarily metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 with other CYP-enzymes playing a secondary role. They are predominantly excreted with the feces and only a minor fraction is eliminated with the urine. All TKIs appear to be transported by the efflux ATP binding-cassette transports B1 and G2. Additionally these drugs can inhibit some of their own metabolizing enzymes and transporters making steady-state metabolism and drug-drug interactions both complex and unpredictable. By understanding the pharmacokinetic profile of these drugs and their similarities, factors that influence drug exposure will be better recognized and this knowledge may be used to limit sub- or supra-therapeutic drug exposure.
Abstract: PURPOSE: An intravenous (IV) erlotinib formulation has not been characterized in cancer patients but may be useful in those with gastrointestinal abnormalities that impact on the ability to take oral medication. This study sought to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of erlotinib administered as a single 30-min infusion in patients with advanced solid tumors and absolute bioavailability of erlotinib tablets at matched doses. METHODS: This was a two-center, open label, Phase I, dose-escalation and bioavailability study of single dose IV and oral erlotinib. RESULTS: The highest escalated IV erlotinib dose achieved was 100 mg, with only mild adverse events reported. The MTD for IV erlotinib was not reached as a predetermined erlotinib plasma concentration cap of 4 microg/mL was exceeded in 3/6 patients. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed. Median bioavailability of erlotinib tablets was 76%. CONCLUSIONS: A 100 mg single IV dose of erlotinib, given as a 30-min infusion, was well tolerated with only minor adverse events and the high level of bioavailability of oral erlotinib was confirmed.
Abstract: The 4-anilinoquinazolines (gefitinib, erlotinib and lapatinib) are members of a class of potent and selective inhibitors of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family of tyrosine kinases that have been developed to treat patients with tumours with defined genetic alterations of the HER tyrosine kinase domain. They are characterized by a moderate rate of absorption after oral administration with peak plasma concentrations at several hours post-dose. Absolute bioavailability of gefitinib and erlotinib is about 60%. Low bioavailability is assumed for lapatinib. The drugs are extensively distributed in human tissues, including tumour tissues, have a large volume of distribution at least 3-fold exceeding the volume of body water and are extensively (about 95%) protein bound to α(1)-acid glycoprotein and albumin. Existing human data for gefitinib and erlotinib indicate that these substances penetrate into the central nervous system and accumulate in brain tumours, possibly due to leaks in the blood-brain barrier. Gefitinib, erlotinib and the absorbed fraction of lapatinib undergo extensive metabolism - mainly via hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and also via CYP2D6 (gefitinib) and CYP1A2 (erlotinib) - and are primarily eliminated by biotransformation. The excretion of unchanged gefitinib, erlotinib, lapatinib and their metabolites occurs predominantly in the faeces and only a minor fraction is excreted in the urine. No relevant effects of age, sex, bodyweight or race on their pharmacokinetics have been reported to date. Limited available data indicate that genetic polymorphisms in enzymes and transporters involved in the pharmacokinetics of gefitinib (CYP2D6) and erlotinib (CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and ABCG2 [breast cancer resistance protein]) alter the exposure to these drugs. Modification of drug dose should be considered in patients with severe hepatic impairment receiving these tyrosine kinase inhibitors and in current smokers receiving erlotinib. Existing recommendations for dose adjustment (i.e. a dose decrement or increment for gefitinib, erlotinib and lapatinib in the presence of CYP3A4 inhibitors or inducers, respectively; a dose increase for erlotinib in smoking patients) need to be validated in clinical studies. Further investigations are required to explain the large interindividual variability in the pharmacokinetics of these drugs and to assess the clinical relevance of interaction potential and inhibitory effects on the metabolizing enzymes and transporters.
Abstract: The human organic anion and cation transporters are classified within two SLC superfamilies. Superfamily SLCO (formerly SLC21A) consists of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), while the organic anion transporters (OATs) and the organic cation transporters (OCTs) are classified in the SLC22A superfamily. Individual members of each superfamily are expressed in essentially every epithelium throughout the body, where they play a significant role in drug absorption, distribution and elimination. Substrates of OATPs are mainly large hydrophobic organic anions, while OATs transport smaller and more hydrophilic organic anions and OCTs transport organic cations. In addition to endogenous substrates, such as steroids, hormones and neurotransmitters, numerous drugs and other xenobiotics are transported by these proteins, including statins, antivirals, antibiotics and anticancer drugs. Expression of OATPs, OATs and OCTs can be regulated at the protein or transcriptional level and appears to vary within each family by both protein and tissue type. All three superfamilies consist of 12 transmembrane domain proteins that have intracellular termini. Although no crystal structures have yet been determined, combinations of homology modelling and mutation experiments have been used to explore the mechanism of substrate recognition and transport. Several polymorphisms identified in members of these superfamilies have been shown to affect pharmacokinetics of their drug substrates, confirming the importance of these drug transporters for efficient pharmacological therapy. This review, unlike other reviews that focus on a single transporter family, briefly summarizes the current knowledge of all the functionally characterized human organic anion and cation drug uptake transporters of the SLCO and the SLC22A superfamilies.
Abstract: Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drugs are absorbed efficiently after oral administration despite of their hydrophilic nature, implying an involvement of carrier-mediated transport in their membrane transport process. It has been that several fluoroquinolones are substrates of organic anion transporter polypeptides OATP1A2 expressed in human intestine derived Caco-2 cells. In the present study, to clarify the involvement of OATP in intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin, the contribution of Oatp1a5, which is expressed at the apical membranes of rat enterocytes, to intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin was investigated in rats. The intestinal membrane permeability of ciprofloxacin was measured by in situ and the vascular perfused closed loop methods. The disappeared and absorbed amount of ciprofloxacin from the intestinal lumen were increased markedly in the presence of 7,8-benzoflavone, a breast cancer resistance protein inhibitor, and ivermectin, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, while it was decreased significantly in the presence of these inhibitors in combination with naringin, an Oatp1a5 inhibitor. Furthermore, the Oatp1a5-mediated uptake of ciprofloxacin was saturable with a K(m) value of 140 µm, and naringin inhibited the uptake with an IC(50) value of 18 µm by Xenopus oocytes expressing Oatp1a5. Naringin reduced the permeation of ciprofloxacin from the mucosal-to-serosal side, with an IC(50) value of 7.5 µm by the Ussing-type chamber method. The estimated IC(50) values were comparable to that of Oatp1a5. These data suggest that Oatp1a5 is partially responsible for the intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin. In conclusion, the intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin could be affected by influx transporters such as Oatp1a5 as well as the efflux transporters such as P-gp and Bcrp.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Erlotinib, N-(3-ethynylphenyl)-6,7-bis(2-methoxyethoxy) quinazolin-4-amine is approved for the treatment for non-small cell lung cancer and pancreatic cancer. Because erlotinib is metabolized predominately by CYP3A4, co-administration of compounds that increase CYP3A4 activity may alter the efficacy and safety of erlotinib therapy. Two phase I studies were conducted in healthy male subjects to evaluate the effect of pre- or co-administered rifampicin, a CYP3A4 inducer, on the pharmacokinetics of erlotinib. METHODS: Study 1 included Groups A (erlotinib 150 mg days 1 and 15, rifampicin 600 mg days 8-14) and B (erlotinib 150 mg days 1 and 15) in a parallel group study design. Study 2 subjects received erlotinib 150 mg day 1, erlotinib 450 mg day 15, and rifampicin 600 mg days 8-18. The primary endpoint in each study was the ratio of exposure (AUC0-∞ and C max) between days 1 and 15. Urinary cortisol metabolic induction ratios were determined in Study 1 for Group A subjects only. RESULTS: In Study 1, the geometric mean ratios of AUC0-∞ and C max were 33 and 71 %, respectively, and the mean cortisol metabolic index increased from 7.4 to 27.0, suggesting cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme induction. In Study 2, the geometric mean ratios for AUC0-∞ and C max were 19 and 34 % (when dose adjusted from 450 to 150 mg erlotinib), respectively, a greater relative decrease than observed in Study 1. CONCLUSIONS: Erlotinib exposure (AUC0-∞ and C max) was reduced after pre- or concomitant dosing with rifampicin. Doses of ≥450 mg erlotinib may be necessary to compensate for concomitant medications with strong CYP3A4 enzyme induction effect.
Abstract: Background: Co-administration of antineoplastics with ART is challenging due to potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs). However, trials specifically assessing such DDIs are lacking. Our objective was to simulate DDIs between the antineoplastics erlotinib and gefitinib with key antiretroviral drugs and to predict dose adjustments using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Methods: In vitro data describing chemical properties and pharmacokinetic processes of each drug and their effect on cytochrome P450 isoforms were obtained from the literature. Plasma drug-concentration profiles were simulated in a virtual population of 50 individuals receiving erlotinib or gefitinib alone or with darunavir/ritonavir, efavirenz or etravirine. Simulated pharmacokinetic parameters and the magnitude of DDIs with probe drugs (midazolam, maraviroc) were compared with literature values. Erlotinib and gefitinib pharmacokinetics with and without antiretrovirals were compared and dose-adjustment strategies were evaluated. Results: Simulated parameters of each drug and the magnitude of DDIs with probe drugs were in agreement with reference values. Darunavir/ritonavir increased erlotinib and gefitinib exposure, while efavirenz and etravirine decreased erlotinib and gefitinib concentrations. Based on our predictions, dose-adjustment strategies may consist of once-daily dosing erlotinib at 25 mg and gefitinib at 125 mg with darunavir/ritonavir; or erlotinib at 200 mg and gefitinib at 375 mg with etravirine. The interaction with efavirenz was not overcome even after doubling erlotinib or gefitinib doses. Conclusions: PBPK models predicted the in vivo pharmacokinetics of erlotinib, gefitinib and the antiretrovirals darunavir/ritonavir, efavirenz and etravirine, and the DDIs between them. The simulated dose-adjustments may represent valuable strategies to optimize antineoplastic therapy in HIV-infected patients.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: This study aimed to construct a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of rifampicin that can accurately and quantitatively predict complex drug-drug interactions (DDIs) involving its saturable hepatic uptake and auto-induction. Using in silico and in vitro parameters, and reported clinical pharmacokinetic data, rifampicin PBPK model was built and relevant parameters for saturable hepatic uptake and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) auto-induction were optimized by fitting. The parameters for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and CYP2C9 induction by rifampicin were similarly optimized using clinical DDI data with midazolam and tolbutamide as probe substrates, respectively. For validation, our current PBPK model was applied to simulate complex DDIs with glibenclamide (a substrate of CYP3A/2C9 and hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs)). Simulated results were in quite good accordance with the observed data. Altogether, our constructed PBPK model of rifampicin demonstrates the robustness and utility in quantitatively predicting CYP3A/2C9 induction-mediated and/or OATP inhibition-mediated DDIs with victim drugs.
Abstract: The introduction of rifampicin (rifampin) into tuberculosis (TB) treatment five decades ago was critical for shortening the treatment duration for patients with pulmonary TB to 6 months when combined with pyrazinamide in the first 2 months. Resistance or hypersensitivity to rifampicin effectively condemns a patient to prolonged, less effective, more toxic, and expensive regimens. Because of cost and fears of toxicity, rifampicin was introduced at an oral daily dose of 600 mg (8-12 mg/kg body weight). At this dose, clinical trials in 1970s found cure rates of ≥ 95% and relapse rates of < 5%. However, recent papers report lower cure rates that might be the consequence of increased emergence of resistance. Several lines of evidence suggest that higher rifampicin doses, if tolerated and safe, could shorten treatment duration even further. We conducted a narrative review of rifampicin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in adults across a range of doses and highlight variables that influence its pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics. Rifampicin exposure has considerable inter- and intra-individual variability that could be reduced by administration during fasting. Several factors including malnutrition, HIV infection, diabetes mellitus, dose size, pharmacogenetic polymorphisms, hepatic cirrhosis, and substandard medicinal products alter rifampicin exposure and/or efficacy. Renal impairment has no influence on rifampicin pharmacokinetics when dosed at 600 mg. Rifampicin maximum (peak) concentration (C) > 8.2 μg/mL is an independent predictor of sterilizing activity and therapeutic drug monitoring at 2, 4, and 6 h post-dose may aid in optimizing dosing to achieve the recommended rifampicin concentration of ≥ 8 µg/mL. A higher rifampicin Cis required for severe forms TB such as TB meningitis, with C≥ 22 μg/mL and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to 6 h (AUC) ≥ 70 μg·h/mL associated with reduced mortality. More studies are needed to confirm whether doses achieving exposures higher than the current standard dosage could translate into faster sputum conversion, higher cure rates, lower relapse rates, and less mortality. It is encouraging that daily rifampicin doses up to 35 mg/kg were found to be safe and well-tolerated over a period of 12 weeks. High-dose rifampicin should thus be considered in future studies when constructing potentially shorter regimens. The studies should be adequately powered to determine treatment outcomes and should include surrogate markers of efficacy such as C/MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and AUC/MIC.
Abstract: The development of small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has revolutionized the management of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Because these drugs are commonly used in combination with other types of medication, the risk of clinically significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is an important consideration, especially for patients using multiple drugs for coexisting medical conditions. Clinicians need to be aware of the potential for clinically important DDIs when considering therapeutic options for individual patients. In this article, we describe the main mechanisms underlying DDIs with the EGFR-TKIs that are currently approved for the treatment of NSCLC, and, specifically, the potential for interactions mediated via effects on gastrointestinal pH, cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism, uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase, and transporter proteins. We review evidence of such DDIs with the currently approved EGFR-TKIs (gefitinib, erlotinib, afatinib, osimertinib, and icotinib) and discuss several information sources that are available online to aid clinical decision-making. We conclude by summarizing the most clinically relevant DDIs with these EFGR-TKIs and provide recommendations for managing, minimizing, or avoiding DDIs with the different agents.