|St. john's wort|
QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Explanations of the substances for patients
Monitoring of ciprofloxacin and zolpidem recommended.
Increased concentrations of zoplidemMechanism: Zolpidem is essentially metabolized via the CYP isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP1A2. Ciprofloxacin is a strong inhibitor of CYP1A2 and also inhibits CYP3A4. Inhibition of these breakdown pathways can lead to increased concentrations of zolpidem.
Effect: Ciprofloxacin can increase the zoplidem concentration. In a pharmacokinetic study, ciprofloxacin was shown to increase the bioavailability of zolpidem by 46%. An increase in Cmax, an increase in Tmax and t1 / 2, and a significant increase in AUC of 1.46-fold were shown.
Measures: The product information (zolpidem) advises against a combination with ciprofloxacin. If the combination is necessary, use the lowest possible zolpidem dose or, when adding ciprofloxacin to an existing zolpidem therapy, reduce the dose of zolpidem and watch out for increased ADRs (increased sedation, hallucinations, amnesia).
|St. john's wort||1||1||1|
The changes in exposure mentioned relate to changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC]. We did not detect any change in exposure to ciprofloxacin, when combined with zolpidem (100%). We cannot currently estimate the influence of st. john's wort. Zolpidem exposure increases to 109%, when combined with ciprofloxacin (173%) and st. john's wort (74%). We do not expect any change in exposure for st. john's wort, when combined with ciprofloxacin (100%) and zolpidem (100%).
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Ciprofloxacin has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 70%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather short at 3.5 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached quickly. The protein binding [ Pb ] is very weak at 30%. About 55.0% of an administered dose is excreted unchanged via the kidneys and this proportion is seldom changed by interactions. The metabolism mainly takes place via CYP1A2 and the active transport takes place partly via BCRP, OATP1A2 and PGP.
The bioavailability, half-life, and volume of distribution of st. john's wort are unknown to us.
Zolpidem has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 70%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather short at 2 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached quickly. The protein binding [ Pb ] is moderately strong at 92% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is 43 liters in the middle range, Since the substance has a low hepatic extraction rate of 0.23, displacement from protein binding [Pb] in the context of an interaction can increase exposure. The metabolism takes place via CYP1A2, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4, among others.
|Serotonergic Effects a||1||Ø||+||Ø|
Recommendation: As a precautionary measure, symptoms of serotonergic overstimulation should be taken into account, especially after increasing the dose and at doses in the upper therapeutic range.
Rating: St. john's wort has a mild effect on the serotonergic system. The risk of a serotonergic syndrome can be classified as low with this medication if the dosage is in the usual range. According to our knowledge, neither ciprofloxacin nor zolpidem increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our findings, neither ciprofloxacin, st. john's wort nor zolpidem increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: Ciprofloxacin can trigger potentially torsades de pointes ventricular arrhythmias. We do not know of any QT-prolonging potential for st. john's wort and zolpidem.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||cip||st.||zol|
|Nasal discharge||3.0 %||3.0||n.a.||n.a.|
|Blurred vision||3.0 %||n.a.||n.a.||3.0|
Vomiting (1.5%): ciprofloxacin
Clostridium difficile diarrhea: ciprofloxacin
Gastrointestinal hemorrhage: ciprofloxacin
Dyspepsis: st. john's wort
Myocardial infarction: ciprofloxacin
Toxic epidermal necrolysis: ciprofloxacin
Photosensitivity: st. john's wort, ciprofloxacin
Stevens johnson syndrome: ciprofloxacin
Hepatotoxicity: ciprofloxacin, zolpidem
Liver failure: ciprofloxacin
Cholestatic hepatitis: zolpidem
Hypersensitivity reaction: ciprofloxacin
Hallucinations: ciprofloxacin, zolpidem
Restlessness: st. john's wort
Suicidal: ciprofloxacin, zolpidem
Dream disorder: zolpidem
Hemorrhagic cystitis: ciprofloxacin
Renal failure: ciprofloxacin
Tubulointerstitial nephritis: ciprofloxacin
Seizure: ciprofloxacin, zolpidem
Disturbance of attention: ciprofloxacin
Memory impairment: ciprofloxacin
Peripheral neuropathy: ciprofloxacin
Pseudotumor cerebri: ciprofloxacin
Raised intracranial pressure: ciprofloxacin
Impaired cognition: zolpidem
Respiratory infection: zolpidem
Aplastic anemia: ciprofloxacin
Hemolytic anemia: ciprofloxacin
Myasthenia gravis: ciprofloxacin
Rupture of tendon: ciprofloxacin
Aortic aneurysm: ciprofloxacin
Based on your
Abstract: Zolpidem is an imidazopyridine which differs in structure from the benzodiazepines and zopiclone. It is a strong sedative with only minor anxiolytic, myorelaxant and anticonvulsant properties, and has been shown to be effective in inducing and maintaining sleep in adults. The available evidence suggests that zolpidem produces no rebound or withdrawal effects, and patients have experienced good daytime alertness. Zolpidem 10mg in non-elderly and a reduced dose of 5mg in elderly individuals are clinically effective. In humans, the major metabolic routes include oxidation and hydroxylation; none of the metabolites appears to be pharmacologically active. The pharmacological activity of zolpidem results from selective binding to the central benzodiazepine receptors of the omega 1 subtype. Zolpidem is approximately 92% bound to plasma proteins; absolute bio-availability of zolpidem is about 70%. After single 20mg oral doses, typical values of pharmacokinetic variables for zolpidem in humans are: a peak plasma concentration of 192 to 324 micrograms/L occurring 0.75 to 2.6 hours postdose; a terminal elimination half-line of 1.5 to 3.2 hours; and total clearance of 0.24 to 0.27 ml/min/kg. Zolpidem pharmacokinetics are unchanged during multiple-dose treatment. Zolpidem pharmacokinetics are not significantly influenced by gender. Clearance of zolpidem in children is 3 times higher than in young adults, and is lower in very elderly people. There are no significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters between various racial groups. Dosage reduction appears to be prudent in patients with renal disease, and caution should be exercised when prescribing zolpidem to elderly patients with hepatic impairment. Coadministration of haloperidol, cimetidine, ranitidine, chlorpromazine, warfarin, digoxin or flumazenil do not alter the pharmacokinetics of zolpidem; flumazenil predictably antagonises the hypnotic effects of zolpidem. Alertness tends to be reduced when cimetidine is combined with zolpidem. Volunteers treated with imipramine plus zolpidem developed anterograde amnesia.
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of intravenous ciprofloxacin and its metabolites were characterized in 42 subjects with various degrees of renal function (group 1, Clcr (mL/min/1.73 m2) > 90, n = 10; group 2, Clcr 61-90, n = 11; group 3, Clcr 31-60, n = 11; group 4, Clcr < or = 30, n = 10). The dosage regimens were-groups 1 and 2: 400 mg i.v. at 8 hourly intervals; group 3: 400 mg i.v. at 12 hourly intervals and group 4: 300 mg i.v. at 12 hourly intervals. Subjects received a single dose on days 1 and 5 and multiple doses on days 2-4. Multiple plasma and urine samples were collected on days 1 and 5 for the analysis of ciprofloxacin and its metabolites (M1, M2 and M3). Plasma concentrations (Cmax and AUC) of ciprofloxacin and its M1 and M2 metabolites were significantly increased in subjects with reduced Clcr values (Clcr < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) compared with normal subjects (Clcr > 90 mL/min/1.73 m2). A positive correlation was observed between ciprofloxacin clearance (Cl) and Clcr with a slope of 0.29 (r2 = 0.78) and between renal clearance (Clr) and Clcr with a slope of 0.19 (r2 = 0.84). For patients with severe infections a dosage regimen of 400 mg iv 8 hourly is appropriate in patients with Clcr > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. In patients with Clcr values of 31-60 mL/min/1.73 m2 a dosage regimen of 400 mg 12 hourly provides similar plasma concentrations to those observed for subjects with Clcr 61-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 receiving 400 mg 8 hourly. Based on modeling of the plasma concentrations in subjects with Clcr < or = 30 ml/min/1.73 m2, a dosage regimen of 400 mg every 24 h will provide plasma concentrations similar to those observed in subjects with Clcr between 61-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 given 400 mg every 8 h.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Azole antifungal agents may impair hepatic clearance of drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450-3A isoforms. The imidazopyridine hypnotic agent zolpidem is metabolized in humans in part by P450-3A, as well as by a number of other cytochromes. Potential interactions of zolpidem with 3 commonly prescribed azole derivatives were evaluated in a controlled clinical study. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, 5-way, crossover, clinical pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic study, 12 volunteers received (A) zolpidem placebo plus azole placebo, (B) 5 mg zolpidem plus azole placebo (C) zolpidem plus ketoconazole, (D) zolpidem plus itraconazole, and (E) zolpidem plus fluconazole. RESULTS: Mean apparent oral clearance of zolpidem when given with placebo was 422 mL/min, and elimination half-life was 1.9 hours. Clearance was significantly reduced to 250 mL/min when zolpidem was given with ketoconazole, and half-life was prolonged to 2.4 hours. Coadministration of zolpidem with itraconazole or fluconazole also reduced clearance (320 and 338 mL/min), but differences compared to the zolpidem plus placebo treatment did not reach significance. Zolpidem-induced benzodiazepine agonist effects (increased electrocardiographic beta activity, digit-symbol substitution test impairment, and delayed recall) during the first 4 hours after dosage were enhanced by ketoconazole but not by itraconazole or fluconazole. CONCLUSION: Coadministration of zolpidem with ketoconazole impairs zolpidem clearance and enhances its benzodiazepine-like agonist pharmacodynamic effects. Itraconazole and fluconazole had a small influence on zolpidem kinetics and dynamics. The findings are consistent with in vitro studies of differentially impaired zolpidem metabolism by azole derivatives.
Abstract: Twenty-nine drugs of disparate structures and physicochemical properties were used in an examination of the capability of human liver microsomal lability data ("in vitro T(1/2)" approach) to be useful in the prediction of human clearance. Additionally, the potential importance of nonspecific binding to microsomes in the in vitro incubation milieu for the accurate prediction of human clearance was investigated. The compounds examined demonstrated a wide range of microsomal metabolic labilities with scaled intrinsic clearance values ranging from less than 0.5 ml/min/kg to 189 ml/min/kg. Microsomal binding was determined at microsomal protein concentrations used in the lability incubations. For the 29 compounds studied, unbound fractions in microsomes ranged from 0.11 to 1.0. Generally, basic compounds demonstrated the greatest extent of binding and neutral and acidic compounds the least extent of binding. In the projection of human clearance values, basic and neutral compounds were well predicted when all binding considerations (blood and microsome) were disregarded, however, including both binding considerations also yielded reasonable predictions. Including only blood binding yielded very poor projections of human clearance for these two types of compounds. However, for acidic compounds, disregarding all binding considerations yielded poor predictions of human clearance. It was generally most difficult to accurately predict clearance for this class of compounds; however the accuracy was best when all binding considerations were included. Overall, inclusion of both blood and microsome binding values gave the best agreement between in vivo clearance values and clearance values projected from in vitro intrinsic clearance data.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The viral protease inhibitor ritonavir has the capacity to inhibit and induce the activity of cytochrome P450-3A (CYP3A) isoforms, leading to drug interactions that may influence the efficacy and toxicity of other antiretroviral therapies, as well as pharmacologic treatments of coincident or complicating diseases. METHODS: The inhibitory effect of ritonavir on the biotransformation of the hypnotic agents triazolam and zolpidem was tested in vitro using human liver microsomes. In a double-blind clinical study, volunteer study subjects received 0.125 mg triazolam or 5.0 mg zolpidem concurrent with low-dose ritonavir (four doses of 200 mg), or with placebo. RESULTS: Ritonavir was a potent in vitro inhibitor of triazolam hydroxylation but was less potent as an inhibitor of zolpidem hydroxylation. In the clinical study, ritonavir reduced triazolam clearance to < 4% of control values (p < .005), prolonged elimination half-life (41 versus 3 hours; p < .005), and magnified benzodiazepine agonist effects such as sedation and performance impairment. In contrast, ritonavir reduced zolpidem clearance to 78% of control values (p < .08), and slightly prolonged elimination half-life (2.4 versus 2.0 hours; NS). Benzodiazepine agonist effects of zolpidem were not altered by ritonavir. CONCLUSION: Short-term low-dose administration of ritonavir produces a large and significant impairment of triazolam clearance and enhancement of clinical effects. In contrast, ritonavir produced small and clinically unimportant reductions in zolpidem clearance. The findings are consistent with the complete dependence of triazolam clearance on CYP3A activity, compared with the partial dependence of zolpidem clearance on CYP3A.
Abstract: STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the rates of torsades de pointes associated with ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin administration. DESIGN: Retrospective database analysis. INTERVENTION: Evaluation of reported rates of torsades de pointes in patients who received these quinolones between January 1, 1996, and May 2, 2001. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In the United States, 25 cases of torsades de pointes associated with these quinolones (ciprofloxacin 2, ofloxacin 2, levofloxacin 13, gatifloxacin 8, moxifloxacin 0) were identified. Ciprofloxacin was associated with a significantly lower rate of torsades de pointes (0.3 cases/10 million prescriptions, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0-1.1) than levofloxacin (5.4/10 million, 95% CI 2.9-9.3, p<0.001) or gatifloxacin (27/10 million, 95% CI 12-53, p<0.001 for comparison with ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin). When the analysis was limited to the first 16 months after initial U.S. approval of the agent, the rates for levofloxacin (16/10 million) and gatifloxacin (27/10 million) were similar (p>0.5). CONCLUSION: Levofloxacin should be administered with caution in patients with risk factors for QT prolongation. Gatifloxacin should be avoided in the same patient population, and the recommended dosage of 400 mg/day should not be exceeded.
Abstract: Ciprofloxacin has been widely used for treating infections and has been found to have very low cardiovascular side effects. QTc prolongation with the use of ciprofloxacin is yet to be reported in literature. A case report highlighting QTc prolongation by use of ciprofloxacin is being presented.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: AIMS: To assess the effect of voriconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of zolpidem. METHODS: In a randomized cross-over study with two phases, 10 healthy subjects ingested 10 mg of zolpidem with or without oral voriconazole pretreatment. The concentrations of zolpidem were measured in plasma up to 24 h and pharmacodynamic variables were monitored for 12 h. RESULTS: Voriconazole increased the peak plasma concentration of zolpidem by 1.23-fold [P < 0.05; 90% confidence interval (CI) 1.05, 1.45] and the area under the plasma zolpidem concentration-time curve by 1.48-fold (P < 0.001; 90% CI 1.29, 1.74). The time to peak plasma zolpidem concentration was unchanged by voriconazole but the half-life was prolonged from 3.2 to 4.1 h (P < 0.01; 95% CI on the difference 0.27, 1.45). The pharmacodynamics of zolpidem were unaffected by voriconazole. CONCLUSION: Voriconazole caused a moderate increase in exposure to zolpidem in healthy young subjects but no clear pharmacodynamic changes were observed between the groups.
Abstract: The new respiratory fluoroquinolones (gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and on the horizon, garenoxacin) offer many improved qualities over older agents such as ciprofloxacin. These include retaining excellent activity against Gram-negative bacilli, with improved Gram-positive activity (including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus). In addition, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and garenoxacin all demonstrate increased anaerobic activity (including activity against Bacteroides fragilis). The new fluoroquinolones possess greater bioavailability and longer serum half-lives compared with ciprofloxacin. The new fluoroquinolones allow for once-daily administration, which may improve patient adherence. The high bioavailability allows for rapid step down from intravenous administration to oral therapy, minimizing unnecessary hospitalization, which may decrease costs and improve quality of life of patients. Clinical trials involving the treatment of community-acquired respiratory infections (acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, acute sinusitis, and community-acquired pneumonia) demonstrate high bacterial eradication rates and clinical cure rates. In the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, the various new fluoroquinolones appear to be comparable to each other, but may be more effective than macrolide or cephalosporin-based regimens. However, additional data are required before it can be emphatically stated that the new fluoroquinolones as a class are responsible for better outcomes than comparators in community-acquired respiratory infections. Gemifloxacin (except for higher rates of hypersensitivity), levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin have relatively mild adverse effects that are more or less comparable to ciprofloxacin. In our opinion, gatifloxacin should not be used, due to glucose alterations which may be serious. Although all new fluoroquinolones react with metal ion-containing drugs (antacids), other drug interactions are relatively mild compared with ciprofloxacin. The new fluoroquinolones gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin have much to offer in terms of bacterial eradication, including activity against resistant respiratory pathogens such as penicillin-resistant, macrolide-resistant, and multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae. However, ciprofloxacin-resistant organisms, including ciprofloxacin-resistant S. pneumoniae, are becoming more prevalent, thus prudent use must be exercised when prescribing these valuable agents.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and carbamazepine in healthy volunteers. The study consisted of 2 periods: period 1 (reference), when each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg zolpidem, and period 2 (test), when each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg zolpidem and 400 mg carbamazepine. Between the 2 periods, the participants were treated for 15 days with a single daily dose of 400 mg carbamazepine. Pharmacokinetic parameters of zolpidem administered in each treatment period were calculated using noncompartmental analysis. In the 2 periods of treatments, the mean peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) were 59 ng/mL (zolpidem alone) and 35 ng/mL (zolpidem after pretreatment with carbamazepine). The t(max), times taken to reach C(max), were 0.9 hours and 1.0 hour, respectively, and the total areas under the curve (AUC(0-∞)) were 234.9 ng·h/mL and 101.5 ng·h/mL, respectively. The half-life of zolpidem was 2.3 and 1.6 hours, respectively. Carbamazepine interacts with zolpidem in healthy volunteers and lowers its bioavailability by about 57%. The experimental data demonstrate the pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and carbamazepine and suggest that the observed interaction may be clinically significant, but its relevance has to be confirmed.
Abstract: Our objective was to evaluate a possible pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and ciprofloxacin in healthy volunteers. The study consisted of two periods: Period 1 (reference), when each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg zolpidem and Period 2 (test), when each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg zolpidem and 500 mg ciprofloxacin. Between the two periods, the subjects were treated for 5 days with a single daily dose of 500 mg ciprofloxacin. Plasma concentrations of zolpidem were determined during a 12-hour period following drug administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters of zolpidem administered in each treatment period were calculated using non-compartmental analysis and the data from two periods were compared to determine statistically significant differences. In the two periods of treatments, the mean peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) were 75.73±28.34 ng/ml (zolpidem alone) and 80.58±22.40 ng/ml (zolpidem after pre-treatment with ciprofloxacin). The tmax, times taken to reach Cmax, were 0.91±0.42 and 1.44±0.61 h, respectively, and the total areas under the curve (AUC0-∞) were 300.2±115.5 and 438.1±142.6 ng h/ml, respectively. The half-life of zolpidem was 2.39±0.53 h when administered alone and 3.34±0.87 h after pre-treatment with ciprofloxacin. These differences were statistically significant for Cmax, tmax, AUC0-∞, half-life and mean residence time. Ciprofloxacin interacts with zolpidem in healthy volunteers, raising its bioavailability by about 46%. This magnitude of effect is likely to be clinically significant.
Abstract: 1. Our objective was to evaluate a possible pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and fluvoxamine in healthy volunteers. 2. The study consisted of two periods: Period 1 (reference), when each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg zolpidem; and Period 2 (test), when each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg zolpidem and 100 mg fluvoxamine. Between the two periods, the subjects were treated for 6 days with a single daily dose of 100 mg fluvoxamine. 3. Pharmacokinetic parameters of zolpidem given in each treatment period were calculated using non-compartmental analysis and the data from two periods were compared to determine statistically significant differences. 4. In the two periods of treatments, the mean peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) were 56.4 ± 25.6 ng/mL (zolpidem alone) and 67.3 ± 25.8 ng/mL (zolpidem after pretreatment with fluvoxamine). The t(max), times taken to reach C(max), were 0.83 ± 0.44 and 1.26 ± 0.74 h, respectively, and the total areas under the curve (AUC(0-∞)) were 200.9 ± 116.8 and 512.0 ± 354.6 ng h/mL, respectively. The half-life of zolpidem was 2.24 ± 0.81 h when given alone and 4.99 ± 2.92 h after pretreatment with fluvoxamine. 5. Fluvoxamine interacts with zolpidem in healthy volunteers and increases its exposure by approximately 150%. The experimental data showed the pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and fluvoxamine, and suggest that the observed interaction might be clinically significant, but its relevance has to be confirmed.
Abstract: Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drugs are absorbed efficiently after oral administration despite of their hydrophilic nature, implying an involvement of carrier-mediated transport in their membrane transport process. It has been that several fluoroquinolones are substrates of organic anion transporter polypeptides OATP1A2 expressed in human intestine derived Caco-2 cells. In the present study, to clarify the involvement of OATP in intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin, the contribution of Oatp1a5, which is expressed at the apical membranes of rat enterocytes, to intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin was investigated in rats. The intestinal membrane permeability of ciprofloxacin was measured by in situ and the vascular perfused closed loop methods. The disappeared and absorbed amount of ciprofloxacin from the intestinal lumen were increased markedly in the presence of 7,8-benzoflavone, a breast cancer resistance protein inhibitor, and ivermectin, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, while it was decreased significantly in the presence of these inhibitors in combination with naringin, an Oatp1a5 inhibitor. Furthermore, the Oatp1a5-mediated uptake of ciprofloxacin was saturable with a K(m) value of 140 µm, and naringin inhibited the uptake with an IC(50) value of 18 µm by Xenopus oocytes expressing Oatp1a5. Naringin reduced the permeation of ciprofloxacin from the mucosal-to-serosal side, with an IC(50) value of 7.5 µm by the Ussing-type chamber method. The estimated IC(50) values were comparable to that of Oatp1a5. These data suggest that Oatp1a5 is partially responsible for the intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin. In conclusion, the intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin could be affected by influx transporters such as Oatp1a5 as well as the efflux transporters such as P-gp and Bcrp.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs are often involved in explicit criteria for inappropriate prescribing in older adults. Several scales were developed for screening of anticholinergic drugs and estimation of the anticholinergic burden. However, variation exists in scale development, in the selection of anticholinergic drugs, and the evaluation of their anticholinergic load. This study aims to systematically review existing anticholinergic risk scales, and to develop a uniform list of anticholinergic drugs differentiating for anticholinergic potency. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE. Studies were included if provided (1) a finite list of anticholinergic drugs; (2) a grading score of anticholinergic potency and, (3) a validation in a clinical or experimental setting. We listed anticholinergic drugs for which there was agreement in the different scales. In case of discrepancies between scores we used a reputed reference source (Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference®) to take a final decision about the anticholinergic activity of the drug. RESULTS: We included seven risk scales, and evaluated 225 different drugs. Hundred drugs were listed as having clinically relevant anticholinergic properties (47 high potency and 53 low potency), to be included in screening software for anticholinergic burden. CONCLUSION: Considerable variation exists among anticholinergic risk scales, in terms of selection of specific drugs, as well as of grading of anticholinergic potency. Our selection of 100 drugs with clinically relevant anticholinergic properties needs to be supplemented with validated information on dosing and route of administration for a full estimation of the anticholinergic burden in poly-medicated older adults.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: Zolpidem is extensively metabolized by CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP1A2. Previous studies demonstrated that pharmacokinetics of zolpidem was affected by CYP inhibitors, but not by short-term treatment of clarithromycin. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of steady-state clarithromycin on the pharmacokinetics of zolpidem in healthy subjects. In the control phase, 33 subjects received a single dose of zolpidem (5 mg). One week later, in the clarithromycin phase, the subjects received clarithromycin (500 mg) twice daily for 5 days to reach steady state concentrations, followed by zolpidem (5 mg) and clarithromycin (500 mg). In each phase, plasma concentrations of zolpidem were evaluated up to 12 h after drug administration by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. In the clarithromycin phase, mean total area under the curve of zolpidem (AUC) was 1.62-fold higher and the time to reach peak plasma concentration of zolpidem (t) was prolonged by 1.95-fold compared to the control phase. In addition, elimination half-life (t) of zolpidem was 1.40-fold longer during co-administration with clarithromycin and its apparent oral clearance (CL/F) was 36.2% lower with clarithromycin administration. The experimental data demonstrate the significant pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and clarithromycin at steady-state.