QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Explanations of the substances for patients
Monitoring of fluconazole and diazepam recommended.
Elevated diazepam concentrations - increased / prolonged sedationMechanism: Diazepam is hepatically metabolized via the CYP3A4 enzyme.
Effect: The effect of diazepam can be strengthened and prolonged by inhibiting the breakdown. In a study with 12 healthy volunteers, an approximately 2.5-fold increase in both diazepam AUC and half-life was observed with the combination diazepam-fluconazole.
Measures: Clinically monitor tolerability (e.g. increased sedation, dizziness), select a lower diazepam dose if necessary. Alternative benzodiazepines can be lorazepam or oxazepam, which are not metabolized by CYP enzymes.
|Rosuvastatin||1.31 [1.31,9.03] 1,2,3||n.a.||1.31|
|Diazepam||2.08 [1.46,2.35] 4||1||2.08|
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. Diazepam exposure increases to 208%, when combined with rosuvastatin (100%) and fluconazole (208%). The AUC is between 146% and 235% depending on the CYP2C19
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Rosuvastatin has a low oral bioavailability [ F ] of 20%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change strongly with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is 19 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached after approximately 76 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is moderately strong at 90% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 134 liters, However, since the substance has a high hepatic extraction rate of 0.71, only changes in the liver blood flow [Q] are relevant. The metabolism mainly takes place via CYP2C9 and the active transport takes place partly via BCRP, MRP2, MRP4, OATP1A2, OATP1B1, OATP1B3 and OATP2B1.
Diazepam has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 76%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 36 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 144 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is 97% strong and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 83 liters. Since the substance has a low hepatic extraction rate of 0.03, displacement from protein binding [Pb] in the context of an interaction can lead to increased exposure. The metabolism takes place via CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, among others.
Fluconazole has a high oral bioavailability [ F ] of 90%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change little during an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 30 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 120 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is very weak at 11.5% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is 56 liters. About 80.0% of an administered dose is excreted unchanged via the kidneys and this proportion is seldom changed by interactions. The metabolism does not take place via the common cytochromes.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither rosuvastatin, diazepam nor fluconazole increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||Ø||+||Ø|
Recommendation: As a precaution, attention should be paid to anticholinergic symptoms, especially after increasing the dose and at doses in the upper therapeutic range.
Rating: Diazepam only has a mild effect on the anticholinergic system. The risk of anticholinergic syndrome with this medication is rather low if the dosage is in the usual range. According to our knowledge, neither rosuvastatin nor fluconazole increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: Fluconazole can potentially trigger torsades de pointes ventricular arrhythmias. We do not know of any QT-prolonging potential for rosuvastatin and diazepam.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||ros||dia||flu|
|Abdominal pain||2.4 %||2.4||n.a.||n.a.|
Seizure: diazepam, fluconazole
Rebound effect: diazepam
Elevated alkaline phosphatase: fluconazole
Elevated ALT: fluconazole
Elevated AST: fluconazole
Liver failure: fluconazole
Respiratory depression: diazepam
Diabetes mellitus: rosuvastatin
DRESS syndrome: fluconazole
Rupture of tendon: rosuvastatin
Renal failure: rosuvastatin
Stevens johnson syndrome: fluconazole
Toxic epidermal necrolysis: fluconazole
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: The effects of steady state dosing with omeprazole and cimetidine on plasma diazepam levels have been studied in 12 healthy males. Single doses of diazepam (0.1 mg.kg-1 i.v.) were administered after one week of treatment with omeprazole 20 mg once daily, cimetidine 400 mg b.d. or placebo, and the treatment was continued for a further 5 days. Blood was collected for 120 h after the dose of diazepam for the measurement of diazepam and its major metabolite desmethyl diazepam. The mean clearance of diazepam was decreased by 27% and 38% and its half-life was increased by 36% and 39% after omeprazole and cimetidine, respectively. Neither drug had any apparent effect on the volume of distribution of diazepam. Desmethyldiazepam appeared more slowly after both omeprazole and cimetidine. It is concluded that the decrease in diazepam clearance was associated with inhibition of hepatic metabolism both by omeprazole and cimetidine. However, since diazepam has a wide therapeutic range, it is unlikely that concomitant treatment with therapeutically recommended doses of either omeprazole or cimetidine will result in a clinically significant interaction with diazepam.
Abstract: 1. The oral pharmacokinetics of fluconazole were studied in three groups of volunteers (n = 5) with various degrees of renal function (GFR greater than 70 ml min-1; 20-70 ml min-1; less than 20 ml min-1) and in a group of patients with chronic end-stage renal failure requiring regular haemodialysis. 2. The pharmacokinetics of fluconazole were markedly affected by impaired renal function with the elimination of half-life in Group III (GFR less than 20 ml min-1) being approximately three times that observed in normal volunteers (Group I). 3. Fluconazole renal clearance was positively correlated with GFR. 4. Non-renal clearance of fluconazole decreased with decreasing renal function. 5. Approximately 38% of the 50 mg dose of fluconazole was removed by haemodialysis extending over a 3 h period.
Abstract: Healthy volunteers received single doses of three benzodiazepines (diazepam, 10 mg i.v.; alprazolam, 1.0 mg orally; lorazepam, 2 mg i.v.) on two occasions in random sequence. One trial was a control; for the other, subjects ingested propoxyphene, 65 mg every 6 h, for the duration of the benzodiazepine study. The kinetics of each benzodiazepine were determined from multiple plasma concentrations measured following each dose. For diazepam, propoxyphene produced a small and statistically insignificant prolongation of elimination half-life (43 vs 38 h) and reduction of total clearance (0.41 vs 0.47 ml min-1 kg-1). Propoxyphene significantly prolonged alprazolam half-life (18 vs 12 h, P less than 0.005) and reduced total clearance (0.8 vs 1.3 ml min-1 kg-1, P less than 0.005). Propoxyphene had no apparent influence on lorazepam half-life (13.4 vs 13.5 h) or clearance (1.5 vs 1.4 ml min-1 kg-1). Thus propoxyphene significantly impairs the clearance of alprazolam, biotransformed mainly by the oxidative reaction of aliphatic hydroxylation. Propoxyphene has far less effect on the oxidation of diazepam by N-demethylation, and has no apparent influence on lorazepam conjugation.
Abstract: 1 The absorption of single doses of diazepam in six adult epileptic subjects following intravenous, oral and rectal administration were studied in order to evaluate the usefulness of the latter in emergency situations in the adult. 2 Diazepam tablets (Valium, Roche) and rectal solution (Valium solution for intravenous administration) produced similar peak serum concentrations after delays of 15-90 min. 3 Two suppository formulations showed statistically significant differences in absorption characteristics. 4 Serum diazepam levels above 400 ng ml-1 (suggested to be necessary for a satisfactory anticonvulsant effect) were reached in only a few subjects after rectal doses of 10-20 mg of solution, and then usually after a delay of over 2 h.
Abstract: Metabolism of diazepam (DZP) was studied in vitro to clarify the involvement of different forms of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) in rats, and humans of Japanese and Caucasian origin. Microsomal 3-hydroxylation was the major pathway of DZP metabolism in rats and was inhibited by anti-CYP3A antibodies. Purified CYP3As and CYP2C11 catalysed 3-hydroxylation and N-demethylation, respectively, in the reconstituted systems. The rates of both reactions in human liver microsomes depended on the substrate concentration: the rate of 3-hydroxylation was 3-4 times higher than N-demethylation at 0.2 mM; the two activities were essentially the same at a lower substrate concentration (0.02 mM). Inhibitions of the N-demethylation by anti-CYP2C antibody and S-mephenytoin also depended on the substrate concentration and was detectable only at a low substrate concentration. Kinetic studies revealed the presence of two distinct catalytic activities for the N-demethylation; low Km and low Vmax, and high Km and high Vmax. The former activity seems to be mediated by a CYP2C P450 form. On the other hand, DZP 3-hydroxylation was rather selectively catalysed by a CYP3A P450 at the low and high substrate concentrations. These results were consistent with the observation in vivo that DZP N-demethylation and S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation are closely correlated in humans. These results also suggest that the apparent discrepancy on the role of CYP forms in DZP metabolism in vitro and in vivo may reside in the difference in substrate concentration.
Abstract: The effects of pretreatment with a seven day course of ciprofloxacin on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of an intravenous (5 mg) dose of diazepam were investigated in a group of 12 healthy volunteers in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Ciprofloxacin pretreatment significantly reduced diazepam CL (without ciprofloxacin: 19.5 ml.h-1 kg-1; with ciprofloxacin: 12.3 ml.h-1 kg-1). Diazepam t1/2 was also prolonged (without ciprofloxacin: 36.7 h; with ciprofloxacin: 71.1 h), but volume of distribution was unaltered (without ciprofloxacin: 1.1 l.kg-1; with ciprofloxacin: 1.1 l.kg-1). However, no significant changes were detected in psychometric tests of digit symbol substitution, tapping rate and short memory, as well as levels of concentration, vigilance and tension measured by visual analogue scales.
Abstract: The azole antimycotic itraconazole is a potent and relatively unspecific inhibitor of cytochrome P450 enzymes and has a potentially dangerous interaction with midazolam and triazolam. The possible interaction between itraconazole and diazepam was investigated in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study. Ten healthy volunteers were given orally placebo or itraconazole 200 mg a day for 4 days. The challenge dose of 5 mg of diazepam was ingested on the fourth day, after which plasma samples were collected and psychomotor performance tests were carried out for 42 h. Despite a statistically significant small increase in the area under the plasma diazepam concentration-time curve and the elimination half-life of diazepam, there was no clinically significant interaction as determined by the psychomotor performance tests. The lack of significant first-pass metabolism and the different metabolic pathways of diazepam explain the smaller interaction potential of diazepam compared with midazolam and triazolam. Diazepam, unlike midazolam and triazolam, can be prescribed in usual doses for patients receiving itraconazole and probably other inhibitors of P4503A4, at least when diazepam is used as single doses.
Abstract: 1. We have examined the metabolism of diazepam by ten human cytochrome P450 forms (CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4 and 3A5) expressed in HepG2 cells using a recombinant vaccinia virus system. 2. Among the P450 forms tested, diazepam was significantly demethylated by CYP2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 3A4 and 3A5, with 2C19 exhibiting the highest rate at concentrations < 0.1 mM, and hydroxylated only by the latter three enzymes, with 3A5 being the most active. The N-demethylation activity of diazepam by 2C19 at a concentration of 20 microM was six times of that by 3A4. However, that by 2C9 was detected at only a trace level. 3. CYP2C19, 3A4 and 3A5 of the ten human P450s catalysed the 3-hydroxylation of nordiazepam, and 2B6, the 2C subfamily and the 3A subfamily catalysed the N-demethylation of temazepam. CYP3A4 exhibited the highest activity of nordiazepam 3-hydroxylation and temazepam N-demethylation. 4. Diazepam N-demethylation by human liver microsomes correlated with diazepam 3-hydroxylation, but not S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation. 5. Our results suggest that in the human liver, the metabolism of diazepam to nordiazepam is mediated by CYP3A4, which has been reported as the most abundant P450 form in human liver as well as 2C19, which has been reported as a polymorphic enzyme.
Abstract: (R,S)-Oxazepam is a 1,4-benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug that is metabolized primarily by hepatic glucuronidation. In previous studies, S-oxazepam (but not R-oxazepam) was shown to be polymorphically glucuronidated in humans. The aim of the present study was to identify UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms mediating R- and S-oxazepam glucuronidation in human liver, with the long term objective of elucidating the molecular genetic basis for this drug metabolism polymorphism. All available recombinant UGT isoforms were screened for R- and S-oxazepam glucuronidation activities. Enzyme kinetic parameters were then determined in representative human liver microsomes (HLMs) and in UGTs that showed significant activity. Of 12 different UGTs evaluated, only UGT2B15 showed significant S-oxazepam glucuronidation. Furthermore, the apparent K(m) for UGT2B15 (29-35 microM) was similar to values determined for HLMs (43-60 microM). In contrast, R-oxazepam was glucuronidated by UGT1A9 and UGT2B7. Although apparent K(m) values for HLMs (256-303 microM) were most similar to UGT2B7 (333 microM) rather than UGT1A9 (12 microM), intrinsic clearance values for UGT1A9 were 10 times higher than for UGT2B7. A common genetic variation results in aspartate (UGT2B15*1) or tyrosine (UGT2B15*2) at position 85 of the UGT2B15 protein. Microsomes from human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells overexpressing UGT2B15*1 showed 5 times higher S-oxazepam glucuronidation activity than did UGT2B15*2 microsomes. Similar results were obtained for other substrates, including eugenol, naringenin, 4-methylumbelliferone, and androstane-3alpha-diol. In conclusion, S-oxazepam is stereoselectively glucuronidated by UGT2B15, whereas R-oxazepam is glucuronidated by multiple UGT isoforms. Allelic variation associated with the UGT2B15 gene may explain polymorphic S-oxazepam glucuronidation in humans.
Abstract: A 25-year-old woman who was hospitalized for worsening endocarditis had a prolonged QT interval at baseline and developed monomorphic ventricular arrhythmias, which were managed successfully with pacing and antiarrhythmic therapy. Several days later, the patient started receiving high-dose fluconazole for fungemia and subsequently experienced episodes of torsades de pointes, a polymorphic ventricular arrhythmia associated with a prolonged QT interval or prominent U wave on the electrocardiogram. The arrhythmia developed in the presence of known risk factors. Clinicians should be aware of these risk factors and other relevant structural similarities with drugs that cause torsades de pointes so that they can recognize patients who may be at risk for fluconazole-associated arrhythmia.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Rosuvastatin is a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A-reductase inhibitor developed for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The results of clinical trials suggest that it is effective and well tolerated. OBJECTIVES: The goals of this study were to determine the absolute bioavailability of an oral dose of rosuvastatin and to describe the intravenous pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin in healthy volunteers. METHODS: This was a randomized, open-label, 2-way crossover study consisting of 2 trial days separated by a > or =7-day washout period. Healthy male adult volunteers were given a single oral dose of rosuvastatin 40 mg on one trial day and an intravenous infusion of rosuvastatin 8 mg over 4 hours on the other. Pharmacokinetic and tolerability assessments were conducted up to 96 hours after dosing. A 3-compartment pharmacokinetic model was fitted to the plasma concentration-time profiles obtained for each volunteer after intravenous dosing. RESULTS: Ten white male volunteers entered and completed the trial. Their mean age was 35.7 years (range, 21-51 years), their mean height was 177 cm (range, 169-182 cm), and their mean body weight was 77.6 kg (range, 68-85 kg). The absolute oral bioavailability of rosuvastatin was estimated to be 20.1%,and the hepatic extraction ratio was estimated to be 0.63. The mean volume of distribution at steady state was 134 L. Renal clearance accounted for approximately 28% of total plasma clearance (48.9 L/h). Single oral and intravenous doses of rosuvastatin were well tolerated in this small number of healthy male volunteers. CONCLUSIONS: The absolute oral bioavailability of rosuvastatin in these 10 healthy volunteers was approximately 20%, and absorption was estimated to be 50%. The volume of distribution at steady state was consistent with extensive distribution of rosuvastatin to the tissues. The modest absolute oral bioavailability and high hepatic extraction of rosuvastatin are consistent with first-pass uptake into the liver after oral dosing. Rosuvastatin was cleared by both renal and nonrenal routes; tubular secretion was the predominant renal process.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Rosuvastatin is a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A-reductase inhibitor, or statin, that has been developed for the treatment of dyslipidemia. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the metabolism, excretion, and pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of radiolabeled rosuvastatin ([14C]-rosuvastatin) in healthy volunteers. METHODS: This was a nonrandomized, open-label, single-day trial. Healthy adult male volunteers were given a single oral dose of [14C]-rosuvastatin 20 mg (20 mL [14C]-rosuvastatin solution, nominally containing 50 microCi radioactivity). Blood, urine, and fecal samples were collected up to 10 days after dosing. Tolerability assessments were made up to 10 days after dosing (trial completion) and at a follow-up visit within 14 days of trial completion. RESULTS: Six white male volunteers aged 36 to 52 years (mean, 43.7 years) participated in the trial. The geometric mean peak plasma concentration (C(max)) of rosuvastatin was 6.06 ng/mL and was reached at a median of 5 hours after dosing. At C(max), rosuvastatin accounted for approximately 50% of the circulating radioactive material. Approximately 90% of the rosuvastatin dose was recovered in feces, with the remainder recovered in urine. The majority of the dose (approximately 70%) was recovered within 72 hours after dosing; excretion was complete by 10 days after dosing. Metabolite profiles in feces indicated that rosuvastatin was excreted largely unchanged (76.8% of the dose). Two metabolites-rosuvastatin-5S-lactone and N-desmethyl rosuvastatin-were present in excreta. [14C]-rosuvastatin was well tolerated; 2 volunteers reported 4 mild adverse events that resolved without treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the rosuvastatin dose was excreted unchanged. Given the absolute bioavailability (20%) and estimated absorption (approximately 50%) of rosuvastatin, this finding suggests that metabolism is a minor route of clearance for this agent.
Abstract: The binding of drugs to plasma proteins is important to consider when concentrations in whole blood (eg, in forensic toxicology) are compared with therapeutic and toxic concentrations based on the analysis of plasma or serum. The plasma to whole blood distribution of diazepam (D) and its major metabolite nordiazepam (ND) was investigated under in vitro and ex vivo conditions. Studies in vitro were done by spiking whole blood with D and ND to give concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 microg/g. Venous blood was also obtained from hospital blood donors (n = 66) after informed consent. The hematocrit, hemoglobin, and water content of blood specimens were determined by routine procedures before D and ND were added to produce target concentrations of approximately 0.5 microg/g for each substance. The ex vivo work was done with blood specimens from hospital outpatients who were being medicated with D. Concentrations of D and ND were determined in body fluids by capillary column gas chromatography after adding prazepam as internal standard and solvent extraction with butyl acetate. The method limit of quantitation was 0.03 microg/g for both D and ND. The concentrations of D and ND were highest in plasma and lowest in erythrocytes. The plasma/blood (P/B) distribution ratios did not depend on drug concentration between 0.1 and 1.0 microg/g. The mean P/B ratios were 1.79:1 for D and 1.69:1 for ND when hematocrit was 45%. Furthermore, the P/B ratio for D (y) was positively correlated with blood hematocrit (x) and the regression equation was y = 0.636 + 0.025x (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). A similar strong association was found between the P/B ratio and hematocrit for ND (r = 0.79). P/B ratios of D and ND, blood hematocrit, hemoglobin, and the water content differed between sexes (P < 0.001). The overall mean P/B ratios for D and ND were 1.69 +/- 0.097 (+/- SD) and 1.62 +/- 0.08 (P < 0.001, n = 66) respectively when the mean hematocrit was 42.9 +/- 3.4 (+/- SD). For forensic purposes, it would be better to forgo making any conversion of a drug concentration measured in whole blood to that expected in plasma or serum; instead, therapeutic and toxic concentrations should be established for the actual specimens received.
Abstract: The metabolic activities of six psychotropic drugs, diazepam, clotiazepam, tofisopam, etizolam, tandospirone, and imipramine, were determined for 14 isoforms of recombinant human hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and human liver microsomes by measuring the disappearance rate of parent compounds. In vitro kinetic studies revealed that Vmax/Km values in human liver microsomes were the highest for tofisopam, followed by tandospirone>clotiazepam>imipramine, diazepam, and etizolam. Among the recombinant CYPs, CYP3A4 exhibited the highest metabolic activities of all compounds except for clotiazepam and imipramine. The metabolism of clotiazepam was catalyzed by CYP2B6, CYP3A4, CYP2C18, and CYP2C19, and imipramine was metabolized by CYP2D6 most efficiently. In addition, the metabolic activities of diazepam, clotiazepam, and etizolam in human liver microsomes were inhibited by 2.5 microM ketoconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, by 97.5%, 65.1%, and 83.5%, respectively, and the imipramine metabolism was not detected after the addition of 1 or 10 microM quinidine, a CYP2D6 inhibitor. These results suggest that the psychotropic drugs investigated are metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4, except that CYP2D6 catalyzes the metabolism of imipramine. In addition, this approach based on the disappearance rate appears to be useful for the identification of the responsible CYP isoform(s) of older drugs, for which metabolic profiles have not been reported.
Abstract: BACKGROUND & AIMS: The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, or statins, target liver HMG-CoA and are of proven benefit in the prevention of coronary heart disease. Rosuvastatin is an effective statin notable for liver selectivity and lack of significant metabolism. We assessed the extent and relevance of hepatic transporters to rosuvastatin uptake. METHODS: Transporters involved in rosuvastatin uptake were determined through heterologous expression of multiple human and rat uptake transporters. Human organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and sodium-dependent taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) allelic variants were also assessed. Expression of OATP and NTCP messenger RNA and protein was determined from a bank of human liver samples. RESULTS: Multiple OATP family members, including 1B1, 1B3, 2B1, and 1A2, were capable of rosuvastatin transport. Naturally occurring polymorphisms in OATP1B1, including *5, *9, *15, and *18, were associated with profound loss of activity toward rosuvastatin. Interestingly, the major human hepatic bile acid uptake transporter NTCP, but not rat Ntcp, also transported rosuvastatin. Human hepatocyte studies suggested that NTCP alone accounted for approximately 35% of rosuvastatin uptake. Remarkably, NTCP*2, a variant known to have a near complete loss of function for bile acids, exhibited a profound gain of function for rosuvastatin. Quantitative messenger RNA analysis revealed marked intersubject variability in expression of OATPs and NTCP. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple transporters mediate the overall hepatic uptake of rosuvastatin, and NTCP may be a heretofore unrecognized transporter important to the disposition of rosuvastatin and possibly other drugs/statins in clinical use. Accordingly, transporter expression and polymorphisms may be key determinants of intersubject variability in response to statin therapy in general.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of voriconazole and fluconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of diazepam. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers took 5 mg of oral diazepam in a randomised order on three study sessions: without pretreatment, after oral voriconazole 400 mg twice daily on the first day and 200 mg twice daily on the second day, or after oral fluconazole 400 mg on the first day and 200 mg on the second day. Plasma concentrations of diazepam and N-desmethyldiazepam were determined for up to 48 h. Pharmacodynamic variables were measured for 12 h. RESULTS: In the voriconazole phase, the area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC 0-infinity) of diazepam was increased (geometric mean ratio) 2.2-fold (p < 0.05; 90% confidence interval [CI] 1.56 to 2.82). This was associated with the prolongation of the mean elimination half-life (t(1/2)) from 31 h to 61 h (p < 0.01) after voriconazole. In the fluconazole phase, the AUC 0-infinity of diazepam was increased 2.5-fold (p < 0.01; 90% CI 1.94 to 3.40), and the t(1/2) was prolonged from 31 h to 73 h (p < 0.001). The peak plasma concentration of diazepam was practically unchanged by voriconazole and fluconazole. The pharmacodynamics of diazepam were changed only modestly. CONCLUSION: Both voriconazole and fluconazole considerably increase the exposure to diazepam. Recurrent administration of diazepam increases the risk of clinically significant interactions during voriconazole or fluconazole treatment, because the elimination of diazepam is impaired significantly.
Abstract: Fluconazole is an antifungal medication that has been reported to cause prolongation of the QT interval and Torsades de Pointes (TdP) ventricular tachycardia in adults. We describe the case of an 11-year-old child treated with fluconazole who developed ventricular arrhythmia culminating in TdP. We discuss the possible roles played by genetic and environmental factors in this child's rhythm disturbances. After briefly summarizing similar cases from the adult literature, we outline the putative mechanism by which fluconazole may cause arrhythmia. This case should alert pediatricians to the possible risks of fluconazole use, especially in the presence of electrolyte abnormalities, diuretic use, therapy with other pro-arrhythmic agents, or suspicion of congenital Long-QT Syndrome.
Abstract: PURPOSE: A case of torsades de pointes associated with fluconazole use is described. SUMMARY: A 68-year-old woman with a history of hypertension treated with 2.5 mg of indapamide for 16 months sought medical treatment after having two falls 1 month apart. A computed tomography scan and subsequent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a lesion in the left pons and middle cerebellar peduncle. Biopsy of the pontine lesion revealed large yeast forms and subsequently revealed Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. The patient was initially treated with conventional amphotericin B and flucytosine for six weeks. The first week of therapy was complicated by hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, and an episode of atrial fibrillation that was managed with electrolyte replacement, commencement of metoprolol, and switching from conventional amphotericin B to amphotericin B lipid complex. After six weeks, liposomal amphotericin was discontinued and high-dose oral fluconazole was initiated. Six days after beginning fluconazole therapy, the patient had a generalized tonic-clonic seizure and suffered cardiopulmonary arrest. Postresuscitation, an electrocardiogram demonstrated a corrected Q-T interval of 556 msec. Recurrent episodes of torsades de pointes were also recorded postarrest. Fluconazole was discontinued at this time, and liposomal amphotericin B was resumed. Neurologic and electroencephalographic assessment conducted 48 hours postarrest revealed that significant neurologic damage had been sustained. Supportive care was withdrawn, and the patient died two days later. A postmortem examination revealed no coronary artery disease or hemorrhagic transformation of the pontine cryptococcoma. CONCLUSION: Treatment with high-dose fluconazole was the probable cause of torsades de pointes in a patient with risk factors for this condition. The benefits and risks of using fluconazole should be carefully weighed for patients with risk factors for Q-T interval prolongation.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to measure the anticholinergic activity (AA) of medications commonly used by older adults. A radioreceptor assay was used to investigate the AA of 107 medications. Six clinically relevant concentrations were assessed for each medication. Rodent forebrain and striatum homogenate was used with tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate. Drug-free serum was added to medication and atropine standard-curve samples. For medications that showed detectable AA, average steady-state peak plasma and serum concentrations (C(max)) in older adults were used to estimate relationships between in vitro dose and AA. All results are reported in pmol/mL of atropine equivalents. At typical doses administered to older adults, amitriptyline, atropine, clozapine, dicyclomine, doxepin, L-hyoscyamine, thioridazine, and tolterodine demonstrated AA exceeding 15 pmol/mL. Chlorpromazine, diphenhydramine, nortriptyline, olanzapine, oxybutynin, and paroxetine had AA values of 5 to 15 pmol/mL. Citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, lithium, mirtazapine, quetiapine, ranitidine, and temazepam had values less than 5 pmol/mL. Amoxicillin, celecoxib, cephalexin, diazepam, digoxin, diphenoxylate, donepezil, duloxetine, fentanyl, furosemide, hydrocodone, lansoprazole, levofloxacin, metformin, phenytoin, propoxyphene, and topiramate demonstrated AA only at the highest concentrations tested (patients with above-average C(max) values, who receive higher doses, or are frail may show AA). The remainder of the medications investigated did not demonstrate any AA at the concentrations examined. Psychotropic medications were particularly likely to demonstrate AA. Each of the drug classifications investigated (e.g., antipsychotic, cardiovascular) had at least one medication that demonstrated AA at therapeutic doses. Clinicians can use this information when choosing between equally efficacious medications, as well as in assessing overall anticholinergic burden.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although some of the aetiological factors are known, it is not yet known whether drugs with anticholinergic activity (AA) contribute to this cognitive decline. Such knowledge would provide opportunities to prevent acceleration of cognitive decline in PD. OBJECTIVE: To study whether the use of agents with anticholinergic properties is an independent risk factor for cognitive decline in patients with PD. METHODS: A community-based cohort of patients with PD (n=235) were included and assessed at baseline. They were reassessed 4 and 8 years later. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A detailed assessment of the AA of all drugs prescribed was made, and AA was classified according to a standardised scale. Relationships between cognitive decline and AA load and duration of treatment were assessed using bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses. RESULTS: More than 40% used drugs with AA at baseline. During the 8-year follow-up, the cognitive decline was higher in those who had been taking AA drugs (median decline on MMSE 6.5 points) compared with those who had not taken such drugs (median decline 1 point; p=0.025). In linear regression analyses adjusting for age, baseline cognition and depression, significant associations with decline on MMSE were found for total AA load (standardised beta=0.229, p=0.04) as well as the duration of using AA drugs (standardised beta 0.231, p=0.032). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an association between anticholinergic drug use and cognitive decline in PD. This may provide an important opportunity for clinicians to avoid increasing progression of cognitive decline by avoiding drugs with AA. Increased awareness by clinicians is required about the classes of drugs that have anticholinergic properties.
Abstract: The three hydroxybenzodiazepines oxazepam, temazepam, and lorazepam used for their anxiolytic, sedative, and anticonvulsant properties are metabolized by glucuronidation, which is the predominant pathway in the clearance mechanism of exogenous and endogenous substances during phase II metabolism. The aim of this study was the synthesis of benzodiazepine-O-glucuronides as analytical reference substances. All benzodiazepines are prescribed clinically as racemic formulations. The resulting conjugates from the coupling reactions with glucuronic acid are epimeric pairs of glucuronides. Due to the importance of stereochemical factors in drug disposition it is necessary to separate the diastereomeric forms after synthesis. An enzyme-assisted synthesis was developed and optimized by using microsomal UGT from fresh swine liver to receive multimilligram amounts of the benzodiazepine glucuronides, which were not accessible by standard synthetic procedures, like the Koenigs-Knorr- and Williamson-ether-synthesis. Swine liver microsomes were prepared by homogenization and differential centrifugation of liver tissue. In the presence of liver microsomes the benzodiazepines and cofactor UDPGA were incubated for 24h. After incubation the microsomes were removed by protein precipitation and the residual benzodiazepines by liquid-liquid extraction (dichloromethane). The epimeric pairs of benzodiazepine glucuronides were separated by preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) to obtain the pure benzodiazepine glucuronide epimers. The synthesis products were characterized by mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIMS: The nature and extent of adverse cognitive effects due to the prescription of anticholinergic drugs in older people with and without dementia is unclear. METHODS: We calculated the anticholinergic load (ACL) of medications taken by participants of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of ageing, a cohort of 211 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 133 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients and 768 healthy controls (HC) all aged over 60 years. The association between ACL and cognitive function was examined for each diagnostic group (HC, MCI, AD). RESULTS: A high ACL within the HC group was associated with significantly slower response speeds for the Stroop color and incongruent trials. No other significant relationships between ACL and cognition were noted. CONCLUSION: In this large cohort, prescribed anticholinergic drugs appeared to have modest effects upon psychomotor speed and executive function, but not on other areas of cognition in healthy older adults.
Abstract: The human organic anion and cation transporters are classified within two SLC superfamilies. Superfamily SLCO (formerly SLC21A) consists of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), while the organic anion transporters (OATs) and the organic cation transporters (OCTs) are classified in the SLC22A superfamily. Individual members of each superfamily are expressed in essentially every epithelium throughout the body, where they play a significant role in drug absorption, distribution and elimination. Substrates of OATPs are mainly large hydrophobic organic anions, while OATs transport smaller and more hydrophilic organic anions and OCTs transport organic cations. In addition to endogenous substrates, such as steroids, hormones and neurotransmitters, numerous drugs and other xenobiotics are transported by these proteins, including statins, antivirals, antibiotics and anticancer drugs. Expression of OATPs, OATs and OCTs can be regulated at the protein or transcriptional level and appears to vary within each family by both protein and tissue type. All three superfamilies consist of 12 transmembrane domain proteins that have intracellular termini. Although no crystal structures have yet been determined, combinations of homology modelling and mutation experiments have been used to explore the mechanism of substrate recognition and transport. Several polymorphisms identified in members of these superfamilies have been shown to affect pharmacokinetics of their drug substrates, confirming the importance of these drug transporters for efficient pharmacological therapy. This review, unlike other reviews that focus on a single transporter family, briefly summarizes the current knowledge of all the functionally characterized human organic anion and cation drug uptake transporters of the SLCO and the SLC22A superfamilies.
Abstract: Rosuvastatin is a new generation HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor which exhibits some unique pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties. It has low extrahepatic tissue penetration, low potential for CYP3A4 interactions and substantial LDL-C lowering capacity and therefore has distinct advantages. We conducted a Medline literature search to identify rosuvastatin papers published in English. In this review, we outline the pharmacology of rosuvastatin, highlighting its efficacy and safety. We also review the major clinical trials with reference to primary and secondary prevention, familial hypercholesterolaemia and comparison with other statins. Finally we address its place in clinical practice.
Abstract: Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family transporters accept a number of drugs and are increasingly being recognized as important factors in governing drug and metabolite pharmacokinetics. OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 play an important role in hepatic drug uptake while OATP2B1 and OATP1A2 might be key players in intestinal absorption and transport across blood-brain barrier of drugs, respectively. To understand the importance of OATPs in the hepatic clearance of drugs, the rate-determining process for elimination should be considered; for some drugs, hepatic uptake clearance rather than metabolic intrinsic clearance is the more important determinant of hepatic clearances. The importance of the unbound concentration ratio (liver/blood), K(p,uu) , of drugs, which is partly governed by OATPs, is exemplified in interpreting the difference in the IC(50) of statins between the hepatocyte and microsome systems for the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity. The intrinsic activity and/or expression level of OATPs are affected by genetic polymorphisms and drug-drug interactions. Their effects on the elimination rate or intestinal absorption rate of drugs may sometimes depend on the substrate drug. This is partly because of the different contribution of OATP isoforms to clearance or intestinal absorption. When the contribution of the OATP-mediated pathway is substantial, the pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs should be greatly affected. This review describes the estimation of the contribution of OATP1B1 to the total hepatic uptake of drugs from the data of fold-increases in the plasma concentration of substrate drugs by the genetic polymorphism of this transporter. To understand the importance of the OATP family transporters, modeling and simulation with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model are helpful.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction using 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMGCoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) has a proven survival benefit in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Patients presenting with ACS remain at significant risk of subsequent cardiovascular death and non-fatal myocardial infarction despite high compliance with current guideline indicated secondary prevention therapies. There remains, therefore, a need to consider the potential benefits of more intensive LDL-C lowering after presentation with ACS. Rosuvastatin is the most potent of the currently available statins and has some unique pharmacological properties that may be advantageous in such patients. AREAS COVERED: We conducted a Medline literature search to identify rosuvastatin papers and papers on statin use in ACS published in English. In this review, we outline the pharmacology of rosuvastatin and examine its efficacy and safety. We also evaluate the published trials of statin therapy in ACS and offer an opinion on the use of rosuvastatin in ACS. EXPERT OPINION: There is adequate clinical trial evidence confirming the LDL-C lowering efficacy and safety of high-dose rosuvastatin in ACS. Whilst there are sound theoretical reasons to consider early use of high-dose rosuvastatin in ACS, the available level of evidence is insufficient to justify a wholesale change from the current standard of care.
Abstract: Transporters responsible for hepatic uptake and biliary clearance (CLBile) of rosuvastatin (RSV) have been well characterized. However, the contribution of basolateral efflux clearance (CLBL) to hepatic and systemic exposure of RSV is unknown. Additionally, the appropriate design of in vitro hepatocyte efflux experiments to estimate CLBile versus CLBL remains to be established. A novel uptake and efflux protocol was developed in sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) to achieve desired tight junction modulation while maintaining cell viability. Subsequently, studies were conducted to determine the role of CLBL in the hepatic disposition of RSV using SCH from wild-type (WT) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2)-deficient (TR(-)) rats in the absence and presence of the P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) inhibitor elacridar (GF120918). RSV CLBile was nearly ablated by GF120918 in TR(-) SCH, confirming that Mrp2 and Bcrp are responsible for the majority of RSV CLBile. Pharmacokinetic modeling revealed that CLBL and CLBile represent alternative elimination routes with quantitatively similar contributions to the overall hepatocellular excretion of RSV in rat SCH under baseline conditions (WT SCH in the absence of GF120918) and also in human SCH. Membrane vesicle experiments revealed that RSV is a substrate of MRP4 (Km = 21 ± 7 µM, Vmax = 1140 ± 210 pmol/min per milligram of protein). Alterations in MRP4-mediated RSV CLBL due to drug-drug interactions, genetic polymorphisms, or disease states may lead to changes in hepatic and systemic exposure of RSV, with implications for the safety and efficacy of this commonly used medication.
Abstract: Basolateral efflux clearance (CLBL) contributes significantly to rosuvastatin (RSV) elimination in sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH). The contribution of CLBL to RSV hepatic elimination was determined in single-pass isolated perfused livers (IPLs) from wild-type (WT) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2)-deficient (TR(-)) rats in the absence and presence of the P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) inhibitor, elacridar (GF120918); clearance values were compared with SCH. RSV biliary clearance (CLBile) was ablated almost completely by GF120918 in TR(-) IPLs, confirming that Mrp2 and Bcrp primarily are responsible for RSV CLBile. RSV appearance in outflow perfusate was attributed primarily to CLBL, which was impaired in TR(-) IPLs. CLBL was ≈ 6-fold greater than CLBile in the linear range in WT IPLs in the absence of GF120918. Recovery of unchanged RSV in liver tissue increased in TR(-) compared with WT (≈ 25 versus 6% of the administered dose) due to impaired CLBL and CLBile. RSV pentanoic acid, identified by high-resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy, comprised ≈ 40% of total liver content and ≈ 16% of the administered dose in TR(-) livers at the end of perfusion, compared with ≈ 30 and 3% in WT livers, consistent with impaired RSV excretion and "shunting" to the metabolic pathway. In vitro-ex vivo extrapolation between WT SCH and IPLs (without GF120918) revealed that uptake clearance and CLBL were 4.2- and 6.4-fold lower, respectively, in rat SCH compared with IPLs; CLBile translated almost directly (1.1-fold). The present IPL data confirmed the significant role of CLBL in RSV hepatic elimination, and demonstrated that both CLBL and CLBile influence RSV hepatic and systemic exposure.
Abstract: This article reviews in vitro metabolic and in vivo pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions of nine antifungal agents: six azoles (fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole) and three echinocandins (anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin). In in vitro interaction studies, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and miconazole were found to have higher inhibitory effects on cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) 3A4 and 3A5 activities than the other azoles or echinocandins did. Fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole were relatively less potent inhibitors of CYP3A5 than of CYP3A4. The inhibitory effects of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and voriconazole against CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 seemed to be correlated with their dissociation constants for CYP51 (lanosterol 14α-demethylase) from Candida albicans. In in vivo pharmacokinetic studies, itraconazole was found to be a potent clinically important inhibitor of CYP3A4/5 substrates, and fluconazole and voriconazole increased the blood/plasma concentrations of not only CYP3A4/5 substrates but also CYP2C9 substrates. Miconazole was a potent inhibitor of all P450s investigated in vitro, although there are few detailed studies on the clinical significance of this except for CYP2C9. For the echinocandins, no marked inhibition of P450 activities, except for some inhibition of CYP3A4/5 activity, was observed in vitro. The blood/plasma concentrations of concomitant drugs were not markedly affected by coadministration of echinocandins in vivo, suggesting that echinocandins do not cause clinically significant interactions with drugs that are metabolized by P450s via the inhibition of metabolism. The differential effects of these antifungal agents on P450 activities must be considered when clinicians select antifungal agents for patients also receiving other drugs.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Systemic exposure to rosuvastatin in Asian subjects living in Japan or Singapore is approximately twice that observed in Caucasian subjects in Western countries or in Singapore. This study was conducted to determine whether pharmacokinetic differences exist among the most populous Asian subgroups and Caucasian subjects in the USA. METHOD: Rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics was studied in Chinese, Filipino, Asian-Indian, Korean, Vietnamese, Japanese and Caucasian subjects residing in California. Plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin and metabolites after a single 20-mg dose were determined by mass spectrometric detection. The influence of polymorphisms in SLCO1B1 (T521>C [Val174Ala] and A388>G [Asn130Asp]) and in ABCG2 (C421>A [Gln141Lys]) on exposure to rosuvastatin was also assessed. RESULTS: The average rosuvastatin area under the curve from time zero to time of last quantifiable concentration was between 64 and 84 % higher, and maximum drug concentration was between 70 and 98 % higher in East Asian subgroups compared with Caucasians. Data for Asian-Indians was intermediate to these two ethnic groups at 26 and 29 %, respectively. Similar increases in exposure to N-desmethyl rosuvastatin and rosuvastatin lactone were observed. Rosuvastatin exposure was higher in subjects carrying the SLCO1B1 521C allele compared with that in non-carriers of this allele. Similarly, exposure was higher in subjects carrying the ABCG2 421A allele compared with that in non-carriers. CONCLUSION: Plasma exposure to rosuvastatin and its metabolites was significantly higher in Asian populations residing in the USA compared with Caucasian subjects living in the same environment. This study suggests that polymorphisms in the SLCO1B1 and ABCG2 genes contribute to the variability in rosuvastatin exposure.
Abstract: This article reports the clinical investigation of a probe drug cocktail containing substrates of key drug transporters. Single oral doses of 0.25 mg digoxin (P-gp), 5 mg furosemide (OAT1 and OAT3), 500 mg metformin (OCT2, MATE1, and MATE2-K), and 10 mg rosuvastatin (OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and BCRP) were administered separately or as a cocktail in a randomized six-period crossover trial in 24 healthy male volunteers. As a cocktail, relative bioavailabilities of digoxin and metformin and furosemide AUC0-tz were similar to separate dosing. However, when administered as a cocktail the Cmax of furosemide was 19.1% lower and the Cmax and AUC0-tz of rosuvastatin were 38.6% and 43.4% higher, respectively. In addition, the effects of increased doses of metformin or furosemide on the cocktail were investigated in 11 and 12 subjects, respectively. The cocktail explored in this trial has the potential to be used for the in vivo screening of transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
Abstract: All pharmaceutical companies are required to assess pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) of new chemical entities (NCEs) and mathematical prediction helps to select the best NCE candidate with regard to adverse effects resulting from a DDI before any costly clinical studies. Most current models assume that the liver is a homogeneous organ where the majority of the metabolism occurs. However, the circulatory system of the liver has a complex hierarchical geometry which distributes xenobiotics throughout the organ. Nevertheless, the lobule (liver unit), located at the end of each branch, is composed of many sinusoids where the blood flow can vary and therefore creates heterogeneity (e.g. drug concentration, enzyme level). A liver model was constructed by describing the geometry of a lobule, where the blood velocity increases toward the central vein, and by modeling the exchange mechanisms between the blood and hepatocytes. Moreover, the three major DDI mechanisms of metabolic enzymes; competitive inhibition, mechanism based inhibition and induction, were accounted for with an undefined number of drugs and/or enzymes. The liver model was incorporated into a physiological-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model and simulations produced, that in turn were compared to ten clinical results. The liver model generated a hierarchy of 5 sinusoidal levels and estimated a blood volume of 283 mL and a cell density of 193 × 106 cells/g in the liver. The overall PBPK model predicted the pharmacokinetics of midazolam and the magnitude of the clinical DDI with perpetrator drug(s) including spatial and temporal enzyme levels changes. The model presented herein may reduce costs and the use of laboratory animals and give the opportunity to explore different clinical scenarios, which reduce the risk of adverse events, prior to costly human clinical studies.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.
Abstract: A biowaiver is accepted by the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) for immediate-release solid oral products containing Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class I drugs showing rapid drug dissolution. This study aimed to simulate plasma concentrations of fluconazole capsules with different dissolution profiles and run population simulation to evaluate their bioequivalence. The dissolution profiles of two batches of the reference product Zoltec150 mg capsules, A1 and A2, and two batches of other products (B1 and B2; C1 and C2), as well as plasma concentration-time data of the reference product from the literature, were used for the simulations. Although products C1 and C2 had drug dissolutions < 85% in 30 min at 0.1 M HCl, simulation results demonstrated that these products would show the same in vivo performance as products A1, A2, B1, and B2. Population simulation results of the ln-transformed 90% confidence interval for the ratio ofand AUCvalues for all products were within the 80-125% interval, showing to be bioequivalent. Thus, even though the in vitro dissolution behavior of products C1 and C2 was not equivalent to a rapid dissolution profile, the computer simulations proved to be an important tool to show the possibility of bioequivalence for these products.