QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Explanations of the substances for patients
Monitoring of voriconazole and diazepam recommended.
Elevated diazepam concentrations - increased / prolonged sedationMechanism: Diazepam is hepatically metabolized via the CYP isozymes CYP3A4 and CYP2C19.
Effect: The effect of diazepam can be strengthened and prolonged by inhibiting the breakdown. In a study on 12 healthy volunteers, taking the combination was associated with a 2.2-fold increase in diazepam AUC and a 2-fold increase in the half-life of diazepam. The increased exposure to diazepam can possibly be associated with increased ADRs (e.g. drowsiness, dizziness).
Measures: Clinically monitor tolerability (e.g. increased sedation, dizziness), select a lower diazepam dose if necessary. Alternative benzodiazepines can be lorazepam or oxazepam, which are not metabolized by CYP enzymes.
Monitoring of oxycodone and diazepam recommended.
Increased CNS depressionMechanism: The combination of oxycodone and benzodiazepines can lead to additive effects with regard to CNS depressive effects.
Effect: The CNS depressive effect of the two drugs can be intensified. This can increase the risk of respiratory depression, drop in blood pressure, sedation, or a coma.
Measures: If the combination is required, careful monitoring of the patient is necessary, particularly with regard to sedation, respiratory depression and hypotensive effects. The lowest possible doses should be used or a reduction in the dose of one or both drugs should be considered. The combination is not advisable because of the additive CNS depressive effect, especially in older, polymorbid patients.
|Voriconazole||1 [0.74,2.64] 1||1||1|
|Diazepam||2.24 [1.54,2.74] 1||1||2.24|
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. Oxycodone exposure increases to 292%, when combined with voriconazole (292%). This can lead to higher incidence rate of side effects. We currently cannot estimate the influence of diazepam. Diazepam exposure increases to 224%, when combined with oxycodone (100%) and voriconazole (224%). The AUC is between 154% and 274% depending on the CYP2C19
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Oxycodone has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 61%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather short at 3.7 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached quickly. The protein binding [ Pb ] is rather weak at 41.5% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 241 liters, which is why, with a mean hepatic extraction rate of 0.38, both liver blood flow [Q] and a change in protein binding [Pb] are relevant. The metabolism takes place via CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, among others and the active transport takes place in particular via UGT2B7.
Voriconazole has a high oral bioavailability [ F ] of 88%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change little during an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather short at 6 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached quickly. The protein binding [ Pb ] is rather weak at 58% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 90 liters, Since the substance has a low hepatic extraction rate of 0.11, displacement from protein binding [Pb] in the context of an interaction can lead to increased exposure. The metabolism takes place via CYP2C19, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4, among others.
Diazepam has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 76%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 36 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 144 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is 97% strong and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is very large at 83 liters. Since the substance has a low hepatic extraction rate of 0.03, displacement from protein binding [Pb] in the context of an interaction can lead to increased exposure. The metabolism takes place via CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, among others.
|Serotonergic Effects a||1||+||Ø||Ø|
Recommendation: As a precautionary measure, symptoms of serotonergic overstimulation should be taken into account, especially after increasing the dose and at doses in the upper therapeutic range.
Rating: Oxycodone has a mild effect on the serotonergic system. The risk of a serotonergic syndrome can be classified as low with this medication if the dosage is in the usual range. According to our knowledge, neither voriconazole nor diazepam increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||2||+||Ø||+|
Recommendation: As a precaution, attention should be paid to anticholinergic symptoms, especially after increasing the dose and at doses in the upper therapeutic range.
Rating: Oxycodone and diazepam only have a mild effect on the anticholinergic system. The risk of anticholinergic syndrome with this medication is rather low if the dosage is in the usual range. According to our knowledge, voriconazole does not increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Recommendation: Please make sure that influenceable risk factors are minimized. Electrolyte imbalances such as low levels of calcium, potassium and magnesium should be compensated for. The lowest effective dose of voriconazole should be used.
Rating: Voriconazole can potentially prolong the QT time and if there are risk factors, arrhythmias of the type torsades de pointes can occur. We do not know of any QT-prolonging potential for oxycodone and diazepam.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||oxy||vor||dia|
|Blurred vision||26.0 %||n.a.||26.0||n.a.|
|Abdominal pain||12.0 %||n.a.||12.0||n.a.|
Somnolence (9.7%): diazepam, oxycodone
Dizziness (4.6%): diazepam, oxycodone
Hallucinations (9.5%): voriconazole
Rebound effect: diazepam
Addiction: diazepam, oxycodone
Rash (7.9%): diazepam, voriconazole
Erythema multiforme (1.9%): voriconazole
Malignant melanoma (1.9%): voriconazole
Squamous cell carcinoma (1.9%): voriconazole
Stevens johnson syndrome (1.9%): voriconazole
Toxic epidermal necrolysis (1.9%): voriconazole
Photophobia (6%): voriconazole
Optic neuritis: voriconazole
Fever (5.7%): voriconazole
Cholestatic hepatitis (4.9%): voriconazole
Hepatotoxicity (1.9%): voriconazole
Jaundice (1.9%): voriconazole
Liver failure (1.9%): voriconazole
Peripheral edema (1.9%): voriconazole
Diarrhea (1.9%): voriconazole
Loss of appetite: oxycodone
Increased frequency of urination: oxycodone
Renal failure: voriconazole
Respiratory depression: diazepam, oxycodone
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: 1. The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of oxycodone were studied in nine healthy young volunteers in a cross-over study. Each subject received oxycodone chloride once intramuscularly (0.14 mg kg-1) and twice orally (0.28 mg kg-1) at intervals of 2 weeks. A double-blind randomized pretreatment with amitriptyline (10-50 mg a day) or placebo was given prior to oral oxycodone. 2. The concentrations of oxycodone, noroxycodone and oxymorphone in plasma and the 24 h urine recoveries of their conjugated and unconjugated forms were measured by gas chromatography. 3. No differences were found between treatments in mean Cmax and AUC values of oxycodone which varied from 34 to 38 ng ml-1 and from 208 to 245 ng ml-1 h, respectively. The median tmax of oxycodone was 1 h in all groups. The bioavailability of oral relative to i.m. oxycodone was 60%. The mean renal clearance of oxycodone was 0.07-0.08 l min-1. The kinetics of oxycodone were unaffected by amitriptyline. 4. The mean ratio of the AUC(0.24 h) values of unconjugated noroxycodone to oxycodone was 0.45 after i.m. oxycodone and 0.6-0.8 after oral oxycodone. Plasma oxymorphone concentrations were below the limit of the assay. Eight to 14% of the dose of oxycodone was excreted in the urine as unconjugated and conjugated oxycodone over 24 h. Oxymorphone was excreted mainly as a conjugate whereas noroxycodone was recovered mostly in an unconjugated form.
Abstract: Oxycodone chloride (0.07 mg kg-1) was given by intravenous bolus to nine young adult surgical patients on the first postoperative day. Plasma was sampled for up to 12 h. Mean values of t1/2z, CL and Vss were 222 min, 0.78 l min-1 and 2.60 l kg-1, respectively. The concentrations of the metabolite noroxycodone was also measured. The mean AUC(0,12) ratio of noroxycodone to oxycodone was 0.33. Oxymorphone was not detected.
Abstract: The effects of steady state dosing with omeprazole and cimetidine on plasma diazepam levels have been studied in 12 healthy males. Single doses of diazepam (0.1 mg.kg-1 i.v.) were administered after one week of treatment with omeprazole 20 mg once daily, cimetidine 400 mg b.d. or placebo, and the treatment was continued for a further 5 days. Blood was collected for 120 h after the dose of diazepam for the measurement of diazepam and its major metabolite desmethyl diazepam. The mean clearance of diazepam was decreased by 27% and 38% and its half-life was increased by 36% and 39% after omeprazole and cimetidine, respectively. Neither drug had any apparent effect on the volume of distribution of diazepam. Desmethyldiazepam appeared more slowly after both omeprazole and cimetidine. It is concluded that the decrease in diazepam clearance was associated with inhibition of hepatic metabolism both by omeprazole and cimetidine. However, since diazepam has a wide therapeutic range, it is unlikely that concomitant treatment with therapeutically recommended doses of either omeprazole or cimetidine will result in a clinically significant interaction with diazepam.
Abstract: Healthy volunteers received single doses of three benzodiazepines (diazepam, 10 mg i.v.; alprazolam, 1.0 mg orally; lorazepam, 2 mg i.v.) on two occasions in random sequence. One trial was a control; for the other, subjects ingested propoxyphene, 65 mg every 6 h, for the duration of the benzodiazepine study. The kinetics of each benzodiazepine were determined from multiple plasma concentrations measured following each dose. For diazepam, propoxyphene produced a small and statistically insignificant prolongation of elimination half-life (43 vs 38 h) and reduction of total clearance (0.41 vs 0.47 ml min-1 kg-1). Propoxyphene significantly prolonged alprazolam half-life (18 vs 12 h, P less than 0.005) and reduced total clearance (0.8 vs 1.3 ml min-1 kg-1, P less than 0.005). Propoxyphene had no apparent influence on lorazepam half-life (13.4 vs 13.5 h) or clearance (1.5 vs 1.4 ml min-1 kg-1). Thus propoxyphene significantly impairs the clearance of alprazolam, biotransformed mainly by the oxidative reaction of aliphatic hydroxylation. Propoxyphene has far less effect on the oxidation of diazepam by N-demethylation, and has no apparent influence on lorazepam conjugation.
Abstract: 1 The absorption of single doses of diazepam in six adult epileptic subjects following intravenous, oral and rectal administration were studied in order to evaluate the usefulness of the latter in emergency situations in the adult. 2 Diazepam tablets (Valium, Roche) and rectal solution (Valium solution for intravenous administration) produced similar peak serum concentrations after delays of 15-90 min. 3 Two suppository formulations showed statistically significant differences in absorption characteristics. 4 Serum diazepam levels above 400 ng ml-1 (suggested to be necessary for a satisfactory anticonvulsant effect) were reached in only a few subjects after rectal doses of 10-20 mg of solution, and then usually after a delay of over 2 h.
Abstract: Metabolism of diazepam (DZP) was studied in vitro to clarify the involvement of different forms of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) in rats, and humans of Japanese and Caucasian origin. Microsomal 3-hydroxylation was the major pathway of DZP metabolism in rats and was inhibited by anti-CYP3A antibodies. Purified CYP3As and CYP2C11 catalysed 3-hydroxylation and N-demethylation, respectively, in the reconstituted systems. The rates of both reactions in human liver microsomes depended on the substrate concentration: the rate of 3-hydroxylation was 3-4 times higher than N-demethylation at 0.2 mM; the two activities were essentially the same at a lower substrate concentration (0.02 mM). Inhibitions of the N-demethylation by anti-CYP2C antibody and S-mephenytoin also depended on the substrate concentration and was detectable only at a low substrate concentration. Kinetic studies revealed the presence of two distinct catalytic activities for the N-demethylation; low Km and low Vmax, and high Km and high Vmax. The former activity seems to be mediated by a CYP2C P450 form. On the other hand, DZP 3-hydroxylation was rather selectively catalysed by a CYP3A P450 at the low and high substrate concentrations. These results were consistent with the observation in vivo that DZP N-demethylation and S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation are closely correlated in humans. These results also suggest that the apparent discrepancy on the role of CYP forms in DZP metabolism in vitro and in vivo may reside in the difference in substrate concentration.
Abstract: The effects of pretreatment with a seven day course of ciprofloxacin on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of an intravenous (5 mg) dose of diazepam were investigated in a group of 12 healthy volunteers in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Ciprofloxacin pretreatment significantly reduced diazepam CL (without ciprofloxacin: 19.5 ml.h-1 kg-1; with ciprofloxacin: 12.3 ml.h-1 kg-1). Diazepam t1/2 was also prolonged (without ciprofloxacin: 36.7 h; with ciprofloxacin: 71.1 h), but volume of distribution was unaltered (without ciprofloxacin: 1.1 l.kg-1; with ciprofloxacin: 1.1 l.kg-1). However, no significant changes were detected in psychometric tests of digit symbol substitution, tapping rate and short memory, as well as levels of concentration, vigilance and tension measured by visual analogue scales.
Abstract: The efficacy and safety of graded doses (10, 20, and 30 mg) of controlled-release (CR) oxycodone was compared with that of immediate-release (IR) oxycodone (15 mg), immediate-release oxycodone 10 mg in combination with acetaminophen 650 mg (APAP), and placebo in a single-dose, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study. The participants, 182 inpatients experiencing moderate to severe pain after abdominal or gynecologic surgery, provided hourly ratings of pain intensity and relief for 12 hours after administration. All active treatments were significantly superior to placebo for many hourly measurements and for the sum of pain intensity differences (SPID) and total pain relief (TOTPAR). A dose response was found among the three levels of CR oxycodone for pain relief and peak pain intensity difference (PID), with the 20- and 30-mg doses being significantly better than the 10-mg dose. For all active treatments, peak PID and peak pain relief occurred approximately 2 to 4 hours after administration. The median time to onset of relief was 32 minutes for oxycodone plus APAP, 41 minutes for IR oxycodone, and 46 minutes for CR oxycodone 30 mg. Duration of pain relief showed that the 10-, 20-, and 30-mg doses of CR oxycodone had durations of action of 10 to 12 hours compared with IR oxycodone and oxycodone plus APAP (both approximately 7 hours). Typical adverse events, particularly somnolence, occurred in all active treatment groups. Treatment with CR oxycodone was safe and effective in this study, and its characteristics will be beneficial in the treatment of pain.
Abstract: 1. We have examined the metabolism of diazepam by ten human cytochrome P450 forms (CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4 and 3A5) expressed in HepG2 cells using a recombinant vaccinia virus system. 2. Among the P450 forms tested, diazepam was significantly demethylated by CYP2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 3A4 and 3A5, with 2C19 exhibiting the highest rate at concentrations < 0.1 mM, and hydroxylated only by the latter three enzymes, with 3A5 being the most active. The N-demethylation activity of diazepam by 2C19 at a concentration of 20 microM was six times of that by 3A4. However, that by 2C9 was detected at only a trace level. 3. CYP2C19, 3A4 and 3A5 of the ten human P450s catalysed the 3-hydroxylation of nordiazepam, and 2B6, the 2C subfamily and the 3A subfamily catalysed the N-demethylation of temazepam. CYP3A4 exhibited the highest activity of nordiazepam 3-hydroxylation and temazepam N-demethylation. 4. Diazepam N-demethylation by human liver microsomes correlated with diazepam 3-hydroxylation, but not S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation. 5. Our results suggest that in the human liver, the metabolism of diazepam to nordiazepam is mediated by CYP3A4, which has been reported as the most abundant P450 form in human liver as well as 2C19, which has been reported as a polymorphic enzyme.
Abstract: (R,S)-Oxazepam is a 1,4-benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug that is metabolized primarily by hepatic glucuronidation. In previous studies, S-oxazepam (but not R-oxazepam) was shown to be polymorphically glucuronidated in humans. The aim of the present study was to identify UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms mediating R- and S-oxazepam glucuronidation in human liver, with the long term objective of elucidating the molecular genetic basis for this drug metabolism polymorphism. All available recombinant UGT isoforms were screened for R- and S-oxazepam glucuronidation activities. Enzyme kinetic parameters were then determined in representative human liver microsomes (HLMs) and in UGTs that showed significant activity. Of 12 different UGTs evaluated, only UGT2B15 showed significant S-oxazepam glucuronidation. Furthermore, the apparent K(m) for UGT2B15 (29-35 microM) was similar to values determined for HLMs (43-60 microM). In contrast, R-oxazepam was glucuronidated by UGT1A9 and UGT2B7. Although apparent K(m) values for HLMs (256-303 microM) were most similar to UGT2B7 (333 microM) rather than UGT1A9 (12 microM), intrinsic clearance values for UGT1A9 were 10 times higher than for UGT2B7. A common genetic variation results in aspartate (UGT2B15*1) or tyrosine (UGT2B15*2) at position 85 of the UGT2B15 protein. Microsomes from human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells overexpressing UGT2B15*1 showed 5 times higher S-oxazepam glucuronidation activity than did UGT2B15*2 microsomes. Similar results were obtained for other substrates, including eugenol, naringenin, 4-methylumbelliferone, and androstane-3alpha-diol. In conclusion, S-oxazepam is stereoselectively glucuronidated by UGT2B15, whereas R-oxazepam is glucuronidated by multiple UGT isoforms. Allelic variation associated with the UGT2B15 gene may explain polymorphic S-oxazepam glucuronidation in humans.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: The binding of drugs to plasma proteins is important to consider when concentrations in whole blood (eg, in forensic toxicology) are compared with therapeutic and toxic concentrations based on the analysis of plasma or serum. The plasma to whole blood distribution of diazepam (D) and its major metabolite nordiazepam (ND) was investigated under in vitro and ex vivo conditions. Studies in vitro were done by spiking whole blood with D and ND to give concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 microg/g. Venous blood was also obtained from hospital blood donors (n = 66) after informed consent. The hematocrit, hemoglobin, and water content of blood specimens were determined by routine procedures before D and ND were added to produce target concentrations of approximately 0.5 microg/g for each substance. The ex vivo work was done with blood specimens from hospital outpatients who were being medicated with D. Concentrations of D and ND were determined in body fluids by capillary column gas chromatography after adding prazepam as internal standard and solvent extraction with butyl acetate. The method limit of quantitation was 0.03 microg/g for both D and ND. The concentrations of D and ND were highest in plasma and lowest in erythrocytes. The plasma/blood (P/B) distribution ratios did not depend on drug concentration between 0.1 and 1.0 microg/g. The mean P/B ratios were 1.79:1 for D and 1.69:1 for ND when hematocrit was 45%. Furthermore, the P/B ratio for D (y) was positively correlated with blood hematocrit (x) and the regression equation was y = 0.636 + 0.025x (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). A similar strong association was found between the P/B ratio and hematocrit for ND (r = 0.79). P/B ratios of D and ND, blood hematocrit, hemoglobin, and the water content differed between sexes (P < 0.001). The overall mean P/B ratios for D and ND were 1.69 +/- 0.097 (+/- SD) and 1.62 +/- 0.08 (P < 0.001, n = 66) respectively when the mean hematocrit was 42.9 +/- 3.4 (+/- SD). For forensic purposes, it would be better to forgo making any conversion of a drug concentration measured in whole blood to that expected in plasma or serum; instead, therapeutic and toxic concentrations should be established for the actual specimens received.
Abstract: The metabolic activities of six psychotropic drugs, diazepam, clotiazepam, tofisopam, etizolam, tandospirone, and imipramine, were determined for 14 isoforms of recombinant human hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and human liver microsomes by measuring the disappearance rate of parent compounds. In vitro kinetic studies revealed that Vmax/Km values in human liver microsomes were the highest for tofisopam, followed by tandospirone>clotiazepam>imipramine, diazepam, and etizolam. Among the recombinant CYPs, CYP3A4 exhibited the highest metabolic activities of all compounds except for clotiazepam and imipramine. The metabolism of clotiazepam was catalyzed by CYP2B6, CYP3A4, CYP2C18, and CYP2C19, and imipramine was metabolized by CYP2D6 most efficiently. In addition, the metabolic activities of diazepam, clotiazepam, and etizolam in human liver microsomes were inhibited by 2.5 microM ketoconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, by 97.5%, 65.1%, and 83.5%, respectively, and the imipramine metabolism was not detected after the addition of 1 or 10 microM quinidine, a CYP2D6 inhibitor. These results suggest that the psychotropic drugs investigated are metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4, except that CYP2D6 catalyzes the metabolism of imipramine. In addition, this approach based on the disappearance rate appears to be useful for the identification of the responsible CYP isoform(s) of older drugs, for which metabolic profiles have not been reported.
Abstract: The effects of five antifungal drugs, fluconazole, itraconazole, micafungin, miconazole, and voriconazole, on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9-mediated tolbutamide hydroxylation, CYP2C19-mediated S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation, and CYP3A4-mediated nifedipine oxidation activities in human liver microsomes were compared. In addition, the effects of preincubation were estimated to investigate the mechanism-based inhibition. The IC50 value against tolbutamide hydroxylation was the lowest for miconazole (2.0 microM), followed by voriconazole (8.4 microM) and fluconazole (30.3 microM). Similarly, the IC50 value against S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation was the lowest for miconazole (0.33 microM), followed by voriconazole (8.7 microM) and fluconazole (12.3 microM). On the other hand, micafungin at a concentration of 10 or 25 microM neither inhibited nor stimulated tolbutamide hydroxylation and S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation, and the IC50 values for itraconazole against these were greater than 10 microM. These results suggest that miconazole is the strongest inhibitor of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19, followed by voriconazole and fluconazole, whereas micafungin would not cause clinically significant interactions with other drugs that are metabolized by CYP2C9 or CYP2C19 via the inhibition of metabolism. The IC50 value of voriconazole against nifedipine oxidation was comparable with that of fluconazole and micafungin and higher than that of itraconazole and miconazole. The stimulation of the inhibition of CYP2C9-, CYP2C19-, or CYP3A4-mediated reactions by 15-min preincubation was not observed for any of the antifungal drugs, suggesting that these drugs are not mechanism-based inhibitors.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To report a case of severe serotonergic symptoms following the addition of oxycodone to fluvoxamine. CASE SUMMARY: A 70-year-old woman developed severe serotonergic features, including confusion, nausea, fever, clonus, hyperreflexia, hypertonia, shivering, and tachycardia, following the addition of oxycodone 40 mg twice daily to fluvoxamine 200 mg/day, easily fulfilling diagnostic criteria for serotonin syndrome. Discontinuation of the offending drugs resulted in resolution of her symptoms over 48 hours, and no other cause of the syndrome was identified. Use of the Naranjo probability scale indicated a probable relationship between the serotonergic symptoms and the addition of oxycodone to fluvoxamine therapy. DISCUSSION: Serotonin syndrome is a serious adverse reaction usually due to interactions with serotonergic drugs. There have been only 3 previous reports involving oxycodone. Most previous reports of serotonin syndrome involving analgesics have been associated with meperidine, dextromethorphan, and tramadol. Unlike these synthetic opioids, however, oxycodone does not inhibit the reuptake of serotonin. In addition, there are a number of other possible pharmacologic mechanisms for the interaction we observed. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring for serotonergic adverse events should be done when oxycodone is given to patients receiving serotonin-reuptake inhibitors.
Abstract: This review presents the published clinical pharmacokinetic data for the antifungal agent voriconazole. Aspects regarding absorption, tissue distribution, elimination and kinetic interactions are also discussed.
Abstract: Voriconazole is the first available second-generation triazole with potent activity against a broad spectrum of clinically significant fungal pathogens, including Aspergillus,Candida, Cryptococcus neoformans, and some less common moulds. Voriconazole is rapidly absorbed within 2 hours after oral administration and the oral bioavailability is over 90%, thus allowing switching between oral and intravenous formulations when clinically appropriate. Voriconazole shows nonlinear pharmacokinetics due to its capacity-limited elimination, and its pharmacokinetics are therefore dependent upon the administered dose. With increasing dose, voriconazole shows a superproportional increase in area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). In doses used in children (age < 12 years) voriconazole pharmacokinetics appear to be linear. Steady-state plasma concentrations are reached approximately 5 days after both intravenous and oral administration; however, steady state is reached within 24 hours with voriconazole administered as an intravenous loading dose. The volume of distribution of voriconazole is 2-4.6 L/kg, suggesting extensive distribution into extracellular and intracellular compartments. Voriconazole was measured in tissue samples of brain, liver, kidney, heart, lung as well as cerebrospinal fluid. The plasma protein binding is about 60% and independent of dose or plasma concentrations. Clearance is hepatic via N-oxidation by the hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes, CYP2C19, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4. The elimination half-life of voriconazole is approximately 6 hours, and approximately 80% of the total dose is recovered in the urine, almost completely as metabolites. As with other azole drugs, the potential for drug interactions is considerable. Voriconazole shows time-dependent fungistatic activity against Candida species and time-dependent slow fungicidal activity against Aspergillus species. A short post-antifungal effect of voriconazole is evident only for Aspergillus species. The predictive pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameter for voriconazole treatment efficacy in Candida infections is the free drug AUC from 0 to 24 hour : minimum inhibitory concentration ratio.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: We describe 2 patients who developed prolonged QTc interval on electrocardiogram while being treated with voriconazole. The first patient had undergone induction chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia, and her course had been complicated by invasive aspergillosis and an acute cardiomyopathy. She developed torsades de pointes 3 weeks after starting voriconazole therapy. She was re-challenged with voriconazole without recurrent QTc prolongation or cardiac dysfunction. The second patient had a significantly prolonged QTc interval while on voriconazole therapy. We recommend careful monitoring for QTc prolongation and arrhythmia in patients who are receiving voriconazole, particularly those who have significant electrolyte disturbances, are on concomitant QT prolonging medications, have heart failure such as from a dilated cardiomyopathy, or have recently received anthracycline-based chemotherapy. The potential for synergistic cardiotoxicity must be carefully considered.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of voriconazole and fluconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of diazepam. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers took 5 mg of oral diazepam in a randomised order on three study sessions: without pretreatment, after oral voriconazole 400 mg twice daily on the first day and 200 mg twice daily on the second day, or after oral fluconazole 400 mg on the first day and 200 mg on the second day. Plasma concentrations of diazepam and N-desmethyldiazepam were determined for up to 48 h. Pharmacodynamic variables were measured for 12 h. RESULTS: In the voriconazole phase, the area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC 0-infinity) of diazepam was increased (geometric mean ratio) 2.2-fold (p < 0.05; 90% confidence interval [CI] 1.56 to 2.82). This was associated with the prolongation of the mean elimination half-life (t(1/2)) from 31 h to 61 h (p < 0.01) after voriconazole. In the fluconazole phase, the AUC 0-infinity of diazepam was increased 2.5-fold (p < 0.01; 90% CI 1.94 to 3.40), and the t(1/2) was prolonged from 31 h to 73 h (p < 0.001). The peak plasma concentration of diazepam was practically unchanged by voriconazole and fluconazole. The pharmacodynamics of diazepam were changed only modestly. CONCLUSION: Both voriconazole and fluconazole considerably increase the exposure to diazepam. Recurrent administration of diazepam increases the risk of clinically significant interactions during voriconazole or fluconazole treatment, because the elimination of diazepam is impaired significantly.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to measure the anticholinergic activity (AA) of medications commonly used by older adults. A radioreceptor assay was used to investigate the AA of 107 medications. Six clinically relevant concentrations were assessed for each medication. Rodent forebrain and striatum homogenate was used with tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate. Drug-free serum was added to medication and atropine standard-curve samples. For medications that showed detectable AA, average steady-state peak plasma and serum concentrations (C(max)) in older adults were used to estimate relationships between in vitro dose and AA. All results are reported in pmol/mL of atropine equivalents. At typical doses administered to older adults, amitriptyline, atropine, clozapine, dicyclomine, doxepin, L-hyoscyamine, thioridazine, and tolterodine demonstrated AA exceeding 15 pmol/mL. Chlorpromazine, diphenhydramine, nortriptyline, olanzapine, oxybutynin, and paroxetine had AA values of 5 to 15 pmol/mL. Citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, lithium, mirtazapine, quetiapine, ranitidine, and temazepam had values less than 5 pmol/mL. Amoxicillin, celecoxib, cephalexin, diazepam, digoxin, diphenoxylate, donepezil, duloxetine, fentanyl, furosemide, hydrocodone, lansoprazole, levofloxacin, metformin, phenytoin, propoxyphene, and topiramate demonstrated AA only at the highest concentrations tested (patients with above-average C(max) values, who receive higher doses, or are frail may show AA). The remainder of the medications investigated did not demonstrate any AA at the concentrations examined. Psychotropic medications were particularly likely to demonstrate AA. Each of the drug classifications investigated (e.g., antipsychotic, cardiovascular) had at least one medication that demonstrated AA at therapeutic doses. Clinicians can use this information when choosing between equally efficacious medications, as well as in assessing overall anticholinergic burden.
Abstract: Voriconazole is an effective antifungal drug, but adverse drug-drug interactions associated with its use are of major clinical concern. To identify the mechanisms of these interactions, we tested the inhibitory potency of voriconazole with eight human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Isoform-specific probes were incubated with human liver microsomes (HLMs) (or expressed CYPs) and cofactors in the absence and the presence of voriconazole. Preincubation experiments were performed to test mechanism-based inactivation. In pilot experiments, voriconazole showed inhibition of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A (half-maximal [50%] inhibitory concentrations, <6 microM); its effect on CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C8, and CYP2D6 was marginal (<25% inhibition at 100 microM voriconazole). Further detailed experiments with HLMs showed that voriconazole is a potent competitive inhibitor of CYP2B6 (K(i) < 0.5), CYP2C9 (K(i) = 2.79 microM), and CYP2C19 (K(i) = 5.1 microM). The inhibition of CYP3A by voriconazole was explained by noncompetitive (K(i) = 2.97 microM) and competitive (K(i) = 0.66 microM) modes of inhibition. Prediction of the in vivo interaction of voriconazole from these in vitro data suggests that voriconazole would substantially increase the exposure of drugs metabolized by CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A. Clinicians should be aware of these interactions and monitor patients for adverse effects or failure of therapy.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal relationship between cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications and memory and executive function in older men. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred forty-four community-dwelling men aged 65 and older with diagnosed hypertension. MEASUREMENTS: The outcomes were measured using the Hopkins Verbal Recall Test (HVRT) for short-term memory and the instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) scale for executive function at baseline and during follow-up. Anticholinergic medication use was ascertained using participants' primary care visit records and quantified as total anticholinergic burden using a clinician-rated anticholinergic score. RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications over the preceding 12 months was associated with poorer performance on the HVRT and IADLs. On average, a 1-unit increase in the total anticholinergic burden per 3 months was associated with a 0.32-point (95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.05-0.58) and 0.10-point (95% CI=0.04-0.17) decrease in the HVRT and IADLs, respectively, independent of other potential risk factors for cognitive impairment, including age, education, cognitive and physical function, comorbidities, and severity of hypertension. The association was attenuated but remained statistically significant with memory (0.29, 95% CI=0.01-0.56) and executive function (0.08, 95% CI=0.02-0.15) after further adjustment for concomitant non-anticholinergic medications. CONCLUSION: Cumulative anticholinergic exposure across multiple medications over 1 year may negatively affect verbal memory and executive function in older men. Prescription of drugs with anticholinergic effects in older persons deserves continued attention to avoid deleterious adverse effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Oxycodone is a mu-opioid receptor agonist that is metabolized mainly in the liver by cytochrome P450 3A and 2D6 enzymes. Rifampin is a strong inducer of several drug-metabolizing enzymes. The authors studied the interaction of rifampin with oxycodone. Their hypothesis was that rifampin enhances the CYP3A-mediated metabolism of oxycodone and attenuates its pharmacologic effect. METHODS: The protocol was a four-session, paired crossover. Twelve volunteers were given 600 mg oral rifampin or placebo once daily for 7 days. Oxycodone was given on day 6. In the first part of the study, 0.1 mg/kg oxycodone hydrochloride was given intravenously. In the second part of the study, 15 mg oxycodone hydrochloride was given orally. Concentrations of oxycodone and its metabolites noroxycodone, oxymorphone, and noroxymorphone were determined for 48 h. Psychomotor effects were characterized for 12 h by several visual analog scales. Analgesic effects were characterized by measuring the heat pain threshold and cold pain sensitivity. RESULTS: Rifampin decreased the area under the oxycodone concentration-time curve of intravenous and oral oxycodone by 53% and 86%, respectively (P < 0.001). Oral bioavailability of oxycodone was decreased from 69% to 21% (P < 0.001). Rifampin greatly increased the plasma metabolite-to-parent drug ratios for noroxycodone and noroxymorphone (P < 0.001). Pharmacologic effects of oral oxycodone were attenuated. CONCLUSIONS: Induction of cytochrome P450 3A by rifampin reduced the area under the oxycodone concentration-time curve of intravenous and oral oxycodone. The pharmacologic effects of oxycodone were modestly attenuated. To maintain adequate analgesia, dose adjustment of oxycodone may be necessary, when used concomitantly with rifampin.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although some of the aetiological factors are known, it is not yet known whether drugs with anticholinergic activity (AA) contribute to this cognitive decline. Such knowledge would provide opportunities to prevent acceleration of cognitive decline in PD. OBJECTIVE: To study whether the use of agents with anticholinergic properties is an independent risk factor for cognitive decline in patients with PD. METHODS: A community-based cohort of patients with PD (n=235) were included and assessed at baseline. They were reassessed 4 and 8 years later. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A detailed assessment of the AA of all drugs prescribed was made, and AA was classified according to a standardised scale. Relationships between cognitive decline and AA load and duration of treatment were assessed using bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses. RESULTS: More than 40% used drugs with AA at baseline. During the 8-year follow-up, the cognitive decline was higher in those who had been taking AA drugs (median decline on MMSE 6.5 points) compared with those who had not taken such drugs (median decline 1 point; p=0.025). In linear regression analyses adjusting for age, baseline cognition and depression, significant associations with decline on MMSE were found for total AA load (standardised beta=0.229, p=0.04) as well as the duration of using AA drugs (standardised beta 0.231, p=0.032). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an association between anticholinergic drug use and cognitive decline in PD. This may provide an important opportunity for clinicians to avoid increasing progression of cognitive decline by avoiding drugs with AA. Increased awareness by clinicians is required about the classes of drugs that have anticholinergic properties.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole and the potential correlations between pharmacokinetic parameters and patient variables in liver transplant patients on a fixed-dose prophylactic regimen. Multiple blood samples were collected within one dosing interval from 15 patients who were initiated on a prophylactic regimen of voriconazole at 200 mg enterally (tablets) twice daily starting immediately posttransplant. Voriconazole plasma concentrations were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters. The mean apparent systemic clearance over bioavailability (CL/F), apparent steady-state volume of distribution over bioavailability (Vss/F), and half-life (t1/2) were 5.8+/-5.5 liters/h, 94.5+/-54.9 liters, and 15.7+/-7.0 h, respectively. There was a good correlation between the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC0-infinity) and trough voriconazole plasma concentrations. t1/2, maximum drug concentration in plasma (Cmax), trough level, AUC0-infinity, area under the first moment of the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUMC0-infinity), and mean residence time from 0 h to infinity (MRT0-infinity) were significantly correlated with postoperative time. t1/2, lambda, AUC0-infinity, and CL/F were significantly correlated with indices of liver function (aspartate transaminase [AST], total bilirubin, and international normalized ratio [INR]). The Cmax, last concentration in plasma at 12 h (Clast), AUMC0-infinity, and MRT0-infinity were significantly lower in the presence of deficient CYP2C19*2 alleles. Donor characteristics had no significant correlation with any of the pharmacokinetic parameters estimated. A fixed dosing regimen of voriconazole results in a highly variable exposure of voriconazole in liver transplant patients. Given that trough voriconazole concentration is a good measure of drug exposure (AUC), the voriconazole dose can be individualized based on trough concentration measurements in liver transplant patients.
Abstract: The three hydroxybenzodiazepines oxazepam, temazepam, and lorazepam used for their anxiolytic, sedative, and anticonvulsant properties are metabolized by glucuronidation, which is the predominant pathway in the clearance mechanism of exogenous and endogenous substances during phase II metabolism. The aim of this study was the synthesis of benzodiazepine-O-glucuronides as analytical reference substances. All benzodiazepines are prescribed clinically as racemic formulations. The resulting conjugates from the coupling reactions with glucuronic acid are epimeric pairs of glucuronides. Due to the importance of stereochemical factors in drug disposition it is necessary to separate the diastereomeric forms after synthesis. An enzyme-assisted synthesis was developed and optimized by using microsomal UGT from fresh swine liver to receive multimilligram amounts of the benzodiazepine glucuronides, which were not accessible by standard synthetic procedures, like the Koenigs-Knorr- and Williamson-ether-synthesis. Swine liver microsomes were prepared by homogenization and differential centrifugation of liver tissue. In the presence of liver microsomes the benzodiazepines and cofactor UDPGA were incubated for 24h. After incubation the microsomes were removed by protein precipitation and the residual benzodiazepines by liquid-liquid extraction (dichloromethane). The epimeric pairs of benzodiazepine glucuronides were separated by preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) to obtain the pure benzodiazepine glucuronide epimers. The synthesis products were characterized by mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP34A) inhibitor itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of orally and intravenously administered oxycodone. METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects were administered 200 mg itraconazole or placebo orally for 5 days in a four-session paired cross-over study. On day 4, oxycodone was administered intravenously (0.1 mg/kg) in the first part of the study and orally (10 mg) in the second part. Plasma concentrations of oxycodone and its oxidative metabolites were measured for 48 h, and pharmacodynamic effects were evaluated. RESULTS: Itraconazole decreased plasma clearance (Cl) and increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-infinity) of intravenous oxycodone by 32 and 51%, respectively (P<0.001) and increased the AUC(0-infinity) of orally administrated oxycodone by 144% (P<0.001). Most of the pharmacokinetic changes in oral oxycodone were seen in the elimination phase, with modest effects by itraconazole on its peak concentration, which was increased by 45% (P=0.009). The AUC(0-48) of noroxycodone was decreased by 49% (P<0.001) and that of oxymorphone was increased by 359% (P<0.001) after the administration of oral oxycodone. The pharmacologic effects of oxycodone were enhanced by itraconazole only modestly. CONCLUSIONS: Itraconazole increased the exposure to oxycodone by inhibiting its CYP3A4-mediated N-demethylation. The clinical use of itraconazole in patients receiving multiple doses of oxycodone for pain relief may increase the risk of opioid-associated adverse effects.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the plasma dispositions of oxycodone and its demethylates and dose escalation based on genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6, CYP3A5, ABCB1, and OPRM1 in cancer patients receiving oxycodone. Sixty-two Japanese cancer patients receiving oxycodone extended-release tablets were enrolled. Predose plasma concentrations (C(12)) of oxycodone, noroxycodone, and oxymorphone were determined at the titrated dose. Daily oxycodone escalation rate was evaluated as the opioid escalation index (OEI). Genetic variants did not significantly alter oxycodone C(12). Oxymorphone C(12) and its ratio to oxycodone C(12) were significantly higher in CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers than in intermediate metabolizers but did not affect dose escalation. In contrast, noroxycodone C(12) and its ratio to oxycodone C(12) were significantly higher in the CYP3A5*1 carrier group than in the *3/*3 group. The OEI was significantly higher in the CYP3A5*3/*3 group than in the *1 carrier group. No significant difference was observed in the OEI in the other genetic variants. Noroxycodone C(12) was higher in the dose escalation group as compared to the nonescalation group and significantly affected the incidence of dose escalation. In conclusion, CYP3A5*3 altered the plasma disposition of noroxycodone, which was inversely affecting the dose escalation in cancer patients receiving oxycodone.
Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIMS: The nature and extent of adverse cognitive effects due to the prescription of anticholinergic drugs in older people with and without dementia is unclear. METHODS: We calculated the anticholinergic load (ACL) of medications taken by participants of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of ageing, a cohort of 211 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 133 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients and 768 healthy controls (HC) all aged over 60 years. The association between ACL and cognitive function was examined for each diagnostic group (HC, MCI, AD). RESULTS: A high ACL within the HC group was associated with significantly slower response speeds for the Stroop color and incongruent trials. No other significant relationships between ACL and cognition were noted. CONCLUSION: In this large cohort, prescribed anticholinergic drugs appeared to have modest effects upon psychomotor speed and executive function, but not on other areas of cognition in healthy older adults.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: A 77-year-old female with recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer presented to a hospital outpatient clinic with tremor, weakness, inability to coordinate motor movements, and confusion. It was suspected that the symptoms were due to possible central nervous system metastases; however, a CT scan of her head was unremarkable. The lung clinic liaison pharmacist took a medication history from the patient, complimented by extra information from the patient's community pharmacy. The pharmacist suspected the rare side effect of serotonin syndrome was responsible for the patient's presenting symptoms caused by the combination of oxycodone and citalopram. The patient's symptoms resolved soon after oxycodone was changed to morphine.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare oxycodone concentrations in saliva and whole blood with a view to propose therapeutic concentrations in oral fluid. Oral fluid is an easy specimen to collect with several advantages over urine, including ease of collection and difficulty of adulteration. As oral fluid is a reflection of free drug circulating in the blood, drug concentrations in saliva are more closely related to blood levels than urine concentrations. The number of testing laboratories offering the analysis of prescription pain medications in urine has increased significantly over the last few years, along with the overuse and abuse of pain killing drugs, specifically oxycodone. Hence, the utility of oral fluid analysis in this field was assessed. DESIGN: Paired specimens of blood and oral fluid were retrospectively studied in an attempt to establish a range for oxycodone concentrations in oral fluid reflective of therapeutic intake. Twenty-three paired oral fluid-blood specimens were studied. Oral fluid samples had been collected with the Quantisal™ oral fluid device, stored cold and shipped overnight to the laboratory prior to testing. Blood specimens were collected simultaneously in gray top tubes. RESULTS: From 23 pairs of samples, the median concentration in oral fluid was 524 μg/L and blood was 53 μg/L. The whole blood to plasma ratio for oxycodone was 1.3, so the median plasma concentration was 41 μg/L projecting a saliva to plasma ratio (S:P ratio) of 12. The comparison of oral fluid-blood concentrations allowed the projection of a S:P ratio for oxycodone and the development of a potential therapeutic range for oxycodone in oral fluid. CONCLUSION: Saliva drug concentrations in pain management are more closely related to blood levels than urine so can be more easily interpreted. These data provide a foundation for interpretative advances; however, further research surrounding other pain medications and controlled studies are necessary.
Abstract: Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family transporters accept a number of drugs and are increasingly being recognized as important factors in governing drug and metabolite pharmacokinetics. OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 play an important role in hepatic drug uptake while OATP2B1 and OATP1A2 might be key players in intestinal absorption and transport across blood-brain barrier of drugs, respectively. To understand the importance of OATPs in the hepatic clearance of drugs, the rate-determining process for elimination should be considered; for some drugs, hepatic uptake clearance rather than metabolic intrinsic clearance is the more important determinant of hepatic clearances. The importance of the unbound concentration ratio (liver/blood), K(p,uu) , of drugs, which is partly governed by OATPs, is exemplified in interpreting the difference in the IC(50) of statins between the hepatocyte and microsome systems for the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity. The intrinsic activity and/or expression level of OATPs are affected by genetic polymorphisms and drug-drug interactions. Their effects on the elimination rate or intestinal absorption rate of drugs may sometimes depend on the substrate drug. This is partly because of the different contribution of OATP isoforms to clearance or intestinal absorption. When the contribution of the OATP-mediated pathway is substantial, the pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs should be greatly affected. This review describes the estimation of the contribution of OATP1B1 to the total hepatic uptake of drugs from the data of fold-increases in the plasma concentration of substrate drugs by the genetic polymorphism of this transporter. To understand the importance of the OATP family transporters, modeling and simulation with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model are helpful.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: The misuse and abuse of prescription medications in the United States continues to increase despite interventions by health care professionals, regulatory, and law enforcement agencies. Opioid analgesics are the leading class of prescription drugs that have caused unintentional overdose deaths. Benzodiazepines when taken alone are relatively safe agents in overdose. However, a 5-fold increase in deaths attributed to benzodiazepines occurred from 1999 to 2009. Emergency department visits related to opioid analgesics increased by 111% followed by benzodiazepines 89%. During 2003 to 2009, the 2 prescriptions drugs with the highest increase in death rates were oxycodone 264.6% and alprazolam 233.8%. Therefore, benzodiazepines have a significant impact on prescription drug unintentional overdoses second only to the opioid analgesics. The combination prescribing of benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics commonly takes place. The pharmacokinetic drug interactions between benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics are complex. The pharmacodynamic actions of these agents differ as their combined effects produce significant respiratory depression. Physician and pharmacy shopping by patients occurs, and prescription drug-monitoring programs can provide important information on benzodiazepine and opioid analgesic prescribing patterns and patient usage. Health care professionals need to inform patients and work closely with regulatory agencies and legislatures to stem the increasing fatalities from prescription drug unintentional overdoses.
Abstract: This article reviews in vitro metabolic and in vivo pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions of nine antifungal agents: six azoles (fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole) and three echinocandins (anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin). In in vitro interaction studies, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and miconazole were found to have higher inhibitory effects on cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) 3A4 and 3A5 activities than the other azoles or echinocandins did. Fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole were relatively less potent inhibitors of CYP3A5 than of CYP3A4. The inhibitory effects of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and voriconazole against CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 seemed to be correlated with their dissociation constants for CYP51 (lanosterol 14α-demethylase) from Candida albicans. In in vivo pharmacokinetic studies, itraconazole was found to be a potent clinically important inhibitor of CYP3A4/5 substrates, and fluconazole and voriconazole increased the blood/plasma concentrations of not only CYP3A4/5 substrates but also CYP2C9 substrates. Miconazole was a potent inhibitor of all P450s investigated in vitro, although there are few detailed studies on the clinical significance of this except for CYP2C9. For the echinocandins, no marked inhibition of P450 activities, except for some inhibition of CYP3A4/5 activity, was observed in vitro. The blood/plasma concentrations of concomitant drugs were not markedly affected by coadministration of echinocandins in vivo, suggesting that echinocandins do not cause clinically significant interactions with drugs that are metabolized by P450s via the inhibition of metabolism. The differential effects of these antifungal agents on P450 activities must be considered when clinicians select antifungal agents for patients also receiving other drugs.
Abstract: Evaluation of a potential risk of metabolic drug-drug interactions (DDI) is of high importance in the clinical setting. In this study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed for oxycodone and its two primary metabolites, oxymorphone and noroxycodone, in order to assess different DDI scenarios using published in vitro and in vivo data. Once developed and refined, the model was able to simulate pharmacokinetics of the three compounds and the DDI extent in case of coadministration with an inhibitor, as well as the oxymorphone concentration variation between CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers (EM) and poor metabolizers (PM). The reliability of the model was tested against published clinical studies monitoring different inhibitors and dose regimens, and all predicted area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) ratios were within the twofold acceptance range. This approach represents a strategy to evaluate the impact of coadministration of different CYP inhibitors using mechanistic incorporation of drug-dependent and system-dependent available in vitro and in vivo data.
Abstract: Oxycodone is a commonly used analgesic with a large body of pharmacokinetic data from various immediate-release or controlled-release formulations, under different administration routes, and in diverse populations. Longer terminal half-lives from extravascular administration as compared to IV administration have been attributed to flip-flop pharmacokinetics with the rate constant of absorption slower than elimination. However, PK parameters from the extravascular studies showed faster absorption than elimination. Sustained release formulations guided by the flip-flop concept produced mixed outcomes in formulation development and clinical studies. This research aims to develop a mechanistic knowledge of oxycodone ADME, and provide a consistent interpretation of diverging results and insight to guide further extended release development and optimize the clinical use of oxycodone. PK data of oxycodone in human studies were collected from literature and digitized. The PK data were analyzed using a new PK model with Weibull function to describe time-varying drug releases/ oral absorption, and elimination dependent upon drug input to the portal vein. The new and traditional PK models were coded in NONMEM. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address the relationship between rates of drug release/absorption and PK profiles plus terminal half-lives. Traditional PK model could not be applied consistently to describe drug absorption and elimination of oxycodone. Errors were forced on absorption, elimination, or both parameters when IV and PO profiles were fitted separately. The new mechanistic PK model with Weibull function on absorption and slower total body clearance caused by slower absorption adequately describes the complex interplay between oxycodone absorption and elimination in vivo. Terminal phase of oxycodone PK profile was shown to reflect slower total body drug clearance due to slower drug release/absorption from oral formulations. Mechanistic PK models with Weibull absorption functions, and release rate-dependent saturable total body clearance well described the diverging oxycodone absorption and elimination kinetics in the literature. It showed no actual drug absorption during the terminal phase, but slower drug clearance caused by slower release/absorption producing the appearance of flip-flop and offered new insight for the development of modified release formulations and clinical use of oxycodone.
Abstract: The hepatic metabolism of oxycodone by cytochromes P450 (CYP) and the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT), the main metabolic enzymes of phase I and phase II, respectively, was assessed in vitro. The N-demethylation by CYP3A4/5 and the O-demethylation by CYP2D6 in human liver microsomes (HLM) followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with intrinsic clearances of 1.46μL/min/mg and 0.35μL/min/mg, respectively. Although noroxycodone and oxymorphone mainly contribute to the elimination of oxycodone, the simulated total in vivo clearance using in vitro phase I metabolism was underestimated. For the first time, metabolism of oxycodone by UGT was deeply investigated using HLM, recombinant enzymes and selective inhibitors. Oxycodone-glucuronide was mainly produced by UGT2B7 (K=762±153μM, V=344±20 peak area/min/mg) and to a lesser extent by UGT2B4 (K=2454±497μM, V=201±19 peak area/min/mg). Finally, the kinetics of the drug-drug interactions were assessed using two CYP and UGT cocktail approaches. Incubations of HLM with phase I and phase II drug probes showed that oxycodone mainly decreased the in vitro activities of CYP2D6, CYP3A4/5, UGT1A3, UGT1A6 and UGT2B subfamily with an important impact on UGT2B7.
Abstract: The accurate estimation of "in vivo" inhibition constants () of inhibitors and fraction metabolized () of substrates is highly important for drug-drug interaction (DDI) prediction based on physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. We hypothesized that analysis of the pharmacokinetic alterations of substrate metabolites in addition to the parent drug would enable accurate estimation of in vivoandTwenty-four pharmacokinetic DDIs caused by P450 inhibition were analyzed with PBPK models using an emerging parameter estimation method, the cluster Newton method, which enables efficient estimation of a large number of parameters to describe the pharmacokinetics of parent and metabolized drugs. For each DDI, two analyses were conducted (with or without substrate metabolite data), and the parameter estimates were compared with each other. In 17 out of 24 cases, inclusion of substrate metabolite information in PBPK analysis improved the reliability of bothandImportantly, the estimatedfor the same inhibitor from different DDI studies was generally consistent, suggesting that the estimatedfrom one study can be reliably used for the prediction of untested DDI cases with different victim drugs. Furthermore, a large discrepancy was observed between the reported in vitroand the in vitro estimates for some inhibitors, and the current in vivoestimates might be used as reference values when optimizing in vitro-in vivo extrapolation strategies. These results demonstrated that better use of substrate metabolite information in PBPK analysis of clinical DDI data can improve reliability of top-down parameter estimation and prediction of untested DDIs.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.