QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of tiapride and lopinavir. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. We do not expect any change in exposure for tiapride, when combined with lopinavir (100%). We do not expect any change in exposure for lopinavir, when combined with tiapride (100%).
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Tiapride has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 75%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather short at 3.25 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached quickly. The protein binding [ Pb ] is very weak at 0%. About 70.0% of an administered dose is excreted unchanged via the kidneys and this proportion is seldom changed by interactions. The metabolism via cytochromes is currently still being worked on.
The bioavailability of lopinavir is unknown. Protein binding [ Pb ] is not known. The metabolism mainly takes place via CYP3A4 and the active transport takes place in particular via PGP.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither tiapride nor lopinavir increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither tiapride nor lopinavir increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: In combination, tiapride and lopinavir can potentially trigger ventricular arrhythmias of the torsades de pointes type.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||tia||lop|
|Ventricular tachycardia||0.0 %||0.0||n.a.|
|Weight gain||0.0 %||0.1||n.a.|
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: tiapride
Tardive dyskinesia: tiapride
Pulmonary embolism: tiapride
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: On the basis of a single clinical trial in first-line treatment, the atazanavir and ritonavir combination appears to be no more effective than the fixed-dose combination of lopinavir and ritonavir. The adverse effect profiles were slightly different, but atazanavir carries a troubling risk of torsades de pointes.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Drug-induced torsades de pointes (TdP) is a complex regulatory and clinical problem due to the rarity of this sometimes fatal adverse event. In this context, the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is an important source of information, which can be applied to the analysis of TdP liability of marketed drugs. OBJECTIVE: To critically evaluate the risk of antimicrobial-induced TdP by detecting alert signals in the AERS, on the basis of both quantitative and qualitative analyses. METHODS: Reports of TdP from January 2004 through December 2008 were retrieved from the public version of the AERS. The absolute number of cases and reporting odds ratio as a measure of disproportionality were evaluated for each antimicrobial drug (quantitative approach). A list of drugs with suspected TdP liability (provided by the Arizona Centre of Education and Research on Therapeutics [CERT]) was used as a reference to define signals. In a further analysis, to refine signal detection, we identified TdP cases without co-medications listed by Arizona CERT (qualitative approach). RESULTS: Over the 5-year period, 374 reports of TdP were retrieved: 28 antibacterials, 8 antifungals, 1 antileprosy and 26 antivirals were involved. Antimicrobials more frequently reported were levofloxacin (55) and moxifloxacin (37) among the antibacterials, fluconazole (47) and voriconazole (17) among the antifungals, and lamivudine (8) and nelfinavir (6) among the antivirals. A significant disproportionality was observed for 17 compounds, including several macrolides, fluoroquinolones, linezolid, triazole antifungals, caspofungin, indinavir and nelfinavir. With the qualitative approach, we identified the following additional drugs or fixed dose combinations, characterized by at least two TdP cases without co-medications listed by Arizona CERT: ceftriaxone, piperacillin/tazobactam, cotrimoxazole, metronidazole, ribavirin, lamivudine and lopinavir/ritonavir. DISCUSSION: Disproportionality for macrolides, fluoroquinolones and most of the azole antifungals should be viewed as 'expected' according to Arizona CERT list. By contrast, signals were generated by linezolid, caspofungin, posaconazole, indinavir and nelfinavir. Drugs detected only by the qualitative approach should be further investigated by increasing the sensitivity of the method, e.g. by searching also for the TdP surrogate marker, prolongation of the QT interval. CONCLUSIONS: The freely available version of the FDA AERS database represents an important source to detect signals of TdP. In particular, our analysis generated five signals among antimicrobials for which further investigations and active surveillance are warranted. These signals should be considered in evaluating the benefit-risk profile of these drugs.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs) are pivotal for signal detection, especially for rare events with a high drug-attributable component, such as torsade de pointes (TdP). Use of different national SRSs is rarely attempted because of inherent difficulties, but should be considered on the assumption that rare events are diluted in international databases. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to describe TdP-related events associated with antipsychotics, H1-antihistamines and anti-infectives in three national SRSs (in Italy, Germany and France) and highlight potential signals of torsadogenicity through a combined literature evaluation. METHODS: A common search strategy was applied to extract TdP-related events: (1) TdP, (2) QT interval abnormalities, (3) ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia, and (4) sudden cardiac death. Signals of disproportionate reporting (SDRs) were calculated for TdP + QT interval abnormalities and defined by a lower limit of the 95 % confidence interval of the reporting odds ratio (ROR) >1. Among SDRs with at least three cases without concomitant pro-arrhythmic drugs, we defined potential new signal of torsadogenicity as drugs with no published evidence from (a) the crediblemeds(®) website ( http://www.crediblemeds.com , as of November 1st, 2014); (b) studies on the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS); and (c) safety trials or pharmaco-epidemiological studies (as of December 16th, 2014). RESULTS: Overall, 3505 cases were retrieved (1372, 1468, and 801 for France, Germany and Italy, respectively). Antipsychotics were mainly recorded in Germany (792 cases), whereas antibiotics peaked at 515 and 491 (France and Italy, respectively). Forty-one drugs met criteria for SDRs in at least one single source, of which 31 were detected only from one single SRS: 18, ten and three (French, German and Italian SRS, respectively). By contrast, only five SDRs were detected in all national data sources (amisulpride, aripiprazole, haloperidol, olanzapine, risperidone). Overall, five potential new signals of torsadogenicity were identified: flupentixol, ganciclovir, levocetirizine, oxatomide and tiapride. CONCLUSIONS: We found differences across and within national SRSs in the reporting of drug-induced TdP, which finally resulted in five potential new signals of torsadogenicity. These findings warrant targeted pharmacovigilance studies to formally assess the existence of actual drug-event associations.