QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
|Elevated alkaline phosphatase|
Variants ✨For the computationally intensive evaluation of the variants, please choose the paid standard subscription.
Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of lopinavir and toremifene. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. We do not expect any change in exposure for lopinavir, when combined with toremifene (100%). We did not detect any change in exposure to toremifene. We currently cannot estimate the influence of lopinavir.
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
The bioavailability of lopinavir is unknown. Protein binding [ Pb ] is not known. The metabolism mainly takes place via CYP3A4 and the active transport takes place in particular via PGP.
Toremifene has a high oral bioavailability [ F ] of 95%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change little during an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather long at 120 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are only reached after more than 480 hours. The protein binding [ Pb ] is very strong at 99.5%. The metabolism mainly takes place via CYP3A4.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither lopinavir nor toremifene increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither lopinavir nor toremifene increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: In combination, lopinavir and toremifene can potentially trigger ventricular arrhythmias of the torsades de pointes type.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||lop||tor|
|Elevated alkaline phosphatase||13.5 %||n.a.||13.5|
|Vaginal discharge||13.0 %||n.a.||13.0|
|Elevated AST||12.0 %||n.a.||12.0|
|Peripheral edema||5.0 %||n.a.||5.0|
Pulmonary embolism (2%): toremifene
Thrombosis (1.5%): toremifene
Glaucoma (1.5%): toremifene
Hyperbilirubinemia (1.3%): toremifene
Heart failure: toremifene
Myocardial infarction: toremifene
Cerebrovascular accident: toremifene
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: Toremifene is a chlorinated triphenylethylene derivative of tamoxifen approved for use in the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer. Toremifene is well tolerated in patients, and common adverse effects of this drug include vasomotor symptoms such as hot flashes and vaginal discharge. This compound is administered to patients orally at a dose of 60 mg/day, although alternative methods of administration have been investigated. Oral bioavailability is estimated to be approximately 100%. At steady state, toremifene and its metabolites are highly protein bound (>95%). Toremifene is metabolised in the liver by cytochrome P450 enzymes, and it is eliminated primarily in the faeces following enterohepatic circulation. The half-life of toremifene is approximately 5 days, and steady state is reached by 6 weeks depending on the dose given. The pharmacokinetics of toremifene have been shown to be altered by certain liver conditions, but age and kidney function do not appear to be as significant.
Abstract: On the basis of a single clinical trial in first-line treatment, the atazanavir and ritonavir combination appears to be no more effective than the fixed-dose combination of lopinavir and ritonavir. The adverse effect profiles were slightly different, but atazanavir carries a troubling risk of torsades de pointes.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Drug-induced torsades de pointes (TdP) is a complex regulatory and clinical problem due to the rarity of this sometimes fatal adverse event. In this context, the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is an important source of information, which can be applied to the analysis of TdP liability of marketed drugs. OBJECTIVE: To critically evaluate the risk of antimicrobial-induced TdP by detecting alert signals in the AERS, on the basis of both quantitative and qualitative analyses. METHODS: Reports of TdP from January 2004 through December 2008 were retrieved from the public version of the AERS. The absolute number of cases and reporting odds ratio as a measure of disproportionality were evaluated for each antimicrobial drug (quantitative approach). A list of drugs with suspected TdP liability (provided by the Arizona Centre of Education and Research on Therapeutics [CERT]) was used as a reference to define signals. In a further analysis, to refine signal detection, we identified TdP cases without co-medications listed by Arizona CERT (qualitative approach). RESULTS: Over the 5-year period, 374 reports of TdP were retrieved: 28 antibacterials, 8 antifungals, 1 antileprosy and 26 antivirals were involved. Antimicrobials more frequently reported were levofloxacin (55) and moxifloxacin (37) among the antibacterials, fluconazole (47) and voriconazole (17) among the antifungals, and lamivudine (8) and nelfinavir (6) among the antivirals. A significant disproportionality was observed for 17 compounds, including several macrolides, fluoroquinolones, linezolid, triazole antifungals, caspofungin, indinavir and nelfinavir. With the qualitative approach, we identified the following additional drugs or fixed dose combinations, characterized by at least two TdP cases without co-medications listed by Arizona CERT: ceftriaxone, piperacillin/tazobactam, cotrimoxazole, metronidazole, ribavirin, lamivudine and lopinavir/ritonavir. DISCUSSION: Disproportionality for macrolides, fluoroquinolones and most of the azole antifungals should be viewed as 'expected' according to Arizona CERT list. By contrast, signals were generated by linezolid, caspofungin, posaconazole, indinavir and nelfinavir. Drugs detected only by the qualitative approach should be further investigated by increasing the sensitivity of the method, e.g. by searching also for the TdP surrogate marker, prolongation of the QT interval. CONCLUSIONS: The freely available version of the FDA AERS database represents an important source to detect signals of TdP. In particular, our analysis generated five signals among antimicrobials for which further investigations and active surveillance are warranted. These signals should be considered in evaluating the benefit-risk profile of these drugs.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: A prolonged QTc (LQT) is a surrogate for the risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). QTc interval duration is influenced by sex hormones: oestradiol prolongs and testosterone shortens QTc. Drugs used in the treatment of breast cancer have divergent effects on hormonal status. METHODS: We performed a disproportionality analysis using the European database of suspected adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports to evaluate the reporting OR (ROR χ,) of LQT, TdP and ventricular arrhythmias associated with selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs: tamoxifen and toremifene) as opposed to aromatase inhibitors (AIs: anastrozole, exemestane and letrozole). When the proportion of an ADR is greater in patients exposed to a drug (SERMs) compared with patients exposed to control drug (AIs), this suggests an association between the specific drug and the reaction and is a potential signal for safety. Clinical and demographic characterisation of patients with SERMs-induced LQT and ventricular arrhythmias was performed. RESULTS: SERMs were associated with higher proportion of LQT reports versus AIs (26/8318 vs 11/14851, ROR: 4.2 (2.11-8.55), p<0.001). SERMs were also associated with higher proportion of TdP and ventricular arrhythmia reports versus AIs (6/8318 vs 2/14851, ROR: 5.4 (1.29-26.15), p:0.02; 16/8318 vs 12/14851, ROR: 2.38 (1.15-4.94), p:0.02, respectively). Mortality was 38% in patients presenting ventricular arrhythmias associated with SERMs. CONCLUSIONS: SERMs are associated with more reports of drug-induced LQT, TdP and ventricular arrhythmias compared with AIs. This finding is consistent with oestradiol-like properties of SERMs on the heart as opposed to effects of oestrogen deprivation and testosterone increase induced by AIs. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03259711.