QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of lopinavir and trazodone. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. We do not expect any change in exposure for lopinavir, when combined with trazodone (100%). We did not detect any change in exposure to trazodone. We currently cannot estimate the influence of lopinavir.
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
The bioavailability of lopinavir is unknown. Protein binding [ Pb ] is not known. The metabolism mainly takes place via CYP3A4 and the active transport takes place in particular via PGP.
Trazodone has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 65%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather short at 5.5 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached quickly. The protein binding [ Pb ] is moderately strong at 92% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is 59 liters, The metabolism takes place via CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, among others.
|Serotonergic Effects a||2||Ø||++|
Recommendation: As a precautionary measure, symptoms of serotonergic overstimulation should be taken into account, especially after increasing the dose and at doses in the upper therapeutic range.
Rating: Trazodone modulates the serotonergic system to a moderate extent. The risk of a serotonergic syndrome can be classified as low with this medication if the dosage is in the usual range. According to our knowledge, lopinavir does not increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||Ø||+|
Recommendation: As a precaution, attention should be paid to anticholinergic symptoms, especially after increasing the dose and at doses in the upper therapeutic range.
Rating: Trazodone only has a mild effect on the anticholinergic system. The risk of anticholinergic syndrome with this medication is rather low if the dosage is in the usual range. According to our knowledge, lopinavir does not increase anticholinergic activity.
QT time prolongation
Rating: In combination, lopinavir and trazodone can potentially trigger ventricular arrhythmias of the torsades de pointes type.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||lop||tra|
|Blurred vision||15.0 %||n.a.||15.0|
|Feeling nervous||10.6 %||n.a.||10.6|
Dream disorder (5.1%): trazodone
Backache (5%): trazodone
Orthostatic hypotension: trazodone
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: trazodone
Allergic skin reactions like pruritus and rash: trazodone
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: Trazodone has been associated with prolonged QT-interval and increased risk of polymorphous ventricular tachycardias clinically and has demonstrated in vitro inhibition of hERG (human ether-á-go-go-related gene) channel current. This study attempts to put the effects of trazodone into perspective by comparing its hERG inhibition to that of three agents known to inhibit I(Kr), and comparing the effects of trazodone and cisapride on action potential duration and the QT-interval in the rabbit Langendorff heart preparation. Trazodone inhibited hERG channel current in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 0.69 microM. Like astemizole, terfenadine and cisapride, trazodone inhibits hERG channel current at clinically relevant concentrations. Like cisapride, trazodone increased both the QT-interval and APD90 in the Langendorff heart preparation in a reverse frequency-dependent manner at clinically relevant concentrations. These data strongly suggest that trazodone prolongs the QT-interval through inhibition of hERG channel current.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal relationship between cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications and memory and executive function in older men. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred forty-four community-dwelling men aged 65 and older with diagnosed hypertension. MEASUREMENTS: The outcomes were measured using the Hopkins Verbal Recall Test (HVRT) for short-term memory and the instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) scale for executive function at baseline and during follow-up. Anticholinergic medication use was ascertained using participants' primary care visit records and quantified as total anticholinergic burden using a clinician-rated anticholinergic score. RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications over the preceding 12 months was associated with poorer performance on the HVRT and IADLs. On average, a 1-unit increase in the total anticholinergic burden per 3 months was associated with a 0.32-point (95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.05-0.58) and 0.10-point (95% CI=0.04-0.17) decrease in the HVRT and IADLs, respectively, independent of other potential risk factors for cognitive impairment, including age, education, cognitive and physical function, comorbidities, and severity of hypertension. The association was attenuated but remained statistically significant with memory (0.29, 95% CI=0.01-0.56) and executive function (0.08, 95% CI=0.02-0.15) after further adjustment for concomitant non-anticholinergic medications. CONCLUSION: Cumulative anticholinergic exposure across multiple medications over 1 year may negatively affect verbal memory and executive function in older men. Prescription of drugs with anticholinergic effects in older persons deserves continued attention to avoid deleterious adverse effects.
Abstract: On the basis of a single clinical trial in first-line treatment, the atazanavir and ritonavir combination appears to be no more effective than the fixed-dose combination of lopinavir and ritonavir. The adverse effect profiles were slightly different, but atazanavir carries a troubling risk of torsades de pointes.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Drug-induced torsades de pointes (TdP) is a complex regulatory and clinical problem due to the rarity of this sometimes fatal adverse event. In this context, the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is an important source of information, which can be applied to the analysis of TdP liability of marketed drugs. OBJECTIVE: To critically evaluate the risk of antimicrobial-induced TdP by detecting alert signals in the AERS, on the basis of both quantitative and qualitative analyses. METHODS: Reports of TdP from January 2004 through December 2008 were retrieved from the public version of the AERS. The absolute number of cases and reporting odds ratio as a measure of disproportionality were evaluated for each antimicrobial drug (quantitative approach). A list of drugs with suspected TdP liability (provided by the Arizona Centre of Education and Research on Therapeutics [CERT]) was used as a reference to define signals. In a further analysis, to refine signal detection, we identified TdP cases without co-medications listed by Arizona CERT (qualitative approach). RESULTS: Over the 5-year period, 374 reports of TdP were retrieved: 28 antibacterials, 8 antifungals, 1 antileprosy and 26 antivirals were involved. Antimicrobials more frequently reported were levofloxacin (55) and moxifloxacin (37) among the antibacterials, fluconazole (47) and voriconazole (17) among the antifungals, and lamivudine (8) and nelfinavir (6) among the antivirals. A significant disproportionality was observed for 17 compounds, including several macrolides, fluoroquinolones, linezolid, triazole antifungals, caspofungin, indinavir and nelfinavir. With the qualitative approach, we identified the following additional drugs or fixed dose combinations, characterized by at least two TdP cases without co-medications listed by Arizona CERT: ceftriaxone, piperacillin/tazobactam, cotrimoxazole, metronidazole, ribavirin, lamivudine and lopinavir/ritonavir. DISCUSSION: Disproportionality for macrolides, fluoroquinolones and most of the azole antifungals should be viewed as 'expected' according to Arizona CERT list. By contrast, signals were generated by linezolid, caspofungin, posaconazole, indinavir and nelfinavir. Drugs detected only by the qualitative approach should be further investigated by increasing the sensitivity of the method, e.g. by searching also for the TdP surrogate marker, prolongation of the QT interval. CONCLUSIONS: The freely available version of the FDA AERS database represents an important source to detect signals of TdP. In particular, our analysis generated five signals among antimicrobials for which further investigations and active surveillance are warranted. These signals should be considered in evaluating the benefit-risk profile of these drugs.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.
Abstract: There is a paucity of clinical trials for the treatment of paediatric insomnia. This study was designed to predict doses of trazodone to guide dosing in a clinical trial for paediatric insomnia, using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling. Data on the pharmacokinetics of trazodone in children is currently lacking. The interaction potential between trazodone and atomoxetine was also predicted. Doses predicted in the following age groups, with exposures corresponding to adult dosages of 30 mg, 75 mg and 150 mg once-a-day (QD) respectively were: 2-6 yr old group: doses of 0.35, 0.8 and 1.6 mg/kg QD. >6-12 yr old group: doses of 0.4, 1.0 and 1.9 mg/kg QD. >12-17 yr old group: doses of 0.4, 1.1 and 2.1 mg/kg QD. An interaction between trazodone and atomoxetine was predicted to be unlikely. Clinical trials based on the above predicted dosing are currently in progress and pharmacokinetic data obtained will enable further refinement of the PBPK models.