QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
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Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of loratadine and quetiapine. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. We did not detect any change in exposure to loratadine. We currently cannot estimate the influence of quetiapine. We do not expect any change in exposure for quetiapine, when combined with loratadine (100%).
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Loratadine has a low oral bioavailability [ F ] of 10%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change strongly with an interaction. The protein binding [ Pb ] is 98% strong. The metabolism takes place via CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, among others and the active transport takes place in particular via PGP.
Quetiapine has a low oral bioavailability [ F ] of 9%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change strongly with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather short at 2.6 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached quickly. The protein binding [ Pb ] is moderately strong at 83% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is 55 liters, Since the substance has a low hepatic extraction rate of 0.13, displacement from protein binding [Pb] in the context of an interaction can lead to increased exposure. The metabolism takes place via CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, among others and the active transport takes place in particular via PGP.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither loratadine nor quetiapine increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||2||+||+|
Recommendation: As a precaution, attention should be paid to anticholinergic symptoms, especially after increasing the dose and at doses in the upper therapeutic range.
Rating: Loratadine and quetiapine only have a mild effect on the anticholinergic system. The risk of anticholinergic syndrome with this medication is rather low if the dosage is in the usual range.
QT time prolongation
Recommendation: Please make sure that influenceable risk factors are minimized. Electrolyte imbalances such as low levels of calcium, potassium and magnesium should be compensated for. The lowest effective dose of quetiapine should be used.
Rating: Quetiapine can potentially prolong the QT time and if there are risk factors, arrhythmias of the type torsades de pointes can occur. We do not know of any QT-prolonging potential for loratadine.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||lor||que|
|Weight gain||15.5 %||n.a.||15.5|
|Orthostatic hypotension||7.0 %||n.a.||7.0|
|Increased appetite||7.0 %||n.a.||7.0|
Tachycardia (6%): quetiapine
Dyspepsis (4.5%): quetiapine
Fatigue (3%): loratadine
Elevated ALT: quetiapine
Elevated GGT: quetiapine
Dream disorder: quetiapine
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: quetiapine
Tardive dyskinesia: quetiapine
Stevens johnson syndrome: quetiapine
Allergic skin reactions like pruritus and rash: quetiapine
Venous thromboembolism: quetiapine
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: This histological and immunohistochemical study of 6 food handlers affected by immediate contact dermatitis due to foods shows that apparently normal skin of patients with this condition presents several histological and immunohistochemical abnormalities. Skin biopsies of normal hand skin showed focal parakeratosis and moderately dense dermal infiltrates. Immunohistochemistry showed an increased number of Langerhans cells in the epidermis and in the superficial dermis and a mononuclear dermal infiltrate consisting of peripheral T lymphocytes with a CD4/CD8 ratio of 5-6/1. Biopsies of the immediate vesicular reactions induced by foods showed spongiotic vesicles within the epidermis and a moderate to dense mononuclear dermal perivascular infiltrate. The immunohistochemical features were similar to those described in apparently normal skin. The mechanism of this immediate vesicular reaction requires further research. The rapid appearance of the lesions (after 20-30 min) probably excludes an immunological cell-mediated pathogenesis. A non-immunological mechanism due to direct liberation of mediators by foods is more readily conceivable than an immediate immunological type of contact reaction.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of coadministration of loratadine and erythromycin on the pharmacokinetics and electrocardiographic repolarization (QTc) pharmacodynamics of loratadine and its metabolite descarboethoxyloratadine in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy volunteers were studied in a prospective, double-blind crossover design while confined in a Clinical Research Center. The primary pharmacodynamic end point of the study was the difference between baseline and day 10 mean QTc intervals obtained from surface electrocardiograms. Plasma concentrations of loratadine, descarboethoxyloratadine, and erythromycin were measured on treatment day 10 for pharmacokinetic analysis. Subjects received in random sequence the following three treatments for 10 consecutive days during three separate study periods: 10 mg loratadine every morning plus 500 mg erythromycin stearate every 8 hours, or 10 mg loratadine every morning plus placebo every 8 hours, or placebo every morning plus 500 mg erythromycin stearate. RESULTS: Concomitant administration of loratadine and erythromycin was associated with increased plasma concentrations of loratadine (40% increase in area under the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC]) and descarboethoxyloratadine (46% increase in AUC) compared with loratadine alone. Analysis of variance showed no difference between the treatment groups in effect on QTc intervals compared with baseline, and no significant change from baseline was observed. No clinically relevant changes in the safety profile of loratadine were observed, and there were no reports of sedation nor syncope. CONCLUSION: Although concomitant administration of loratadine and erythromycin was associated with increased plasma concentrations of loratadine and descarboethoxyloratadine, no clinically relevant changes in the safety profile of loratadine were observed. In this study, 10 mg loratadine administered orally for 10 consecutive days was well tolerated when coadministered with therapeutic doses of erythromycin stearate.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: AIMS: To evaluate whether ketoconazole or cimetidine alter the pharmacokinetics of loratadine, or its major metabolite, desloratadine (DCL), or alter the effects of loratadine or DCL on electrocardiographic repolarization in healthy adult volunteers. METHODS: Two randomized, evaluator-blind, multiple-dose, three-way crossover drug interaction studies were performed. In each study, subjects received three 10 day treatments in random sequence, separated by a 14 day washout period. The treatments were loratadine alone, cimetidine or ketoconazole alone, or loratadine plus cimetidine or ketoconazole. The primary study endpoint was the difference in mean QTc intervals from baseline to day 10. In addition, plasma concentrations of loratadine, DCL, and ketoconazole or cimetidine were obtained on day 10. RESULTS: Concomitant administration of loratadine and ketoconazole significantly increased the loratadine plasma concentrations (307%; 90% CI 205-428%) and DCL concentrations (73%; 62-85%) compared with administration of loratadine alone. Concomitant administration of loratadine and cimetidine significantly increased the loratadine plasma concentrations (103% increase; 70-142%) but not DCL concentrations (6% increase; 1-11%) compared with administration of loratadine alone. Cimetidine or ketoconazole plasma concentrations were unaffected by coadministration with loratadine. Despite increased concentrations of loratadine and DCL, there were no statistically significant differences for the primary electrocardiographic repolarization parameter (QTc) among any of the treatment groups. No other clinically relevant changes in the safety profile of loratadine were observed as assessed by electrocardiographic parameters (mean (90% CI) QTc changes: loratadine vs loratadine + ketoconazole = 3.6 ms (-2.2, 9.4); loratadine vs loratadine + cimetidine = 3.2 ms (-1.6, 7.9)), clinical laboratory tests, vital signs, and adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Loratadine 10 mg daily was devoid of any effects on electrocardiographic parameters when coadministered for 10 days with therapeutic doses of ketoconazole or cimetidine in healthy volunteers. It is concluded that, although there was a significant pharmacokinetic drug interaction between ketoconazole or cimetidine and loratadine, this effect was not accompanied by a change in the QTc interval in healthy adult volunteers.
Abstract: Quetiapine is a dibenzothiazepine derivative that has been evaluated for management of patients with the manifestations of psychotic disorders. In pharmacokinetic studies in humans, quetiapine was rapidly absorbed after oral administration, with median time to reach maximum observed plasma concentration ranging from 1 to 2 hours. The absolute bioavailability is unknown, but the relative bioavailability from orally administered tablets compared with a solution was nearly complete. Food has minimal effects on quetiapine absorption. The drug is approximately 83% bound to serum proteins. Single and multiple dose studies have demonstrated linear pharmacokinetics in the clinical dose range (up to 375mg twice daily). The drug is eliminated with a mean terminal half-life of approximately 7 hours. The primary route of elimination is through hepatic metabolism. In vitro studies show that quetiapine is predominantly metabolised by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. After administration of [14C]quetiapine, approximately 73% of the radioactivity was excreted in the urine and 21% in faeces. Quetiapine accounted for less than 1% of the excreted radioactivity. 11 metabolites formed through hepatic oxidation have been identified. Two were found to be pharmacologically active, but they circulate in plasma at 2 to 12% of the concentration of quetiapine and are unlikely to contribute substantially to the pharmacological effects of the drug. The pharmacokinetics of quetiapine do not appear to be altered by cigarette smoking. Oral clearance declines with age, and was reduced in 2 of 8 patients with hepatic dysfunction but not in patients with renal impairment. Quetiapine has no effect on the in vitro activity of CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4 at clinically relevant concentrations. The lack of effect of quetiapine on hepatic oxidation was confirmed in vivo by the lack of effect of quetiapine on antipyrine disposition. Quetiapine had no effect on serum lithium concentration. Phenytoin and thioridazine increase the clearance of quetiapine, and ketoconazole decreases clearance. No clinically significant effects of cimetidine, haloperidol, risperidone or imipramine on the pharmacokinetics of quetiapine were noted. Quetiapine dosage adjustment, therefore, may be necessary when coadministered with phenytoin, thioridazine or other potent CYP3A4 inducers or inhibitors. The relationship between the therapeutic effects and the plasma concentrations of quetiapine has been investigated in a multicentre clinical trial. There was no statistically significant association between trough plasma quetiapine concentration and clinical response as measured by traditional assessments of psychotic symptom severity. Subsequent clinical studies of the plasma concentration versus effect relationships for quetiapine may help to further define guidelines for dosage regimen design.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of erythromycin on metabolism of quetiapine in Chinese suffering from schizophrenia. METHODS: Nineteen patients received multiple doses of quetiapine (200 mg, twice daily) with or without co-administered erythromycin (500 mg, three times daily). Blood samples were collected at specified time intervals for determination of plasma concentrations of quetiapine and some of its metabolites. RESULTS: With erythromycin co-administration: for quetiapine, maximal plasma concentration (Cmax), area under concentration-time curve of 0-infinity h (AUC0-infinity) and terminal-phase elimination half-life time (t1/2) increased 68, 129 and 92%, respectively, and clearance (CL) and terminal elimination rate constant (Ke) decreased 52% and 55%, respectively; for quetiapine sulfoxide (QTP-SF), Cmax, AUC0-infinity and AUC ratio decreased 64, 23, and 70%, respectively, and t1/2 increased 211%; for 7-hydroxy-quetiapine (QTP-H), Ke and AUC ratio decreased 61% and 45%, respectively, and t1/2 increased 203%; for 7-hydroxy-N-desalkyl-quetiapine (QTP-ND), Cmax, AUC0-infinity and AUC ratio decreased 36, 40 and 71%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Erythromycin has a noticeable effect on the metabolism of quetiapine. When quetiapine is co-administered with CYP3A inhibitors such as erythromycin, the dosing regimen should be modified according to quetiapine TDM.
Abstract: Loratadine is known to be a substrate for both CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 based on a previous in vitro study. In view of the large interindividual variability in loratadine pharmacokinetics and the greater genetically determined variability of CYP2D6 activity than of CYP3A4 in vivo, we hypothesized that CYP2D6 polymorphisms may contribute to the pharmacokinetic variability of loratadine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CYP2D6 genotype (specifically the CYP2D6*10 allele) on the pharmacokinetics of loratadine in Chinese subjects. Three groups of healthy male Chinese subjects were enrolled: group I, homozygous CYP2D6*1 (*1/*1, n=4); group II, heterozygous CYP2D6*10 (*1/*10 or *2/*10, n=6); and group III, homozygous CYP2D6*10 (*10/*10, n=7) carriers. Each subject received a single oral dose of 20 mg of loratadine under fasting conditions. Multiple blood samples were collected over 48 h, and the plasma concentrations of loratadine and its metabolite desloratadine were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. In comparing homozygous CYP2D6*10 (group III) to heterozygous CYP2D6*10 (group II) to homozygous CYP2D6*1 (group I) subjects, loratadine oral clearance values were 7.17+/- 2.54 versus 11.06+/-1.70 versus 14.59+/-2.43 l/h/kg, respectively [one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), p<0.01], and the corresponding metabolic ratios [area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC)(desloratadine)/AUC(loratadine)] were 1.55+/-0.73 versus 2.47+/- 0.46 versus 3.32+/- 0.49, respectively (one-way ANOVA, p<0.05), indicating a gene-dose effect. The results demonstrated that CYP2D6 polymorphism prevalent in the Chinese population significantly affected loratadine pharmacokinetics.
Abstract: AIMS: To explore the potential for drug interactions on quetiapine pharmacokinetics using in vitro and in vivo assessments. METHODS: The CYP enzymes responsible for quetiapine metabolite formation were assessed using recombinant expressed CYPs and CYP-selective inhibitors. P-glycoprotein (Pgp) transport was tested in MDCK cells expressing the human MDR1 gene. The effects of CYP3A4 inhibition were evaluated clinically in 12 healthy volunteers that received 25 mg quetiapine before and after 4 days of treatment with ketoconazole 200 mg daily. To assess CYP3A4 induction in vivo, 18 patients with psychiatric disorders were titrated to steady-state quetiapine levels (300 mg twice daily), then titrated to 600 mg daily carbamazepine for 2 weeks. RESULTS: CYP3A4 was found to be responsible for formation of quetiapine sulfoxide and N- and O-desalkylquetiapine and not a Pgp substrate. In the clinical studies, ketoconazole increased mean quetiapine plasma C(max) by 3.35-fold, from 45 to 150 ng ml(-1) (mean C(max) ratio 90% CI 2.51, 4.47) and decreased its clearance (Cl/F) by 84%, from 138 to 22 l h(-1) (mean ratio 90% CI 0.13, 0.20). Carbamazepine decreased quetiapine plasma C(max) by 80%, from 1042 to 205 ng ml(-1) (mean C(max) ratio 90% CI 0.14, 0.28) and increased its clearance 7.5-fold, from 65 to 483 l h(-1) (mean ratio 90% CI 6.04, 9.28). CONCLUSIONS: Cytochrome P450 3A4 is a primary enzyme responsible for the metabolic clearance of quetiapine. Quetiapine pharmacokinetics were affected by concomitant administration of ketoconazole and carbamazepine, and therefore other drugs and ingested natural products that strongly modulate the activity or expression of CYP3A4 would be predicted to change exposure to quetiapine.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to measure the anticholinergic activity (AA) of medications commonly used by older adults. A radioreceptor assay was used to investigate the AA of 107 medications. Six clinically relevant concentrations were assessed for each medication. Rodent forebrain and striatum homogenate was used with tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate. Drug-free serum was added to medication and atropine standard-curve samples. For medications that showed detectable AA, average steady-state peak plasma and serum concentrations (C(max)) in older adults were used to estimate relationships between in vitro dose and AA. All results are reported in pmol/mL of atropine equivalents. At typical doses administered to older adults, amitriptyline, atropine, clozapine, dicyclomine, doxepin, L-hyoscyamine, thioridazine, and tolterodine demonstrated AA exceeding 15 pmol/mL. Chlorpromazine, diphenhydramine, nortriptyline, olanzapine, oxybutynin, and paroxetine had AA values of 5 to 15 pmol/mL. Citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, lithium, mirtazapine, quetiapine, ranitidine, and temazepam had values less than 5 pmol/mL. Amoxicillin, celecoxib, cephalexin, diazepam, digoxin, diphenoxylate, donepezil, duloxetine, fentanyl, furosemide, hydrocodone, lansoprazole, levofloxacin, metformin, phenytoin, propoxyphene, and topiramate demonstrated AA only at the highest concentrations tested (patients with above-average C(max) values, who receive higher doses, or are frail may show AA). The remainder of the medications investigated did not demonstrate any AA at the concentrations examined. Psychotropic medications were particularly likely to demonstrate AA. Each of the drug classifications investigated (e.g., antipsychotic, cardiovascular) had at least one medication that demonstrated AA at therapeutic doses. Clinicians can use this information when choosing between equally efficacious medications, as well as in assessing overall anticholinergic burden.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal relationship between cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications and memory and executive function in older men. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred forty-four community-dwelling men aged 65 and older with diagnosed hypertension. MEASUREMENTS: The outcomes were measured using the Hopkins Verbal Recall Test (HVRT) for short-term memory and the instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) scale for executive function at baseline and during follow-up. Anticholinergic medication use was ascertained using participants' primary care visit records and quantified as total anticholinergic burden using a clinician-rated anticholinergic score. RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications over the preceding 12 months was associated with poorer performance on the HVRT and IADLs. On average, a 1-unit increase in the total anticholinergic burden per 3 months was associated with a 0.32-point (95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.05-0.58) and 0.10-point (95% CI=0.04-0.17) decrease in the HVRT and IADLs, respectively, independent of other potential risk factors for cognitive impairment, including age, education, cognitive and physical function, comorbidities, and severity of hypertension. The association was attenuated but remained statistically significant with memory (0.29, 95% CI=0.01-0.56) and executive function (0.08, 95% CI=0.02-0.15) after further adjustment for concomitant non-anticholinergic medications. CONCLUSION: Cumulative anticholinergic exposure across multiple medications over 1 year may negatively affect verbal memory and executive function in older men. Prescription of drugs with anticholinergic effects in older persons deserves continued attention to avoid deleterious adverse effects.
Abstract: The present study demonstrated that in addition to CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, the metabolism of loratadine is also catalyzed by CYP1A1, CYP2C19, and to a lesser extent by CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP3A5. The biotransformation of loratadine was associated with the formation of desloratadine (DL) and further hydroxylation of both DL and the parent drug (loratadine). Based on the inhibition and correlation studies contribution of CYP2C19 in the formation of the major circulating metabolite DL seems to be minor. Reported clinical results suggest that the steady state mean (%CV) plasma Cmax and AUC(24hr) of loratadine were 4.73 ng/ml (119%) and 24.1 ng.hr/ml (157%), respectively, after dosing with 10 mg loratadine tablets for 10 days. High inter-subject variability in loratadine steady-state data is probably due to the phenotypical characteristics of CYP2D6, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4. The relative abundance of CYP3A4 in the human liver exceeds that of CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 and therefore the contribution of CYP3A4 in the metabolism of loratadine should be major (approximately 70%).
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although some of the aetiological factors are known, it is not yet known whether drugs with anticholinergic activity (AA) contribute to this cognitive decline. Such knowledge would provide opportunities to prevent acceleration of cognitive decline in PD. OBJECTIVE: To study whether the use of agents with anticholinergic properties is an independent risk factor for cognitive decline in patients with PD. METHODS: A community-based cohort of patients with PD (n=235) were included and assessed at baseline. They were reassessed 4 and 8 years later. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A detailed assessment of the AA of all drugs prescribed was made, and AA was classified according to a standardised scale. Relationships between cognitive decline and AA load and duration of treatment were assessed using bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses. RESULTS: More than 40% used drugs with AA at baseline. During the 8-year follow-up, the cognitive decline was higher in those who had been taking AA drugs (median decline on MMSE 6.5 points) compared with those who had not taken such drugs (median decline 1 point; p=0.025). In linear regression analyses adjusting for age, baseline cognition and depression, significant associations with decline on MMSE were found for total AA load (standardised beta=0.229, p=0.04) as well as the duration of using AA drugs (standardised beta 0.231, p=0.032). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an association between anticholinergic drug use and cognitive decline in PD. This may provide an important opportunity for clinicians to avoid increasing progression of cognitive decline by avoiding drugs with AA. Increased awareness by clinicians is required about the classes of drugs that have anticholinergic properties.
Abstract: Many antipsychotic drugs cause QT prolongation, although the effect differs based on the particular drug. We sought to determine the potential for antipsychotic drugs to prolong the QTc interval (>470 ms in men and >480 ms in women) using the Bazett formula in a "real-world" setting by analyzing the electrocardiograms of 1017 patients suffering from schizophrenia. Using logistic regression analysis to calculate the adjusted relative risk (RR), we found that chlorpromazine (RR for 100 mg=1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.14 to 1.64; p<.005), intravenous haloperidol (RR for 2 mg=1.29, 95% CI=1.18 to 1.43; p<.001), and sultopride (RR for 200 mg=1.45, 95% CI=1.28 to 1.63; p<.001) were associated with an increased risk of QTc prolongation. Levomepromazine also significantly lengthened the QTc interval. The second-generation antipsychotic drugs (i.e., olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and zotepine), mood stabilizers, benzodiazepines, and antiparkinsonian drugs did not prolong the QTc interval. Our results suggest that second-generation antipsychotic drugs are generally less likely than first-generation antipsychotic drugs to produce QTc interval prolongation, which may be of use in clinical decision making concerning the choice of antipsychotic medication.
Abstract: Variability in response to atypical antipsychotic drugs is due to genetic and environmental factors. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms are implicated in the metabolism of drugs, while the P-glycoprotein transporter (P-gp), encoded by the ABCB1 gene, may influence both the blood and brain drug concentrations. This study aimed to identify the possible associations of CYP and ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms with quetiapine and norquetiapine plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations and with response to treatment. Twenty-two patients with schizophrenia receiving 600 mg of quetiapine daily were genotyped for four CYP isoforms and ABCB1 polymorphisms. Quetiapine and norquetiapine peak plasma and CSF concentrations were measured after 4 weeks of treatment. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that ABCB1 3435C > T (rs1045642), 2677G > T (rs2032582) and 1236C > T (rs1128503) polymorphisms predicted plasma quetiapine concentrations, explaining 41% of the variability (p = 0.001). Furthermore, the ABCB1 polymorphisms predicted 48% (p = 0.024) of the variability of the Δ PANSS total score, with the non-carriers of the 3435TT showing higher changes in the score. These results suggest that ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms may be a predictive marker of quetiapine treatment in schizophrenia.
Abstract: PURPOSE: QT prolongation can occur with both first- (FGA) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGA). QT prolongation was identified in an adult patient who presented to the emergency room with schizophrenia, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and pneumonia. Quetiapine, an SGA, was a component of the pharmacotherapy regimen. Based on the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale rating criteria, a probable causal association was made. METHODS: PubMed and Ovid were searched using the terms antipsychotic, psychotropic, QT interval, corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation, and quetiapine. References were examined for additional articles related to antipsychotic drugs and the QT interval. DISCUSSION: In this patient, the use of quetiapine was identified as a contributing factor in QT prolongation. Prior QT prolongation was experienced with ziprasidone, another SGA. The antidepressant and dose remained consistent throughout the inpatient course of treatment. Other risk factors in this patient included hypokalemia, dehydration, pneumonia, age, gender, and concurrent usage of an antidepressant. Dual psychiatric diagnoses, preexisting cardiovascular disease, and electrolyte disturbances may increase this risk potential. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric patients may be more at risk of cardiovascular complications, such as QT interval prolongation. The pharmacist can help evaluate risk factors and provide input into the care of all patients, particularly those identified as at risk.
Abstract: The antipsychotic drug quetiapine has been approved for the treatment of unipolar and bipolar depression. The antidepressant activity is considered to be mediated by the active metabolite N-desalkylquetiapine, which is mainly formed by CYP3A4. Little is known about the subsequent elimination of this metabolite. Therefore, this study investigated the possible involvement of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes in the metabolism of N-desalkylquetiapine. Screening for and interpretation of metabolites were performed by incubating N-desalkylquetiapine in human liver microsomes (HLM) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The possible involvement of P450 enzymes in N-desalkylquetiapine metabolism was evaluated by coincubation of selective P450 inhibitors in HLM and subsequent experiments with recombinant human P450 enzymes. In HLM experiments, three chromatographic peaks were interpreted as possible metabolites of N-desalkylquetiapine, namely, N-desalkylquetiapine sulfoxide, 7-hydroxy-N-desalkylquetiapine, and an unrecognized metabolite (denoted M3). Inhibition of CYP2D6 (by quinidine) reduced formation of 7-hydroxy-N-desalkylquetiapine by 81%, whereas the CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole inhibited formation of N-desalkylquetiapine sulfoxide and M3 by 65 and 34%, respectively. Inhibitors of CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 showed only limited changes in metabolite formation. In recombinant systems, 7-hydroxy-N-desalkylquetiapine was exclusively formed by CYP2D6, whereas N-desalkylquetiapine sulfoxide and M3 were formed by both CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Overall, intrinsic clearance of N-desalkylquetiapine was 12-fold higher by recombinant CYP2D6 relative to CYP3A4. In conclusion, N-desalkylquetiapine is metabolized by both CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 in vitro with preference for the former enzyme. The pharmacologically active metabolite, 7-hydroxy-N-desalkylquetiapine, was exclusively formed by CYP2D6, whereas the two other metabolites were mainly formed by CYP3A4.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Oral fluid provides a noninvasive method of sample collection. The aim of this study was to obtain oral fluid, plasma, and whole blood from patients prescribed amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, quetiapine, risperidone, or sulpiride and to measure plasma:whole blood and plasma:oral fluid analyte distribution. METHODS: Matched oral fluid, plasma and whole-blood samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: There were 101 sets of samples from 90 (56 male, 34 female) patients (nine prescribed 2 antipsychotics, and one 3). There were ≤ 5 samples for aripiprazole, amisulpride, and sulpiride. There was a good relationship between the plasma and hemolyzed whole-blood concentrations (R > 0.95), with plasma:whole-blood ratios varying between 0.7 (amisulpride) and 1.8 (aripiprazole). Amisulpride plasma and oral fluid concentrations were similar, whereas aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole oral fluid concentrations were approximately 8% of those in the plasma, reflecting the weak and strong plasma protein binding of these compounds, respectively. For the other analytes, plasma concentrations were 2-4 times higher than oral fluid concentrations. In general, there was a poor relationship (R = 0.3-0.7) between the plasma and oral fluid concentrations, possibly due to intrapatient saliva pH variation during sample collection. CONCLUSIONS: This work shows that hemolyzed whole-blood samples can be used for therapeutic drug monitoring purposes for the analytes of interest, provided that the plasma:whole-blood ratio is taken into account when interpreting results. For aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole, measurements in oral fluid will probably not be feasible. However, the relationship between plasma and oral fluid concentration for amisulpride, clozapine (and norclozapine), quetiapine (and possibly quetiapine metabolites), and risperidone/9-hydroxyrisperidone shows potential for oral fluid analysis.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug used to treat schizophrenia and acute episodes of mania. Quetiapine is metabolized by CYP3A enzymes including CYP3A5 and is a substrate of P-glycoprotein, an efflux drug transporter encoded by the ABCB1 gene. We assessed the effects of ABCB1 [c.1236C>T (rs1128503), c.2677G>T/A (rs2032582), c.3435C>T (rs1045642)] and CYP3A5*3 (6986A>G) (rs776746) polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of quetiapine in humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty healthy male individuals were enrolled, and their ABCB1 and CYP3A5 polymorphisms were assessed. After a single dose of 100 mg quetiapine was administered, plasma concentrations of quetiapine were measured for 24 h and pharmacokinetic analysis was carried out. RESULTS: The ABCB1 polymorphisms including c.1236C>T, c.2677G>T/A, and c.3435C>>T did not affect plasma levels of quetiapine, and its pharmacokinetic parameters did not differ among ABCB1 genotype groups. However, the CYP3A5*3 polymorphism significantly affected the plasma level of quetiapine and its pharmacokinetics. The peak plasma concentration of quetiapine was 208.39 ng/ml for CYP3A5*1/*1, 243.46 ng/ml for CYP3A5*1/*3, and 332.94 ng/ml for CYP3A5*3/*3 (P=0.0118). The mean AUC(inf) (area under the time vs. concentration curve from 0 to infinity) value was 627.3, 712.77, and 1045.29 ng h/ml, respectively (P=0.0017). CONCLUSION: The results indicated that the genetic polymorphism of CYP3A5*3 but not ABCB1 significantly influences the plasma level of quetiapine and its pharmacokinetics. These findings suggest that the CYP3A5 genetic polymorphism affects the disposition of quetiapine and provide a plausible explanation for interindividual variation in the disposition of this drug.
Abstract: Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug with a high permeability, moderate solubility and defined as a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class ll compound. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of the quetiapine immediate-release (IR) formulation has been studied in both adults and children, but the quetiapine extended-release (XR) formulation has only been conducted in adults. The purpose of the current study was to use physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling (PBPK) quantitatively to predict the PK of the XR formulation in children and adolescents. Using a 'learn and confirm' approach, PBPK models were developed employing in vitro ADME and physicochemical data, clinical PK data of quetiapine IR/XR in adults and clinical PK data of quetiapine IR in children. These models can predict well the effects of CYP3A4 inhibition and induction on the PK of quetiapine, the PK profile of quetiapine IR in children and adults, and the PK profile of quetiapine XR in adults. The AUC and Cmax ratios (children vs adults) for the different age groups were in reasonable agreement with the observed ratios. In addition, the PBPK model predicted that children and adolescents are likely to achieve a similar exposure following administration of either the XR formulation once daily or the IR formulation twice daily at similar total daily doses. The results from the study can help inform dosing regimens in pediatrics using the quetiapine XR formulation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of genetic variability in CYP2D6, CYP3A5, and ABCB1 on steady-state serum concentrations of quetiapine and the active metabolite, N-desalkylquetiapine, in psychiatric patients. METHODS: Measured serum concentrations of quetiapine and N-desalkylquetiapine from patients with biobanked DNA samples were included retrospectively from a routine therapeutic drug monitoring database. The impact of CYP2D6, CYP3A5, and ABCB1 (345C>T) genotypes on dose-adjusted serum concentrations (C/D ratios) of quetiapine and N-desalkylquetiapine was investigated by multivariate mixed model analysis. RESULTS: In total, 289 patients with 633 serum measurements were included. In the multivariate analysis, mean C/D ratio of N-desalkylquetiapine was estimated to be 33% and 22% higher in inherent CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (P = 0.03) and heterozygous extensive metabolizers (P < 0.001), respectively, compared with inherent extensive metabolizers. The ABCB1 3435C>T polymorphism and CYP3A5 genotype had no significant influence on either of the substances in the present material. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variability in CYP2D6 contributes to the interindividual variability in steady-state serum concentrations of N-desalkylquetiapine. Although the metabolite exhibits relevant pharmacological activity, the quantitative effect of CYP2D6 genotype on serum concentration of N-desalkylquetiapine is probably of limited clinical relevance for quetiapine treatment.
Abstract: Quetiapine fumarate is an antipsychotic drug with poor oral bioavailability (9%) due to first-pass metabolism. Present work is an attempt to improve oral bioavailability of quetiapine fumarate by incorporating in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). Six quetiapine fumarate SLN formulations were developed using three different lipids by hot homogenisation followed by ultrasonication. The drug excipient compatibility was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Stable quetiapine fumarate SLNs having a mean particle size of 200-250 nm with entrapment efficiency varying in between 80% and 92% were developed. The physical stability of optimized formulation F3 was checked at room temperature for 2 months. Comparative bioavailability studies were conducted in male Wistar rats after oral administration of quetiapine fumarate suspension and SLN formulation. The relative bioavailability of quetiapine fumarate from optimized SLN preparation was increased by 3.71 times when compared with the reference quetiapine fumarate suspension. The obtained results are indicative of SLNs as potential lipid carriers for improving the bioavailability of quetiapine fumarate by minimizing first-pass metabolism.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.