QT time prolongation
Adverse drug events
Variants ✨For the computationally intensive evaluation of the variants, please choose the paid standard subscription.
Explanations of the substances for patients
We have no additional warnings for the combination of risperidone and loratadine. Please also consult the relevant specialist information.
|Risperidone||1 [0.42,4.42] 1||1|
The reported changes in exposure correspond to the changes in the plasma concentration-time curve [ AUC ]. We do not expect any change in exposure for risperidone, when combined with loratadine (100%). The AUC is between 42% and 442% depending on the CYP2D6
The pharmacokinetic parameters of the average population are used as the starting point for calculating the individual changes in exposure due to the interactions.
Risperidone has a mean oral bioavailability [ F ] of 70%, which is why the maximum plasma levels [Cmax] tend to change with an interaction. The terminal half-life [ t12 ] is rather short at 4.9 hours and constant plasma levels [ Css ] are reached quickly. The protein binding [ Pb ] is moderately strong at 82.5% and the volume of distribution [ Vd ] is 74 liters, Since the substance has a low hepatic extraction rate of 0.04, displacement from protein binding [Pb] in the context of an interaction can lead to increased exposure. The metabolism takes place via CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, among others and the active transport takes place in particular via PGP.
Loratadine has a low oral bioavailability [ F ] of 10%, which is why the maximum plasma level [Cmax] tends to change strongly with an interaction. The protein binding [ Pb ] is 98% strong. The metabolism takes place via CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, among others and the active transport takes place in particular via PGP.
|Serotonergic Effects a||0||Ø||Ø|
Rating: According to our knowledge, neither risperidone nor loratadine increase serotonergic activity.
|Kiesel & Durán b||2||+||+|
Recommendation: As a precaution, attention should be paid to anticholinergic symptoms, especially after increasing the dose and at doses in the upper therapeutic range.
Rating: Risperidone and loratadine only have a mild effect on the anticholinergic system. The risk of anticholinergic syndrome with this medication is rather low if the dosage is in the usual range.
QT time prolongation
Recommendation: Please make sure that influenceable risk factors are minimized. Electrolyte imbalances such as low levels of calcium, potassium and magnesium should be compensated for. The lowest effective dose of risperidone should be used.
Rating: Risperidone can potentially prolong the QT time and if there are risk factors, arrhythmias of the type torsades de pointes can occur. We do not know of any QT-prolonging potential for loratadine.
General adverse effects
|Side effects||∑ frequency||ris||lor|
Abdominal pain: risperidone
Increased appetite: risperidone
Weight gain: risperidone
Diabetic ketoacidosis: risperidone
Musculoskeletal pain: risperidone
Cerebrovascular accident: risperidone
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: risperidone
Tardive dyskinesia: risperidone
Blurred vision: risperidone
Urinary incontinence: risperidone
Atrial fibrillation: risperidone
Atrioventricular block: risperidone
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: risperidone
Erectile dysfunction: risperidone
Pulmonary embolism: risperidone
Venous thromboembolism: risperidone
Based on your answers and scientific information, we assess the individual risk of undesirable side effects. These recommendations are intended to advise professionals and are not a substitute for consultation with a doctor. In the restricted test version (alpha), the risk of all substances has not yet been conclusively assessed.
Abstract: This histological and immunohistochemical study of 6 food handlers affected by immediate contact dermatitis due to foods shows that apparently normal skin of patients with this condition presents several histological and immunohistochemical abnormalities. Skin biopsies of normal hand skin showed focal parakeratosis and moderately dense dermal infiltrates. Immunohistochemistry showed an increased number of Langerhans cells in the epidermis and in the superficial dermis and a mononuclear dermal infiltrate consisting of peripheral T lymphocytes with a CD4/CD8 ratio of 5-6/1. Biopsies of the immediate vesicular reactions induced by foods showed spongiotic vesicles within the epidermis and a moderate to dense mononuclear dermal perivascular infiltrate. The immunohistochemical features were similar to those described in apparently normal skin. The mechanism of this immediate vesicular reaction requires further research. The rapid appearance of the lesions (after 20-30 min) probably excludes an immunological cell-mediated pathogenesis. A non-immunological mechanism due to direct liberation of mediators by foods is more readily conceivable than an immediate immunological type of contact reaction.
Abstract: The absorption, metabolism, and excretion of the novel antipsychotic risperidone was studied in three healthy male subjects. One week after a single oral dose of 1 mg [14C]risperidone, 70% of the administered radioactivity was recovered in the urine and 14% in the feces. Unchanged risperidone was mainly excreted in the urine and accounted for 30, 11, and 4% of the administered dose in the poor, intermediate, and extensive metabolizer of debrisoquine, respectively. Alicyclic hydroxylation at the 9-position of the tetrahydro-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]-pyrimidin-4-one moiety was the main metabolic pathway. The active metabolite 9-hydroxy-risperidone accounted for 8, 22, and 32% of the administered dose in the urine of the poor, intermediate, and extensive metabolizer, respectively. Oxidative N-dealkylation at the piperidine nitrogen, whether or not in combination with the 9-hydroxylation, accounted for 10-13% of the dose. In methanolic extracts of feces, risperidone, and benzisoxazole-opened risperidone and hydroxylated metabolites were detected. 9-Hydroxy-risperidone was by far the main plasma metabolite. The sum of risperidone and 9-hydroxy-risperidone accounted for the largest part of the plasma radioactivity in the three subjects. Although the debrisoquine-type genetic polymorphism plays a distinct role in the metabolism of risperidone, the pharmacokinetics of the active fraction (i.e. risperidone plus 9-hydroxy-risperidone) remained similar among the three subjects.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of coadministration of loratadine and erythromycin on the pharmacokinetics and electrocardiographic repolarization (QTc) pharmacodynamics of loratadine and its metabolite descarboethoxyloratadine in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy volunteers were studied in a prospective, double-blind crossover design while confined in a Clinical Research Center. The primary pharmacodynamic end point of the study was the difference between baseline and day 10 mean QTc intervals obtained from surface electrocardiograms. Plasma concentrations of loratadine, descarboethoxyloratadine, and erythromycin were measured on treatment day 10 for pharmacokinetic analysis. Subjects received in random sequence the following three treatments for 10 consecutive days during three separate study periods: 10 mg loratadine every morning plus 500 mg erythromycin stearate every 8 hours, or 10 mg loratadine every morning plus placebo every 8 hours, or placebo every morning plus 500 mg erythromycin stearate. RESULTS: Concomitant administration of loratadine and erythromycin was associated with increased plasma concentrations of loratadine (40% increase in area under the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC]) and descarboethoxyloratadine (46% increase in AUC) compared with loratadine alone. Analysis of variance showed no difference between the treatment groups in effect on QTc intervals compared with baseline, and no significant change from baseline was observed. No clinically relevant changes in the safety profile of loratadine were observed, and there were no reports of sedation nor syncope. CONCLUSION: Although concomitant administration of loratadine and erythromycin was associated with increased plasma concentrations of loratadine and descarboethoxyloratadine, no clinically relevant changes in the safety profile of loratadine were observed. In this study, 10 mg loratadine administered orally for 10 consecutive days was well tolerated when coadministered with therapeutic doses of erythromycin stearate.
Abstract: Risperidone is a relatively new antipsychotic drug that has been reported to improve both the positive and the negative symptoms of schizophrenia and produces relatively few extrapyramidal side effects at low doses. Formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone, an active metabolite, is the most important metabolic pathway of risperidone in human. In the present study, in vitro metabolism of risperidone (100 microM) was investigated using the recombinant human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9-arg144, CYP2C9-cys144, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 supplemented with an NADPH-generating system. 9-Hydroxyrisperidone was determined by a new HPLC method with an Hypersil CN column and a UV detector. Of these enzymes, CYPs 2D6, 3A4 and 3A5 were found to be the ones capable of metabolising risperidone to 9-hydroxyrisperidone, with activities of 7.5, 0.4 and 0.2 pmol pmol(-1) CYP min(-1), respectively. A correlation study using a panel of human liver microsomes showed that the formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone is highly correlated with CYP2D6 and 3A activities. Thus, both CYP2D6 and 3A4 are involved in the 9-hydroxylation of risperidone at the concentration of risperidone used in this study. This observation is confirmed by the findings that both quinidine (inhibitor of CYP2D6) and ketoconazole (inhibitor of CYP3A4) can inhibit the formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone. Furthermore, inducers of CYP can significantly increase the formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone in rat. The formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone is highly correlated with testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase activities, suggesting that inducible CYP3A contributes significantly to the metabolism of risperidone in rat.
Abstract: AIMS: To evaluate whether ketoconazole or cimetidine alter the pharmacokinetics of loratadine, or its major metabolite, desloratadine (DCL), or alter the effects of loratadine or DCL on electrocardiographic repolarization in healthy adult volunteers. METHODS: Two randomized, evaluator-blind, multiple-dose, three-way crossover drug interaction studies were performed. In each study, subjects received three 10 day treatments in random sequence, separated by a 14 day washout period. The treatments were loratadine alone, cimetidine or ketoconazole alone, or loratadine plus cimetidine or ketoconazole. The primary study endpoint was the difference in mean QTc intervals from baseline to day 10. In addition, plasma concentrations of loratadine, DCL, and ketoconazole or cimetidine were obtained on day 10. RESULTS: Concomitant administration of loratadine and ketoconazole significantly increased the loratadine plasma concentrations (307%; 90% CI 205-428%) and DCL concentrations (73%; 62-85%) compared with administration of loratadine alone. Concomitant administration of loratadine and cimetidine significantly increased the loratadine plasma concentrations (103% increase; 70-142%) but not DCL concentrations (6% increase; 1-11%) compared with administration of loratadine alone. Cimetidine or ketoconazole plasma concentrations were unaffected by coadministration with loratadine. Despite increased concentrations of loratadine and DCL, there were no statistically significant differences for the primary electrocardiographic repolarization parameter (QTc) among any of the treatment groups. No other clinically relevant changes in the safety profile of loratadine were observed as assessed by electrocardiographic parameters (mean (90% CI) QTc changes: loratadine vs loratadine + ketoconazole = 3.6 ms (-2.2, 9.4); loratadine vs loratadine + cimetidine = 3.2 ms (-1.6, 7.9)), clinical laboratory tests, vital signs, and adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Loratadine 10 mg daily was devoid of any effects on electrocardiographic parameters when coadministered for 10 days with therapeutic doses of ketoconazole or cimetidine in healthy volunteers. It is concluded that, although there was a significant pharmacokinetic drug interaction between ketoconazole or cimetidine and loratadine, this effect was not accompanied by a change in the QTc interval in healthy adult volunteers.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The authors review the mechanisms and establish the risk of torsade de pointes and sudden death with antipsychotic drugs. METHOD: They present a review of original concepts, the distinction between familial and drug-induced cases of torsade de pointes, and the recognition of the role of noncardiac drugs in torsade de pointes and sudden death. They review the evidence linking QTc interval prolongation, potassium channels, and torsade de pointes from both the long QT syndrome and drugs. They examine the risk for torsade de pointes from antipsychotic drugs and estimate the frequency of sudden death on the basis of epidemiological data in normal and schizophrenic populations. RESULTS: All drugs that cause torsade de pointes prolong the QTc interval and bind to the potassium rectifier channel, but the relationships are not precise. Prediction of torsade de pointes and sudden death can be improved by examining dose dependency, the percent of QTc intervals higher than 500 msec, and the risk of drug-drug interactions. Although sudden unexpected death occurs almost twice as often in populations treated with antipsychotics as in normal populations, there are still only 10-15 such events in 10,000 person-years of observation. CONCLUSIONS: Although pimozide, sertindole, droperidol, and haloperidol have been documented to cause torsade de pointes and sudden death, the most marked risk is with thioridazine. There is no association with olanzapine, quetiapine, or risperidone. Ziprasidone does prolong the QT interval, but there is no evidence to suggest that this leads to torsade de pointes or sudden death. Only widespread use will prove if ziprasidone is entirely safe. To date, all antipsychotic drugs have the potential for serious adverse events. Balancing these risks with the positive effects of treatment poses a challenge for psychiatry.
Abstract: The transmembrane transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a wide range of drugs. P-gp potentially limits access to brain tissue of psychoactive substrates, but little is known about its specificity for antipsychotics. The objective of this study was to assess the affinity of some atypical antipsychotic drugs in vitro for P-gp as indicative of their potential as P-gp substrates in vivo. The activity of P-gp towards four atypical and two conventional antipsychotics and a proven substrate, verapamil, was examined by their P-gp ATPase activity, a putative measure of P-gp affinity. The Michaelis-Menten equation was fitted to the data. The rank order of the ratio V(max) / K(m) was: verapamil (2.6) > quetiapine (1.7) > risperidone (1.4) > olanzapine (0.8) > chlorpromzaine (0.7) > haloperidol (0.3) = clozapine (0.3). The atypical antipsychotics quetiapine and risperidone were relatively good P-gp substrates, although their affinities were not as high as verapamil. Olanzapine showed intermediate affinity and clozapine showed the least affinity of the drugs studied. These results suggest that P-gp is likely to influence the access to the brain of all of the atypical antipsychotics studied to various degrees. In vivo studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Abstract: Loratadine is known to be a substrate for both CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 based on a previous in vitro study. In view of the large interindividual variability in loratadine pharmacokinetics and the greater genetically determined variability of CYP2D6 activity than of CYP3A4 in vivo, we hypothesized that CYP2D6 polymorphisms may contribute to the pharmacokinetic variability of loratadine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CYP2D6 genotype (specifically the CYP2D6*10 allele) on the pharmacokinetics of loratadine in Chinese subjects. Three groups of healthy male Chinese subjects were enrolled: group I, homozygous CYP2D6*1 (*1/*1, n=4); group II, heterozygous CYP2D6*10 (*1/*10 or *2/*10, n=6); and group III, homozygous CYP2D6*10 (*10/*10, n=7) carriers. Each subject received a single oral dose of 20 mg of loratadine under fasting conditions. Multiple blood samples were collected over 48 h, and the plasma concentrations of loratadine and its metabolite desloratadine were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. In comparing homozygous CYP2D6*10 (group III) to heterozygous CYP2D6*10 (group II) to homozygous CYP2D6*1 (group I) subjects, loratadine oral clearance values were 7.17+/- 2.54 versus 11.06+/-1.70 versus 14.59+/-2.43 l/h/kg, respectively [one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), p<0.01], and the corresponding metabolic ratios [area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC)(desloratadine)/AUC(loratadine)] were 1.55+/-0.73 versus 2.47+/- 0.46 versus 3.32+/- 0.49, respectively (one-way ANOVA, p<0.05), indicating a gene-dose effect. The results demonstrated that CYP2D6 polymorphism prevalent in the Chinese population significantly affected loratadine pharmacokinetics.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to determine if the ARS score could be used to predict the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) cohort and in a primary care cohort. METHODS: Medical records of 132 GEM patients were reviewed retrospectively for medications included on the ARS and their resultant possible anticholinergic adverse effects. Prospectively, we enrolled 117 patients, 65 years or older, in primary care clinics; performed medication reconciliation; and asked about anticholinergic adverse effects. The relationship between the ARS score and the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects was assessed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Higher ARS scores were associated with increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (crude relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) and in the primary care cohort (crude RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). After adjustment for age and the number of medications, higher ARS scores increased the risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in the GEM cohort (adjusted RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; c statistic, 0.74) and in the primary care cohort (adjusted RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5; c statistic, 0.77). CONCLUSION: Higher ARS scores are associated with statistically significantly increased risk of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal relationship between cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications and memory and executive function in older men. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred forty-four community-dwelling men aged 65 and older with diagnosed hypertension. MEASUREMENTS: The outcomes were measured using the Hopkins Verbal Recall Test (HVRT) for short-term memory and the instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) scale for executive function at baseline and during follow-up. Anticholinergic medication use was ascertained using participants' primary care visit records and quantified as total anticholinergic burden using a clinician-rated anticholinergic score. RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications over the preceding 12 months was associated with poorer performance on the HVRT and IADLs. On average, a 1-unit increase in the total anticholinergic burden per 3 months was associated with a 0.32-point (95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.05-0.58) and 0.10-point (95% CI=0.04-0.17) decrease in the HVRT and IADLs, respectively, independent of other potential risk factors for cognitive impairment, including age, education, cognitive and physical function, comorbidities, and severity of hypertension. The association was attenuated but remained statistically significant with memory (0.29, 95% CI=0.01-0.56) and executive function (0.08, 95% CI=0.02-0.15) after further adjustment for concomitant non-anticholinergic medications. CONCLUSION: Cumulative anticholinergic exposure across multiple medications over 1 year may negatively affect verbal memory and executive function in older men. Prescription of drugs with anticholinergic effects in older persons deserves continued attention to avoid deleterious adverse effects.
Abstract: The present study demonstrated that in addition to CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, the metabolism of loratadine is also catalyzed by CYP1A1, CYP2C19, and to a lesser extent by CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP3A5. The biotransformation of loratadine was associated with the formation of desloratadine (DL) and further hydroxylation of both DL and the parent drug (loratadine). Based on the inhibition and correlation studies contribution of CYP2C19 in the formation of the major circulating metabolite DL seems to be minor. Reported clinical results suggest that the steady state mean (%CV) plasma Cmax and AUC(24hr) of loratadine were 4.73 ng/ml (119%) and 24.1 ng.hr/ml (157%), respectively, after dosing with 10 mg loratadine tablets for 10 days. High inter-subject variability in loratadine steady-state data is probably due to the phenotypical characteristics of CYP2D6, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4. The relative abundance of CYP3A4 in the human liver exceeds that of CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 and therefore the contribution of CYP3A4 in the metabolism of loratadine should be major (approximately 70%).
Abstract: PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of cytochrome 450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and ABCB1 variants on plasma risperidone concentrations and treatment response in 83 drug-naive patients experiencing a first episode of psychosis. METHODS: All patients were treated with risperidone for 8 weeks. The CYP2D6 genotyping was performed by allele-specific PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (for alleles *3,*4,*6) and long-distance PCR (for duplications and allele *5), while real-time PCR analysis was used for the ABCB1 G2677T/A and C3435T variants. Plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-OH risperidone were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The number of patients with the CYP2D6 wild type (wt)/wt, wt/mutation (mut) and mut/mut genotype was 43, 32 and 8, respectively. The number of patients with the ABCB1 2677G/G, G/T and T/T variants was 29, 42 and 12, respectively; those with the 3435CC, C/T and T/T variants was 25, 37 and 21, respectively. The CYP2D6 genotype had a strong effect on the steady-state dose-corrected plasma levels (C/D) of risperidone, its 9-OH metabolite and the active moiety, while the ABCB1 2677 T/T and 3435 T/T genotypes has similarly strong effects on the active moiety C/D. The CYP2D6 poor metabolizers had a significantly higher risperidone C/D and active moiety C/D and lower 9-OH risperidone C/D. The ABCB1 3435 T allele and the ABCB1 2667 T-3435 T haplotype carriers were more frequent among subjects without extrapyramidal syndromes. Patients showed significant improvements in positive and general symptoms, but not in negative symptoms. These changes were not related to variations in genetic and drug concentration data. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that CYP2D6 and ABCB1 G2677T and C3435T may be useful determinants of risperidone plasma concentrations, but the clinical implications of these associations in relation to treatment response and side-effects remain unclear.
Abstract: WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic agent used for the treatment of schizophrenia. It is mainly metabolized by human cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 and partly by CYP3A4 to 9-hydroxyrisperidone. Ketoconazole is used as a CYP3A4 inhibitor probe for studying drug-drug interactions. We aim to investigate the effect of ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics of risperidone in healthy male volunteers. METHODS: An open-label, randomized, two-phase crossover design with a 2-week washout period was performed in 10 healthy male volunteers. The volunteers received a single oral dose of 2mg of risperidone alone or in combination with 200mg of ketoconazole, once daily for 3days. Serial blood samples were collected at specific periods after ingestion of risperidone for a period of 96h. Plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were determined using a validated HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry method. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: After pretreatment with ketoconazole, the clearance of risperidone decreased significantly by 34·81±5·10% and the T(1/2) of risperidone increased significantly by 28·03±40·60%. The AUC(0-96) and AUC(0-∞) of risperidone increased significantly by 66·61± 43·03% and 66·54±39·76%, respectively. The Vd/f of risperidone increased significantly by 39·79±53·59%. However, the C(max) and T(max) of risperidone were not significantly changed, indicating that ketoconazole had minimal effect on the absorption of risperidone. The C(max) , T(max) and T(1/2) of 9-hydroxyrisperidone did not decrease significantly. However, the Cl/f of 9-hydroxyrisperidone increased significantly by 135·07± 124·68%, and the Vd/f of 9-hydroxyrisperidone decreased significantly by 29·47±54·64%. These changes led to a corresponding significant decrease in the AUC(0-96) and AUC(0-∞) of 9-hydroxyrisperidone by 47·76±22·39% and 48·49± 20·03%, respectively. Ketoconazole significantly inhibited the metabolism of risperidone through the inhibition of hepatic CYP3A4. our results suggest that besides CYP2D6, CYP3A4 contributes significantly to the metabolism of risperidone. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: The pharmacokinetics of risperidone was affected by the concomitant administration of ketoconazole. If a CYP3A4 inhibitor is used concomitantly with risperidone, it is necessary for the clinicians to monitor their patients for signs of adverse drug reactions.
Abstract: Therapeutic drug monitoring studies have generally concentrated on controlling compliance and avoiding side effects by maintaining long-term exposure to minimally effective blood concentrations. The rationale for using therapeutic drug monitoring in relation to second-generation antipsychotics is still being discussed at least with regard to the real clinical utility, but there is evidence that it can improve efficacy, especially when patients do not respond or develop side effects using therapeutic doses. Furthermore, drug plasma concentration determinations can be of some utility in medico-legal problems. This review concentrates on the clinical pharmacokinetic data related to clozapine, risperidone, paliperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, amisulpride, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, sertindole, asenapine, iloperidone, lurasidone, brexpiprazole and cariprazine and briefly considers the main aspects of their pharmacodynamics. Optimal plasma concentration ranges are proposed for clozapine, risperidone, paliperidone and olanzapine because the studies of quetiapine, amisulpride, asenapine, iloperidone and lurasidone provide only limited information and there is no direct evidence concerning ziprasidone, aripiprazole, sertindole, brexpiprazole and cariprazine: the few reported investigations need to be confirmed and extended.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 is characterized by an excessive impact on positive and adverse drug reactions to antipsychotics, such as risperidone. Consequently, the pharmacokinetics of the drug and metabolite can be substantially altered and exhibit a high variability between the different phenotypes. The goal of this study was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model considering the CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism for risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone (9-OH-RIS) taking CYP3A4 into account. Additionally, risperidone dose adjustments, which would compensate for genetically caused differences in the plasma concentrations of the active moiety (sum of risperidone and 9-OH-RIS) were calculated. METHODS: Based on available knowledge about risperidone, 9-OH-RIS, and relevant physiological changes according to different CYP2D6 phenotypes, several PBPK models were built. In addition, an initial model was further evaluated based on the plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-OH-RIS from a single-dose study including 71 genotyped healthy volunteers treated with 1 mg of oral risperidone. RESULTS: PBPK models were able to accurately describe risperidone exposure after single-dose administration, especially in the concentration range ≥ 1 µg/L, illustrated by a minimal bias and a good precision. About 90.3% of all weighted residuals versus observed plasma concentrations ≥ 1 µg/L were in the ± 30% range. The risperidone/9-OH-RIS ratio increased progressively according to reduced CYP2D6 activity, resulting in a mean ratio of 4.96 for poor metabolizers. Simulations demonstrate that dose adjustment of the drug by - 25% for poor metabolizers and by - 10% for intermediate metabolizers results in a similar exposure to that of extensive metabolizers. Conversely, the risperidone/9-OH-RIS ratio can be used to determine the phenotype of individuals. CONCLUSION: PBPK modelling can provide a valuable tool to predict the pharmacokinetics of risperidone and 9-OH-RIS in healthy volunteers, according to the different CYP2D6 phenotypes taking CYP3A4 into account. These models are able to ultimately support decision-making regarding dose-optimization strategies, especially for subjects showing lower CYP2D6 activity.