Prolongación del tiempo QT
Eventos adversos de medicamentos
Variantes ✨Para la evaluación computacionalmente intensiva de las variantes, elija la suscripción estándar paga.
Explicaciones de las sustancias para pacientes.
No existen advertencias adicionales para la combinación de abarelix y clomipramina. Consulte también la información especializada pertinente.
Los cambios informados en la exposición corresponden a los cambios en la curva de concentración plasmática-tiempo [ AUC ]. No esperamos ningún cambio en la exposición a abarelix, cuando se combina con clomipramina (100%). No esperamos ningún cambio en la exposición a clomipramina, cuando se combina con abarelix (100%).
Los parámetros farmacocinéticos de la población media se utilizan como punto de partida para calcular los cambios individuales en la exposición debidos a las interacciones.
Se desconoce la biodisponibilidad de la abarelix. La vida media terminal [ t12 ] es relativamente extensa a las 316.8 horas y los niveles plasmáticos constantes [ Css ] sólo se alcanzan después de más de 1267.2 horas. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es 100 % fuerte. Actualmente, se sigue trabajando en el metabolismo por citocromos.
La clomipramina tiene una biodisponibilidad oral media [ F ] del 100 %, por lo que los niveles plasmáticos máximos [Cmax] tienden a cambiar con una interacción. La unión a proteínas [ Pb ] es 100 % fuerte. El metabolismo tiene lugar a través de CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 y CYP3A4, entre otros.
|Efectos serotoninérgicos a||2||Ø||++|
Recomendación: Como medida de precaución, se deben tener en cuenta los síntomas de sobreestimulación serotoninérgica, especialmente después de aumentar la dosis y en dosis en el rango terapéutico superior.
Clasificación: La clomipramina modula el sistema serotoninérgico en un grado moderado. El riesgo de síndrome serotoninérgico se puede clasificar como bajo con este medicamento si la dosis se encuentra en el rango habitual. Según nuestro conocimiento, la abarelix no aumenta la actividad serotoninérgica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||3||Ø||+++|
Recomendación: Como precaución, se debe prestar atención a los síntomas anticolinérgicos, especialmente después de aumentar la dosis y en dosis en el rango terapéutico superior.
Clasificación: La clomipramina aumenta en gran medida la actividad anticolinérgica. Según nuestro conocimiento, la abarelix no aumenta la actividad anticolinérgica.
Prolongación del tiempo QT
Clasificación: En combinación, la abarelix y la clomipramina pueden desencadenar potencialmente arritmias ventriculares del tipo torsades de pointes.
Efectos adversos generales
|Efectos secundarios||∑ frecuencia||aba||clo|
|Dolor de cabeza||40.0 %||n.a.||40.0|
|Eyaculación anormal||24.0 %||n.a.||24.0|
|Disfunción eréctil||20.0 %||n.a.||20.0|
Insomnio (18%): clomipramina
Mioclono (7.5%): clomipramina
Dispepsia (17.5%): clomipramina
Pérdida de apetito (17%): clomipramina
Diarrea (10%): clomipramina
Nasofaringitis (14%): clomipramina
Mialgia (13%): clomipramina
Visión borrosa (12.5%): clomipramina
Taquicardia (11%): clomipramina
Hipotensión ortostática (5%): clomipramina
Síncope (2%): clomipramina
Paro cardiaco: clomipramina
Aumento de peso (11%): clomipramina
Sintiéndose nervioso (11%): clomipramina
Con base en sus respuestas e información científica, evaluamos el riesgo individual de efectos secundarios adversos. Estas recomendaciones están destinadas a asesorar a los profesionales y no sustituyen la consulta con un médico. En la versión de prueba restringida (alfa), el riesgo de todas las sustancias aún no se ha evaluado de manera concluyente.
Abstract: The influence of the sparteine and the S-mephenytoin oxidation polymorphisms on the kinetics of clomipramine were investigated in 25 healthy volunteers: 10 extensive metabolizers of sparteine and mephenytoin (EMs/EMm), nine poor metabolizers of sparteine and extensive metabolizers of mephenytoin (PMs/EMm), five extensive metabolizers of sparteine and poor metabolizers of mephenytoin (EMs/PMm), and one poor metabolizer of sparteine and mephenytoin (PMs/PMm). A single oral dose of 100 mg clomipramine hydrochloride was given to each subject after an overnight fast. Serum and urine levels of clomipramine and its metabolites were monitored after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 11, 14, 24, 36, 48, and 96 hours. Additional serum was monitored after 6, 9, 12, and 15 days in the poor metabolizers. 2-Hydroxyclomipramine was undetectable in most subjects before enzymatic hydrolysis of serum and urine. The total median clearance of clomipramine was 99 L.hr-1 (range, 68 to 210) in the EMs/EMm subjects, 56 L.hr-1 (range, 37 to 183) in the PMs/EMm subjects, 66 L.hr-1 (range, 37 to 89) in the EMs/PMm subjects, and 43 L.hr-1 in the PMs/PMm subject. It was significantly lower in PMs/EMm and EMs/PMm subjects compared with EMs/EMm subjects (p = 0.006 and 0.028, respectively; Mann-Whitney). In addition, the formation clearance of 2-hydroxyclomipramine and the hydroxylation indexes were significantly lower in PMs/EMm subjects, as was the demethylation index in EMs/PMm subjects compared with EMs/EMm subjects. Our data thus provide evidence that the 2- and 8-hydroxylation of clomipramine are catalyzed by CYP2D6 and that the N-demethylation is catalyzed in part by CYP2C.
Abstract: Incidence of serotonin syndrome was determined by two different diagnostic criteria during clomipramine monotherapy. Incidence, determined by Sternbach's criteria, was 12.1% (8/66 patients), and that determined by the criteria of Dursun et al. was 3.0% (2/66 patients). The two patients who met the latter criteria also met the former criteria. The lower incidence with the latter was attributable to the fact that it does not include certain symptoms, such as tremors and diaphoresis, which are included in the former, and were seen in a relatively large number of patients; as well as the fact that the latter more strictly define certain symptoms. Both criteria have pros and cons. Sternbach's diagnostic criteria make it possible to diagnose serotonin syndrome in a wider range of patients, but they sometimes make it difficult to make it differential diagnosis in the presence of certain limited symptoms. In contrast, the criteria of Dursun et al. may make a more accurate diagnosis possible, though only in severe cases.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: The QT interval measuring depolarisation and repolarisation has, when lengthened, been implicated as a risk factor for the development of torsades de pointes and sudden death, particularly in patients predisposed to these complications due to cardiovascular impairment. Since some of the medications used in psychiatry have been implicated, an extensive review of available literature was made of the major classes, including antipsychotics, antidepressants, lithium, anticonvulsants and benzodiazepines. Further, where no publications were found on a particular medication, the pharmaceutical firms responsible for these items were contacted concerning possibly unpublished data. Results of the survey indicate that there may be difficulty in one of three situations: immediate (in the first minutes to hours after oral or parenteral administration), short-term use of 4 - 12 weeks or long-term use of 6 months. Based on this approach, the greatest concern is directed at the immediate application of haloperidol, droperidol, pimozide and trazodone, the short-term use of thioridazine, pimozide, sertindole, nortriptyline, clomipramine, doxepin and the long-term use of clozapine, olanzapine and carbamazepine. It is of interest that a reduction in QTc is reported with aripiprazole. Among the antidepressants, the tertiary tricyclic antidepressants (imipramine, amitriptyline and doxepin) appear to have a more general impact, while the secondary tricyclic antidepressants (nortriptyline, desipramine) may impact more on children and the elderly. Among other antidepressants, the only reports of torsades de pointes appeared to occur with mirtazapine. It was also of interest to find data showing no effect or reductions in QTc produced by sertraline, citalopram, paroxetine and bupropion in multiple studies. Effects of medications on other heart parameters are also briefly reviewed. In particular, the safety of sertraline in post-MI patients and of bupropion in heart disease patients is highlighted. Little information was available on other classes of medications used in psychiatric disorders. What is available concerning lithium, the anticonvulsants and the benzodiazepines indicates little effect on the QTc, although there may be effects on other cardiovascular parameters.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Several antipsychotic agents are known to prolong the QT interval in a dose dependent manner. Corrected QT interval (QTc) exceeding a threshold value of 450 ms may be associated with an increased risk of life threatening arrhythmias. Antipsychotic agents are often given in combination with other psychotropic drugs, such as antidepressants, that may also contribute to QT prolongation. This observational study compares the effects observed on QT interval between antipsychotic monotherapy and psychoactive polytherapy, which included an additional antidepressant or lithium treatment. METHOD: We examined two groups of hospitalized women with Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder and Schizoaffective Disorder in a naturalistic setting. Group 1 was composed of nineteen hospitalized women treated with antipsychotic monotherapy (either haloperidol, olanzapine, risperidone or clozapine) and Group 2 was composed of nineteen hospitalized women treated with an antipsychotic (either haloperidol, olanzapine, risperidone or quetiapine) with an additional antidepressant (citalopram, escitalopram, sertraline, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, mirtazapine, venlafaxine or clomipramine) or lithium. An Electrocardiogram (ECG) was carried out before the beginning of the treatment for both groups and at a second time after four days of therapy at full dosage, when blood was also drawn for determination of serum levels of the antipsychotic.Statistical analysis included repeated measures ANOVA, Fisher Exact Test and Indipendent T Test. RESULTS: Mean QTc intervals significantly increased in Group 2 (24 +/- 21 ms) however this was not the case in Group 1 (-1 +/- 30 ms) (Repeated measures ANOVA p < 0,01). Furthermore we found a significant difference in the number of patients who exceeded the threshold of borderline QTc interval value (450 ms) between the two groups, with seven patients in Group 2 (38%) compared to one patient in Group 1 (7%) (Fisher Exact Text, p < 0,05). CONCLUSIONS: No significant prolongation of the QT interval was found following monotherapy with an antipsychotic agent, while combination of these drugs with antidepressants caused a significant QT prolongation. Careful monitoring of the QT interval is suggested in patients taking a combined treatment of antipsychotic and antidepressant agents.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential of anticholinergic drugs as a cause of non-degenerative mild cognitive impairment in elderly people. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: 63 randomly selected general practices in the Montpellier region of southern France. PARTICIPANTS: 372 people aged > 60 years without dementia at recruitment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anticholinergic burden from drug use, cognitive examination, and neurological assessment. RESULTS: 9.2% of subjects continuously used anticholinergic drugs during the year before cognitive assessment. Compared with non-users, they had poorer performance on reaction time, attention, delayed non-verbal memory, narrative recall, visuospatial construction, and language tasks but not on tasks of reasoning, immediate and delayed recall of wordlists, and implicit memory. Eighty per cent of the continuous users were classified as having mild cognitive impairment compared with 35% of non-users, and anticholinergic drug use was a strong predictor of mild cognitive impairment (odds ratio 5.12, P = 0.001). No difference was found between users and non-users in risk of developing dementia at follow-up after eight years. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly people taking anticholinergic drugs had significant deficits in cognitive functioning and were highly likely to be classified as mildly cognitively impaired, although not at increased risk for dementia. Doctors should assess current use of anticholinergic drugs in elderly people with mild cognitive impairment before considering administration of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.